• An experiment in blended career development: the University of Derby’s social media internship programme

      Longridge, Debra; Hooley, Tristram; University of Derby (National Institute for Career Education and Counselling (NICEC), 2012-10)
      It is possible to describe the capability of an individual to use the online environment to pursue their career as their digital career literacy. It is comprised of a range of different skills including the ability to: search; evaluate resources; communicate; network with other people; develop your reputation; and utilise an ever growing range of tools and environments as part of your career building. In another article in this edition of the NICEC journal Hooley (2012) has defined digital career literacy as encompassing changing, collecting, critiquing, connecting, communicating, creating and curating. This requires both the translation of offline skills and the development of new online ones. This article sets out the experience of running the social media internship programme (SMIP), an intervention to develop students’ digital career literacy at the University of Derby.
    • Exploring critical perspectives on labour market information through the lens of elite graduate recruitment

      Staunton, Tom; University of Derby (Wiley, 2021-03-04)
      This article provides a critical discourse analysis of how career is discussed on elite graduate recruitment websites. Building on previous work from Handley (2018) and Ingram and Allen (2019) this article draws attention to how career is constructed, first, as something which graduates consume and, second, as a ‘liminal experience’ which transforms the graduates' identities and allows them to gain access to a new authentic self, now able to progress towards their personal goals. This ideological reading of careers information is different to traditional understandings of careers information in Higher Education research which focuses on the objective nature of information which can be used to support the rational decision making. Focussing on the ideology of career draws attention to the need for careers delivery, in Higher Education and beyond, to engage with more critical pedagogical approaches.
    • Exploring the turning points in researchers’ lives: using the three-scene storyboarding technique

      Hooley, Tristram; Law, Bill; Bentley, Kieran; University of Derby (2013-03-19)
      This publication sets out an approach to careers work called three scene storyboarding. Storyboarding aims to help researchers to set down their experiences, to think about their careers and to take action based on this reflection. Storyboarding is a creative technique which asks researchers to think about their lives in narrative terms and to set down their experience in the form of drawings. This is an innovative technique that asks them to think about their careers in an unfamiliar way. It can therefore be a challenging technique for professionals to get started with. However, this report shows that the storyboarding approach can be useful and that it can expand any researcher's career-management repertoire.
    • External agents, providers and specialists: an exploration of the other individuals invited to be involved in schools and classrooms.

      Everitt, Julia; University of Derby (British Education Studies Association, 2018-06-28)
      This study examines the other individuals involved in schools and classrooms who are not teachers or teaching assistants. Many terms exist for these individuals including external agents, providers and specialists. This is set within a policy background of government reports, Acts and initiatives from the early 1900s which contain invitations for these external agents to be involved in schools in England. Those invited include statutory agencies, military-style organisations, the voluntary sector, community members, parents, post-16 educational institutions and employers. The literature which examines the involvement of these external agents in schools does so from a narrow perspective, such as a specific agent type or policy initiative. In contrast, the aim is to identify the full range of agents involved across four case study schools through a broad approach in that it does not focus on a type of agent (e.g. employers); a specific initiative (e.g. extended schools) or period (e.g. 1960 to 2000). It adds to knowledge in terms of this broad approach to the identification of agents, against the approach taken in previously studies. The research involves the completion of a pro-forma by a staff member at each of the four case study schools to identify the external agents involved during one academic year. It also includes semi-structured interviews with school staff and external agents plus documentary analysis of school websites and reports. The findings indicate a high involvement of external agents in the schools, with trends of agent type being linked to government policies. There is a decline in agent involvement in relation to New Labour policies such as extended schools which set a duty on every school to work in collaboration to offer activities and services (e.g. extra-curricular activities). The agent involvement has shifted to the wider aspects of the curriculum (e.g. PSHE, careers) as opposed to the wider aspects of the school (e.g. community access). There was a ‘messiness’ in the identification of agents which resulted in just a ‘snapshot’ of the agent involvement. This is a consequence of insufficient staff knowledge related to their role, time in service or value they place on the capitals (e.g. financial, cultural) of the agents. There is a disconnection between some agent perceptions of their relationship to the school and the inclusion in the data and a suggestion that some agents are involved as a tick-box exercise. In these cases, it does not appear to matter who the agent is, just what they can deliver, which poses questions over quality
    • Feminine men and masculine women: in/exclusion in the academy

