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    • Tackling unemployment, supporting business and developing careers

      Hooley, Tristram; Devins, David; Watts, A. G.; Hutchinson, Jo; Marriott, John; Walton, Fiona; University of Derby, iCeGS; Leeds Metropolitan University, Policy Research Institute (PRI) (UKCES, 2012-05)
      The issue of unemployment remains high on the political agenda. However, there is evidence that employers can be wary of employing people who are out of work. Employer practice is key, both in terms of providing employment opportunities to job seekers, and in providing space for low-skilled people to develop their skills and cement their attachment to the labour market. This report discusses the role of career guidance in mediating between job seekers and employers to allow both to achieve their objectives.
    • Talking about career: the language used by and with young people to discuss life, learning and work

      Moore, Nicki; Hooley, Tristram; University of Derby, iCeGS (International Centre for Guidance Studies, University of Derby., 2012-04-25)
      This report describes the findings of research conducted by the International Centre for Guidance Studies (iCeGS) at the University of Derby on behalf of the national HE STEM programme. The research set out to understand how young people conceptualise career vocabulary in order to help those tasked with supporting their career decision making to do so in a way which was both engaging and effective. The research found that there is considerable confusion about a range of career vocabulary both amongst young people themselves and between young people and the adults who seek to influence and inform their careers. This report has also argued that confusion about vocabulary cannot simply be solved by teaching young people the “correct” meaning of different words. The report explores the relationship between the words that we use to talk about career and the way that we think about career. In particular it examines how the different vocabulary and conceptions of career held by young people and adults complicate the career learning that takes place both in school and outside of school. The report notes that current policy suggests that schools are going to have to take increasing levels of control over careers education and a key element of this is supporting teachers and other adults working with young people to talk more effectively about careers and related issues. The report argues that it is important that career educators attend to the career literacy levels of learners and pay close attention to the career vocabularies that they utilise. In particular an argument is made that those young people who are considering STEM careers have additional vocabulary and concepts to learn that relate to the disciplines and sectors within which STEM careers are pursued. The report explores how people talk about career and identifies a range of factors that are likely to influence this. It demonstrates that there is considerable diversity in the ways in which people define and use a word like “career”. It notes that people often use metaphors to describe the concept of career and identifies a wide range of different metaphors that people use. As with the choice of particular vocabulary, the choice of metaphor suggests different ideas about career which educators are likely to want to explore and, at times, challenge. The research was conducted during autumn 2011 and involved interviews with 82 young people, and nine career helpers from schools and organisations largely based in the Midlands. This is a small scale study and the results are therefore presented to open up debate and thinking in this area and do not constitute an exhaustive exploration of the subject. The main findings of the research are presented under five headings each of which represents a major theme of the research.
    • Teachers and Careers: The role of school teachers in delivering career and employability learning

      Hooley, Tristram; Watts, A. G.; Andrews, David; University of Derby (International Centre for Guidance Studies, University of Derby, 2015)
    • Teaching 14-19 learners in the lifelong learning sector

      Peart, Shine; Atkins, Liz; University of Huddersfield (Learning Matters, 14/01/2011)
      More and more, teachers in the lifelong learning sector are required to teach the 14-19 age group. This book is a practical guide to delivering learning to 14-19s. It begins by looking at the background to teaching 14-19 in FE and covers current pathways for achievement. Coverage of effective delivery of the new Diploma qualification is included, giving guidance on planning and assessment. It goes on to explore the challenges of behaviour, participation and re-engaging disaffected learners. Finally, it considers the wider context of building partnerships with schools and the needs of industry and employers.
    • Teaching for inclusion: pedagogies for the 'sector of the second chance'

      Atkins, Liz; University of Huddersfield (Learning Matters, 01/03/2010)
      This chapter considers the notion of inclusion, and of a 'second chance' education and its associated pedagogies. Presented in four key sections, it begins with an overview of the sector, going on to disucss the concept of second chance in the context of contemporary literature and theories of second chance. It finds a strong association between social class and second chance education. The chapter then moves on to a discussion of different pedagogical theories and approaches currently associated with the sector, again considering them in the context of contemporary literature. It concludes that, in the current climate, second chance all too often means second best.
    • Teaching Higher Education Courses in Further Education Colleges

