• The enhanced cognitive interview: expressions of uncertainty, motivation and its relation with report accuracy

      Paulo, Rui M.; Albuquerque, Pedro B.; Bull, Ray; University of Derby (2015-11-11)
    • A lesson on interrogations from detainees: Predicting self-reported confessions and cooperation

      Snook, Brent; Brooks, Dianna; Bull, Ray; University of Derby (Sage, 2015-09-21)
      The ability to predict confessions and cooperation from the elements of an interrogation was examined. Incarcerated men (N = 100) completed a 50-item questionnaire about their most recent police interrogation, and regression analyses were performed on self-reported decisions to confess and cooperate. Results showed that the likelihood of an interrogation resulting in a confession was greatest when evidence strength and score on a humanitarian interviewing scale were high, and when the detainee had few previous convictions or did not seek legal advice. We also found that the level of cooperation was greatest when the humanitarian interviewing score was high, and when previous convictions were low. The implications of the findings for interrogation practices are discussed.
    • The enhanced cognitive interview: Testing appropriateness perception, memory capacity and error estimate relation with report quality

      Paulo, Rui M.; Albuquerque, Pedro B.; Saraiva, Magda; Bull, Ray; University of Derby; School of Psychology; University of Minho; Campus de Gualtar Braga Portugal; School of Psychology; University of Minho; Campus de Gualtar Braga Portugal; School of Psychology; University of Minho; Campus de Gualtar Braga Portugal; Department of Psychology; University of Portsmouth; Portsmouth United Kingdom (Wiley, 2015-07)
      The Enhanced Cognitive Interview (ECI) has been widely studied. However, research has overlooked witnesses’ attitudes toward the interview and how error estimate and memory capacity relate to report quality. Participants watched a mock robbery video and were interviewed 48 hours later with either the Portuguese version of the ECI or a Structured Interview (SI). Participants interviewed with the ECI provided more information without compromising accuracy, particularly in free recall. Report accuracy was stable across interview phases and information categories. A higher perception of interview appropriateness (how witnesses evaluate the appropriateness of the interview procedure used) was linked with more detailed reports and more interest in being an interviewee. Participants over-estimated their error rate, and their memory capacity was not related to witnesses’ recall. It is essential to take into account their perception of interview appropriateness and use alternative methods to evaluate report quality. Major implications for real-life investigations are discussed.
    • Anti social behaviour, community and radical moral communitarianism

      Hopkins-Burke, Roger; Hodgson, Philip; Nottingham Trent University (2015-04)
    • The Information Governance Review and the new legal framework for informatics

      Grace, Jamie; University of Derby (Mark Allen Healthcare, 2013-07-30)
    • Disclosure of confidential patient information and the duty to consult: the role of the Health and Social Care Information Centre

      Grace, Jamie; Taylor, Mark; University of Derby; University of Sheffield (Oxford University Press, 2013)
    • 'The enigmatic but unique nature of the Israeli legal system'

      Platsas, Antonios E.; University of Derby (North-West University, South Africa, 2012-09-25)
      The Israeli legal system is unique in that it straddles the two otherwise opposing worlds of tradition and innovation. This creates an enigma for the comparatist, making the exploration of this system an onerous and challenging task. The author wishes to maintain that the system in question is highly innovative and ascribes this quality to the proactive character of the Israeli Supreme Court, whose activism has had a major impact on the character of the domestic system as a whole. While the author explores the reasons why this has been the case, one of his main concerns in this paper will be to examine the innovative character of the Israeli Supreme Court per se, in comparison with equivalent courts in other parts of the world. In addition the author will seek to establish inter alia the character of the Israeli legal system by focusing on the three different elements that co-exist in the Israeli socio-legal structure (the Jewish element vis-à-vis the Arab element; the Liberal element vis-àvis the Orthodox element within the Jewish community; and the Civilian element visà-vis the Common law element). The author wishes to posit that the amalgamation of different legal and cultural traditions in Israel created a sui generis state of affairs for the legal system as a whole. This results in an overall systemic-methodological amalgamation which does not occur elsewhere in the world. The article concludes that the enigmatic and innovative characteristics of the Israeli legal system derive from the novel way in which the legal mix has occurred in this system (as opposed to the ingredients of the elements in the mix). In this respect, Israel may have contributed much to the reinvigoration of the modern comparative law agenda, and it may continue to do so in the future, as the system is not one of legal stasis (a mixed system) but one of legal kinesis (a mixing system).
    • Exploring the legal framework for ‘criminality information sharing’ in England and Wales: working Paper