      Atkins, Liz; Vicars, Mark; Northumbria University (Emerald, 31/03/2016)
      The purpose of this paper is to draw on concepts of female masculinityto interrogate how hegemonic gendering discourses, forms and performances are inscribed in neoliberal narratives of competency in higher education in the Western Hemisphere. Drawing on individual examples, the authors consider how these narratives are omnipresent in the sector, and systematically act to exclude those who do not conform. In doing so, the authors draw extensively on bodies of literature exploring gender/identity, and neo-liberalism. In particular, the paper draws on the work of Halberstam (1998, 2011), and of Drake (2015).There are comparatively few women in senior positions in Higher Education and the authors argue that as gendering institutions they reproduce hegemonic gendering discourses. The authors find that hegemonic gendering discourses are instrumental in maintaining and privileging specific forms and perceptions of masculinity and femininity as inscribed within and reproduced by perceptions of professional competency. There are comparatively few women in senior positions in Higher Education and the authors argue that as gendering institutions they reproduce hegemonic gendering discourses. The authors find that hegemonic gendering discourses are instrumental in maintaining and privileging specific forms and perceptions of masculinity and femininity as inscribed within and reproduced by perceptions of professional competency. This paper examines neo-liberal practices from a more nuanced perspective than some traditional polarised critiques which regard gender as a binary. In doing so, it contributes to debates on masculinity, but more importantly, opens discussions about the implications of gendering discourses for the role of the few women in senior positions in higher education institutions globally.
    • Flexible professional development.

      Neary, Siobhan; University of Derby (Council of British International Schools, 2018-06)
      Keeping up to date with what is happening in professional practice is always a challenge. We all struggle to find time as we try to juggle the competing commitments we have on a day to day basis. Ironically those of us who work helping others to develop and plan their careers are often the worst! We can always find time to help students think about what their next step will be, but we are less good at doing this for ourselves.
    • Fog in the channel - Continent cut off: The implications of Brexit for career guidance in the UK

      Hooley, Tristram; University of Derby (2017-04)
      The decision taken by the British people to leave the European Union (EU) took many people by surprise. The macro economic, political and social implications are still unclear, but as negotiations begin the post-Brexit world is beginning to take shape. In this article I will argue that Brexit has a number of implications for those involved in career education and guidance. It will explore how the development of the EU since Maastricht has resulted in substantial shifts in the opportunity structure. Out of these changes there have been both winners and losers. Within this context Brexit can be seen as a consequence of the failure of the neoliberal approach taken by the EU to guarantee career development for all. The paper goes on to explore what the implications of Brexit are for individuals' careers and for the field of career guidance.
    • Fostering college and career readiness: how career development activities in schools impact on graduation rates and students' life success

      Hooley, Tristram; Marriott, John; Sampson, James P.; University of Derby (University of Derby, 2011-07-01)
      This paper sets out the recent evidence around career development. This evidence is examined within the context of the college and career readiness agenda. The argument is made that in order for young people to be genuinely “ready” for both college and career they need to have attended to their academic achievement, their aspirations and plans for the future, their ability to make transitions and their ability to direct their own careers. It is argued that career development offers schools a body of practice that has been shown to have a positive impact on young people’s readiness for college and career. The report acknowledges that the provision of career development has been in decline in many North American schools despite evidence of its effectiveness. Given the current instability of the labor market, the increasing complexity of the education system and the need to grow the skills base of the workforce in a competitive global market, failing to attend to young people’s careers seems shortsighted. As this paper shows, there is a strong body of evidence which demonstrates that career development activity in schools can help young people to experience academic achievement, successfully transition to the labor market and live happier and more productive lives. It is hoped that setting out the evidence in this area of research will provide policy makers and school leaders with the resources required to make informed decisions and to support the development of the future generations of talent. The paper explores the impacts of career development in relation to four main questions: • Does career development engage young people in their schooling and help keep them attending school? • Does career development positively impact on young people’s academic achievement? • Does career development assist young people in making successful transitions to college or the labor market? • Does career development have a positive effect on people’s career and life success?
    • Foundation GNVQ: an invisible cohort?