      Tummons, Jonathan; Orr, kevin; Atkins, Liz; Northumbria University (Sage, 30/05/2013)
      As the number of higher education (HE) courses offered in further education (FE) settings increases, so does the need for teachers and trainee teachers to develop their teaching skills. This text is written for all teachers and trainee teachers in FE. It considers what it means to teach HE in FE and how an HE environment can be created in an FE setting. The text covers day-to-day aspects of teaching including planning and assessment, giving guidance on the unique needs of HE students. Chapters on research and quality assurance support the reader in developing some advanced teaching skills. This is a practical guide for FE teachers and trainee teachers as the sector adapts to the needs of education today.
    • Teaching in the VET sector in Australia

      Atkins, Liz; Brennan Kemmis, Ros; Northumbria University (David Barlow Publishing, 01/10/2014)
      Teaching in the VET sector is a complex and highly rewarding vocation. This book provides the reader with an in depth exploration of both the theory and the practice of teaching in this sector. Each chapter invites the reader to reflect on their own practice and offers practical examples and case stories to assist the teacher to develop their own professional expertise. The chapters have been written by highly acknowledged VET researchers and teachers and all the chapters have been reviewed by people with high levels of respect and credibility in the field. This book provides the new teacher or trainee teacher with an overview of the VET sector in Australia and introduces the reader to some of the issues that are part of our VET environment. The book explores some of the dimensions of teaching and the diverse range of learners that are characteristic of any VET classroom, workshop or enterprise setting where teaching is taking place. The book also introduces the reader to some of the major learning theories that are relevant in VET and provides practical guidance on the implications of theory for VET practice. High quality assessment is critical to the credibility of VET and the book includes a chapter where this controversial area is made accessible to the reader. Language Literacy and Numeracy are now an embedded feature of VET teaching and the chapter on this topic discusses different views of LLN and encourages the reader to interrogate their own skills and apply their learning to the their teaching. eLearning is increasingly part of VET teaching and this is discussed in detail. Similarly engaging with industry is fast becoming a significant part of the role of the VET teacher and the rationale and the practical and day to day implications for this development are explored.The act of teaching is investigated and this chapter brings together many of the themes raised elsewhere. Finally the reader is introduced to the benefits of reflective practice through an exploration of some of the ways that teachers can evaluate the effectiveness of their own teaching.
    • Tears of the phoenix: how nurturing and support became the 'cure' for further education