      Grace, Jamie; University of Derby (2012-02-15)
      One serious issue addressed is that while the legal framework with regard to criminality information sharing for public protection purposes may be complex, it is currently lacking one vital ingredient with regard to the sharing of ‘soft intelligence’ data: there is no statutory guidance as to what an appropriate degree of consultation might be in particular circumstances of sharing criminality information that is not simply convictions or cautions data etc. This is perhaps where statutory codification or better, perhaps, statutory specificity, along the lines of the ‘gateways’ for the admissibility of ‘bad character’ evidence in the Criminal Justice Act 2003, would be or real and meaningful assistance to Chief Constables and other responsible for the sharing of ‘criminality information’ across the public sector. More profoundly, we must ask a more moral question of the current statutory framework, since it is so inflexible, with regard to the disclosure of convictions and cautions, however foggy and distant these offences may (or may not) be.
    • Course notes: Criminal Law

      Cherkassky, Lisa; University of Bradford (Routledge, 2012)
      Course Notes is designed to help you succeed in your law examinations and assessments. Each guide supports revision of an undergraduate and conversion GDL/CPE law degree module by demonstrating good practice in creating and maintaining ideal notes. Course Notes will support you in actively and effectively learning the material by guiding you through the demands of compiling the information you need.
    • The legalities and politics of health informatics

      Grace, Jamie; University of Derby (Mark Allen Healthcare, 2011-03)
    • Linking different types of crime using geographical and temporal proximity

      Tonkin, Matthew; Woodhams, Jessica; Bull, Ray; Bond, John W.; Palmer, Emma J.; University of Leicester (2011)
      In the absence of forensic evidence (such as DNA or fingerprints), offender behavior can be used to identify crimes that have been committed by the same person (referred to as behavioral case linkage). The current study presents the first empirical test of whether it is possible to link different types of crime using simple aspects of offender behavior. The discrimination accuracy of the kilometer distance between offense locations (the intercrime distance) and the number of days between offenses (temporal proximity) was examined across a range of crimes, including violent, sexual, and property-related offenses. Both the intercrime distance and temporal proximity were able to achieve statistically significant levels of discrimination accuracy that were comparable across and within crime types and categories. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed and recommendations made for future research.
    • Privacy as personal resistance: exploring legal narratology and the need for a legal architecture for personal privacy rights

      Grace, Jamie; University of Derby (University of Idaho College of Law, 2011)
      Different cultures produce different privacies – both architecturally and legally speaking – as well as in their different legal architectures. The ‘Simms principle’ can be harnessed to produce semi-constitutional privacy protection through statute; building on the work already done in ‘bringing rights home’ through the Human Rights Act 1998. This article attempts to set out a notion of semi-entrenched legal rights, which will help to better portray the case for architectural, constitutional privacy, following an examination of the problems with a legal narrative for privacy rights as they currently exist. I will use parallel ideas from the works of W.B. Yeats and Costas Douzinas to explore and critique these assumptions and arguments. The ultimate object of this piece is an argument for the creation of a legal instrument, namely an Act of Parliament, in the United Kingdom; the purpose of which is to protect certain notions of personal privacy from politically-motivated erosion and intrusion.
    • Legal skills

      Cherkassky, Lisa; University of Bradford (Palgrave Macmillan, 2011)
    • The secret world of liver transplant candidate assessment

      Cherkassky, Lisa; University of Bradford (2011)