      Atkins, Liz; University of Huddersfield (Taylor and Francis, 20/12/2006)
      This article considers the implications of current government education policy for those learners within the English post-compulsory sector undertaking General National Vocational Qualification (GNVQ) Foundation (level 1) programmes. It argues that within the current policy context, a lower value is placed on young people working towards certain credentials than on others and that this value is determined by the potential economic value of the qualification. Therefore, those young people undertaking Foundation (level 1) programmes are perceived to be of less value than those undertaking more mainstream programmes at level 2 and above. In doing this, current education policy is effectively creating an invisible cohort of young people whose needs are not understood and who, constrained by social, cultural, class and educational barriers, are likely to form the underclass within the 40/30sol;30 society described by Hutton (1995). Finally, this article raises questions about how some of these issues might be effectively addressed and calls for a wider debate on these issues as one means of finding a greater level of esteem for the young people undertaking learning programmes at level 1.
    • From Marginal Learning to Marginal Employment? the Real Impact of Learning Employability Skills

      Atkins, Liz; Northumbria University (Sage, 01/01/2013)
      This article explores notions of employability in the context of the experiences of those young people who leave the English education system at 16+ with few or no academic credentials. The article contests the conflation of employability skills' with inclusionin policy discourse, arguing that the real impact of such programmes is to inculcate attitudes and behaviours consistent with low-pay, low-skill work in already marginalised young people. It draws on empirical evidence from two studies which suggest that what young people really want are real, practical skills which are directly transferable to the world of work and which would fulfil the promise of high-pay, high-skill work in a knowledge economy. The article concludes that in a world where many young people are increasingly marginalised in terms of both education and employment, only an education which provides the skills the young people aspire to and which has real exchange value in the labour marketplace can confer any real advantage to them. Current approaches to employability skills education, far from achieving this, are little more than an exercise in social control resulting in new forms of class and labour (re)production, as already marginalised young people are socialised into particular forms of casual and low-pay, low-skill employment.
    • Future Frontiers: The impact of career coaching on career readiness and indicators of successful transitions in Year 11 pupils.

      Hanson, Jill; Clark, Lewis; International Centre for Guidance Studies (Future Frontiers, 2019-06-07)
      Taking part in the Future Frontiers programme has significant and positive effects on all aspects of student’s career readiness. In particular, pupils showed significant increases in work readiness, career planning and thinking positively about school. These positive changes are equal or better to other career interventions for young people and their shifts in knowledge, skills and attitudes suggest they will be more able to transition into appropriate destinations post-16.
    • Future frontiers: the impact of career coaching on year 11 students

      Hanson, Jill; Clark, Lewis; University of Derby (IAEVG, 2020-03)
      This paper considers the issue of young people who are not in education, employment or training (NEET) and in particular it describes an evaluation of a career coaching programme conducted in a disadvantaged school for teenage students in London, England. The long-term aim of the programme is to improve destinations for children and reduce the number of NEETs, but in the shorter term the evaluation employed a semi-quasi experimental design to identify whether the coaching produced changes in career readiness and indicators of successful transitions. The students who took part in the coaching programme showed significant increases in some aspects of career readiness and some indicators of successful transitions compared to young people who did not. The paper discusses the size of the effects found and the importance of establishing short term measures of impacts for programmes that ultimately wish to evidence long-term impacts such as reduced NEET numbers.
    • Gaining more than just vocational skills: Evaluating women learners’ aspirations through the capability approach

      Stuart, Rebecca; University of the Western Cape (Springer International Publishing, 2018-12-12)
      Vocational education and training had been a popular choice for women learners in the English Further Education sector. However, policy makers and policy researchers have characterized these women learners as providing a poor return on investment due to their failure to enter immediate employment. As a result, there have been significant cuts to funding. Such policy processes have not engaged with why these women returned to education and what they stood to gain from participation. This major absence is the focus of this chapter. Framed using a capabilities approach, women learners were asked why they had returned to FE and how they were going to use their knowledge and training. Using capabilities as a lens reveals a nuanced and complex picture of how education helps them to expand their well-being, agency, and freedom achievement.
    • Gaining more than just vocational skills: Evaluating women learners’ aspirations through the capability approach

      Suart, Rebecca; University of Nottingham (Springer, 2018-12-12)
      Vocational education and training had been a popular choice for women learners in the English Further Education sector. However, policy makers and policy researchers have characterized these women learners as providing a poor return on investment due to their failure to enter immediate employment. As a result, there have been significant cuts to funding. Such policy processes have not engaged with why these women returned to education and what they stood to gain from participation. This major absence is the focus of this chapter. Framed using a capabilities approach, women learners were asked why they had returned to FE and how they were going to use their knowledge and training. Using capabilities as a lens reveals a nuanced and complex picture of how education helps them to expand their well-being, agency, and freedom achievement.
    • The Gatsby benchmarks and social mobility: impacts to date