      Atkins, Liz; University of Huddersfield (03/09/2008)
      There is rising concern that the uncritical use of therapeutic educational interventions such as circle time or personalised learning in education is leading to a diminished self(Ecclestone, 2004; 2007) - individuals who are disempowered and whose potential for agency is reduced by the well intentioned but uncritical discourse of fragility and the implementation of pseudo-therapeutic interventions in schools and colleges. Existing debates identify a broad range of formal interventions such as those mentioned above, which might be described as therapy based. More informally, this paper, which is contextualised within the emerging literature in this field, (e.g Furedi, 2004; Cigman, 2004; Ecclestone 2004, 2007; Kristjansson, 2007) explores how teacher education, education policy and popular belief interact to generate and perpetuate an uncritical nurturing ethos amongst education professionals and considers its possible consequences for teachers and students. The paper draws on a range of qualitative data from an ongoing exploration of the changing identities of part-time inservice trainee teachers as well as from a recent case study of 30 level one students in two further education colleges. The paper finds a well meaning, nurturing mindset amongst teaching staff, supported not by research but by received wisdom such as the value of personalised learning and a belief in the need to build self-esteem. It argues that this mindset contributes to the pervasive ethos of nurturing and dependence in Further Education which forms the focus of this discussion. Further, it suggests that whilst in concert with current government rhetoric reflected not only in official papers but also in LLUK and OfSTED requirements, this ethos is at variance with the studentsperceptions of themselves as agent individuals working towards goodqualifications. The paper argues that the origins of such a nurturing mindset are two-fold, arising from the nature and purpose of teacher education in the Lifelong Learning sector and also as a consequence of the uncritical acceptance of a discourse of fragility by government and institutions desperate to resolve perceived problems around issues such as retention and achievement. It goes on to suggest that existing teacher education programmes engender an uncritical tick boxuncritical approach to the education of teachers, in which there is no requirement for trainee teachers to be encouraged to question contested concepts such as notions around self esteem, but where some contested concepts are required to be taught as fact. Further, this is compounded by government and institutional endorsement of more formal therapeuticinitiatives such as the use of learning styles questionnaires by integrating them into everyday practice as a matter of policy. In this way, the paper argues, research informed practice becomes indivisible from that based on assumption and guesswork, engendering and perpetuating an uncritical mindset amongst teachers, ultimately leading to a denial of the potential for greater agency amongst professionals as well as amongst students. Despite the rhetoric suggesting that pseudo therapeutic approaches will act in the same way as the tears of the Phoenix in respect of perceived personal and institutional difficulties, the paper concludes that this is not the case, and that the uncritical, nurturing ethos underlying many such initiatives leads not to empowerment but instead to low expectations which are legitimised in the context of often misunderstood notions and (mis)interpretations of inclusion. Ultimately, this limits the potential for agency and denies opportunity, according with Ecclestones concept of the diminished self and raising serious questions about the state of initial teacher training in England, in that such approaches are apparently taught, accepted and implemented as fact in all parts of the education system.
    • The Odyssey: School to work transitions, serendipity and position in the field

      Atkins, Liz; Northumbria University (Taylor and Francis, 15/02/2016)
      Little work on the significance and implications of decision-making has been undertaken since that led by Hodkinson in the 1990s and the experiences of young people on vocational programmes and their reasons for undertaking them remain under theorised and poorly understood. Drawing on the narratives of two young men who participated in a City and Guilds Centre for Skills Development (CSD) study, this paper explores the relationship between their positioning in fields and career decision making. It argues that social positioning is significant in its relationship to decision making, to the way in which young people perceive and construct their careers and to the influence of serendipity on their transitions. Drawing on a range of international studies, it also explores the implications of these findings in terms of young people's future engagement with the global labour market, giving consideration to (dissonant) international perceptions of VET as contributing to economic growth whilst addressing issues of social exclusion and promoting social justice.
    • There's no ethics here!

      Radford, Neil; University of Derby (British Educational Research Association, 2018-07-13)
      Increasingly education research students are drawn to forms of research that are researcher-centric, such as desk-based systematic literature reviews and autoethnographic studies of personal experience and practice (Doloriert and Sambrook, 2009). Whilst most UK universities require ethical approval, I remain perplexed by frequent claims from both students and supervisors, that such studies have no ethical considerations, with ethical scrutiny consequently perceived as a barrier or chore. Do such studies really lack ethical issues? This article asks whether it is realistic to claim that there are ‘no ethics here’, and argues that the role of education ethics committees goes beyond simply project approval, namely the promotion and maintenance of ethically literate researchers.
    • Thinking digitally in a digital world.

      Moore, Nicki; University of Derby (The Career Development Institute, 2018-01)
      This article sets out the Career Development Institue's Digital Strategy. IT highlights the key competence areas required by those working in the career development sector in the UK.
    • Tom, Ollie and Emily reflections on inclusion as an exclusive experience

      Atkins, Liz; Northumbria University (UCL IOE Press, 01/12/2012)
    • Towards a new narrative of postgraduate career.

      Artess, Jane; Hooley, Tristram; University of Derby (Springer, 2017-10-30)
      This chapter examines the relationship between the postgraduate taught (PGT) student experience and career development. It argues that career development is a critical theme which draws together all aspects of the PGT experience. PGT students overwhelmingly choose to undertake postgraduate programs for career reasons. Their participation on program is best understood as a space through which they can pursue their career development. Finally, their transition from PGT study to the labor market is explored. While PGT study offers a clear advantage in the labor market, this is neither inevitable nor equally distributed. The chapter argues that despite the complexity of the return on investment, PGT programs continue to offer an important opportunity for individuals to develop their careers. This is true for both continuers, who move straight from undergraduate study, and returners, who reenter higher education after a period in the workforce. However, it also notes that access to PGT study is structured along familiar lines of social advantage. The chapter discusses the implications for higher education providers of this picture of PGT as a career development intervention. It is argued that providers need to embrace the focus on career development and to ensure that their programs help students to realize their aspirations and to transform their PGT qualifications into real-world opportunities.
    • Towards an epistemically neutral curriculum model for vocational education: from competencies to threshold concepts and practices

      Atkins, Liz; Hodges, Steven, Simons Michele; Northumbria University (Taylor and Francis, 08/12/2016)
      Debate about the benefits and problems with competency-based training (CBT) has not paid sufficient attention to the fact that the model satisfies a unique, contemporary demand for cross-occupational curriculum. The adoption of CBT in the UK and Australia, along with at least some of its problems, can be understood in terms of this demand. We argue that a key problem with CBT is that as a cross-occupational curriculum model it impacts too strongly on the way particular occupations are known and represented. Following this line of argument, we propose that more effective models will be those that are epistemically neutraland thus responsive to the inherent knowledge and practice structures of occupations. We explore the threshold conceptsapproach as an alternative that can claim to be sensitive to occupational structures. We indicate ways it contrasts with CBT but also note some difficulties with the approach for vocational education.
    • Transition programmes for young adults with SEND. What works?

      Hanson, Jill; Codina, Geraldine; Neary, Siobhan; University of Derby (Careers and Enterprise Company, 2017-10)
      This paper describes the evidence base for transition programmes for young adults with Special Educational Needs and Disabilities (SEND). Schools, colleges and providers of careers and enterprise programmes are invited to use this evidence to inform the programmes that they are running and developing. The paper draws together academic and ‘grey’ literature (such as policy papers, speeches and programme evaluation reports), with the aim of, first, clarifying the impacts from transition programming and, second, exploring what effective practice looks like.
    • Travelling hopefully: an exploration of the limited possibilities for Level 1 students in the English further education system

      Atkins, Liz; University of Huddersfield (Taylor and Francis, 01/07/2008)
      This paper discusses the findings of a small?scale qualitative study exploring the aspirations and learning identities of three groups of Level 1 students in two English further education (FE) colleges. Emerging identities are explored in the context of classed and gendered dispositions and the educational positioning of the young people. Empirical sections show that the young peoples lifestyle aspirations have a heavy celebrity influence and that their occupational aspirations have an unreal, dreamlike quality associated with a lack of awareness of the trajectories they would need to follow to achieve their ambitions. Further, the paper argues that whilst the young people are developing identities in which learning, leisure, work and domesticity are synonymous, leisure identities assume the greatest importance to them. The paper concludes that this aspect of their young lives is significant since it provides an escapefrom the mundane drudgery of a low?value vocational programme and the inevitability of a future engaged in low?paid, low?skillled work.
    • Twittering away - Is Twitter an appropriate adjunctive tool to enhance learning and engagement in higher education?

      Vigurs, Katy; Boath, Elizabeth; Frangos, Juliet; Staffordshire University (Staffordshire University, 2018-04-27)
      Twitter is a social media platform that has been used in teaching and learning. The aim was to explore students’ views of using Twitter as an adjunctive learning tool to provide access to contemporary information, to enhance learning and to generate wider discussion via Twitter backchannel communication. A 17-item Qualtrics questionnaire consisting of open and closed questions was devised specifically for the study. Qualitative data was analysed using descriptive statistics. Qualitative data via thematic analysis. Participants were a convenience sample of 44 Level 4 Social Welfare Law students who were invited to engage online with the academic and professional community via Twitter. Eleven (25%) students responded to the questionnaire. Four key themes emerged from the qualitative data: Enhancing knowledge; Building academic and professional networks; Time for twitter and the Need for Twitter training. Despite the limitations, the results suggest that if supported by institutional digital scaffolding and training, twitter may be a useful adjunct to traditional physical learning spaces. Further research is r however required to explore the future pedagogic potential of Twitter.
    • Two sides of the same story: staff and student perceptions of the non-native speakers experience of the British academic system