      Hanson, Jill; Neary, Siobhan; University of Derby (IAEVG, 2020-03)
      Young people face a lengthening transition from education to the world of work. The average age that young people leave full-time education has been rising for over a century. Within the education system they are frequently asked to make choices about subject, institution and qualifications that will exert a profound influence on their future lives. This is an issue for all young people and is particularly concerning because social capital is a significant influence on careers. Some young people can lack the social capital to develop an awareness of careers and labour markets, decision making around careers and progression routes available to them through education and training. They can then be at risk of being outperformed by their more advantaged peers when building their careers. This paper discusses recent developments in policy and career strategy in England for young people and the extent to which career strategy is moving away from being a marginalised policy area. It examines a recent pilot which has operationalised elements of the recent career strategy for young people and an evaluation which explores how career guidance, as an all-inclusive measure, is being used to impact positively on learners in the short, medium and long term.
    • Gatsby careers benchmark north east implementation pilot: interim evaluation (2015-2017)

      Hanson, Jill; Vigurs, Katy; Moore, Nicki; Everitt, Julia; Clark, Lewis; International Centre for Guidance Studies (University of Derby, 2019-02-15)
      This report presents interim evaluation findings on the implementation of the Gatsby Benchmarks (herewith referred to as the Benchmarks) for good career guidance with a sample of 16 pilot schools and colleges (herewith referred to as education providers) in the North East of England. These interim findings report progress made against the Benchmarks during the course of the pilot (autumn 2015 to autumn 2017), the enablers and barriers faced, and the impact of the Benchmarks on learners’ career readiness and attainment. The interim findings suggest the following: Timescale - Schools and colleges involved were able to make significant strides towards fully meeting most, if not all, Benchmarks within two years. To date Benchmark 2 (Learning from career and labour market information) and Benchmark 7 (Encounters with FE and HE) have seen the largest increase in the number of pilot education providers fully achieving them. Benchmark 3 (Addressing the needs of every pupil) and Benchmark 4 (Linking curriculum to careers) have the least number of pilot education providers fully achieving them. Positive impact on learners. Learners show an increase in some aspects of career readiness and tentative increases in some aspects of GCSE attainment. Effective implementation of the Benchmarks. This was enabled by the existence of a regional facilitator to support pilot education providers and strong provider leadership and robust organisational infrastructures. Key barriers were a lack of time and space (in the curriculum), a lack of funding and a lack of commitment at senior leadership level, which impacted on achieving a cultural shift in some education providers. Regional impact. The implementation of the Benchmarks is impacting more widely in the region with non-pilot education providers forming links with pilot providers to seek support on developing good career guidance in their settings. Furthermore, wider stakeholders such as local employers and providers of careers education were also using the Benchmarks to review and develop their services to schools/colleges. Emerging challenges: A noticeable challenge was how the term ‘meaningful’, in relation to encounters with employers and employees, was interpreted and how education providers monitor provision of such encounters.
    • The gender and age profile of the house building sector

      Shepherd, Claire; University of Derby (NHBC Foundation, 2017-02-06)
      The UK house-building industry is being challenged to deliver a increasing number of new homes. However, it is also facing skills shortages among its workforce, as older workers leave the industry but are not replaced by new entrants. This report aims to establish the diversity of the house-building industry in terms of the age and gender profile of the workforce and is over-reliant on older workers. Women are engaged in house building, but in relatively small numbers and predominantly in office-based roles. The industry is taking steps to tackle the growing skills shortages, but more needs to be done. This report summarizes the actions that have been taken so far, and identifies opportunities for further progress on increasing the diversity of the workforce in the future.
    • Get yourself connected: conceptualising the role of digital technologies in Norwegian career guidance

      Hooley, Tristram; Shepherd, Claire; Dodd, Vanessa; University of Derby (International Centre for Guidance Studies, University of Derby, 2015-10)
      This report outlines the role of digital technologies in the provision of career guidance. It was commissioned by the c ommittee on career guidance which is advising the Norwegian Government following a review of the countries skills system by the OECD. In this report we argue that career guidance and online career guidance in particular can support the development of Norwa y’s skills system to help meet the economic challenges that it faces.
    • 'Getting hired' is just part of it

      Grant, Korin; Hooley, Tristram; Loughborough University; The Careers and Employment Agency (Higher Education Careers Services Unit, 2017-11)
    • Getting it down on paper: the importance of letter writing for young people's employability

      Dodd, Vanessa; Hooley, Tristram; International Centre for Guidance Studies (2015-09-11)