      Hooley, Tristram; Horspool, Philip; University of Leicesster (2006)
      This paper draws on a research and materials development project undertaken at the University of Leicester. The project’s aims were to identify problems encountered by non-native speaking students (NNS) and to offer academic departments a toolkit for overcoming these problems. The paper will discuss the student and staff experience of dealing with linguistic and cultural difficulties and suggest pedagogic and institutional strategies for improving in-sessional support. The paper will suggest that academics frequently have difficulty in diagnosing the nature of the problems that their NNS students have and that a greater focus on language is necessary. The paper will go on to argue that the high number of NNS studying at British universities creates an imperative for academic departments to mainstream the support that they offer for international students. As many of the recommendations for support for NNS are essentially ‘best practice’ teaching and learning they also are likely to have positive knock-on effects for other students.
    • Understanding a ‘career in careers’: learning from an analysis of current job and person specifications

      Neary, Siobhan; Marriott, John; Hooley, Tristram; University of Derby (2014-07)
      The Career Development Institute (CDI) is developing a career progression pathway for the career development sector. This report provides evidence which can inform the creation of such a framework. It is based on an analysis of 214 job and person specifications. These were drawn from all four UK nations and reflect the five CDI constituency groups as well as higher education and the welfare to work sector. Key findings include the following: It was possible to identify six levels of vacancies in the career development sector: entry level; practitioner; advanced practitioner; manager and senior manager; and research and technical support. There were careers vacancies in every UK nation and in every English region. Nearly half of the vacancies were located in London and the South East. Over three-quarters of the job opportunities for the career development workforce were located within careers companies and the education sector. Just less than three quarters of the vacancies were full time positions. A clear majority of vacancies (69%) were permanent positions. Three-quarters of vacancies specified a careers qualification. Many job and person specifications either did not specify the level of the qualification or suggested diverse careers qualifications at different levels. A minority of vacancies did not require any qualifications and a small number did not require any specific careers qualifications. Job and person specifications set out a wide range of duties for careers workers. The most common were providing one to one career information, advice and guidance and organising and delivering group sessions. The behaviour, knowledge and skills most likely to be specified were interpersonal skills, the use of ICT and electronic systems (including CRM systems) and the ability to manage paperwork and work to targets. Salaries varied from £13,400 to £65,000 although the overwhelming majority of those that specified a salary were between £15,001- £35,000. Salary varied according to the level of the job, the sector it was based in and the qualifications that were required. The analysis revealed 103 different job titles. This is a significant increase on the 2009 mapping by LLUK which identified 43 job roles. Careers adviser/advisor was the job title most commonly cited.
    • Understanding advancement

      Ravenhall, Mark; Hutchinson, Jo; Neary, Siobhan; University of Derby (International Centre for Guidance Studies, University of Derby, 2009)
      The concept of ‘advancement’ has been central to the debate in relation to the most effective ways of achieving the twin policy goals of high employment alongside high productivity. It is based on how the system looks from the perspective of the individual who often faces multiple barriers in accessing both learning and work. In this way it is linked to the wider agenda of the personalisation of public services. What is different from other approaches is that advancement is also about how support for (and challenge to) the individual is delivered holistically. This involves bringing together what are currently discrete and disparate advice services for: housing, employment, learning, health and benefits/personal finances.This paper explores how the vision of advancement has advanced since first mooted in this context in John Denham’s Fabian Society speech in 2004. It looks at the reform agenda from three perspectives: • The individual; • The workplace; and • The advancement agencies which support them. It concludes by looking at ways of achieving advancement and government’s role in the process through strategic commitments to – segmentation; stimulation; regulation; and capacity building.