• The 21st Century HE Careers Professional

      Thambar, Nalayini; Neary, Siobhan; Zlatic, Franka; University of Nottingham; University of Derby (Higher Education Careers Service Unit, 2021-02-17)
      The role of HE careers services have been increasingly influenced over the last ten years or so. The research aimed to explore how various drivers, metrics such as the National Student Survey (NSS), Destinations of Leavers of Higher Education (DLHE), Teaching Excellence Framework (TEF) and the introduction of higher fees have impacted practitioners and their services over the last decade. The methodology adopted a qualitative approach including, a focus group, an online survey and in-depth interviews with a sample of services representing Pre and Post 92, Russell Group and Specialist HE. Throughout the course of the research, the COVID-19 Pandemic erupted which impacted on the nature of the research project. The research identified that Careers Professionals defined their role as providing support to students in their career development and planning, including the navigation of recruitment processes. They achieve this through working directly with the students on a 1:1 basis, recognising the resource-intensity yet value of this approach, and also through the delivery of workshop activity. Alongside this, the role typically involves increased and increasing activity to embed careers education within, or to align with, the curriculum. Institutional interest in employability and resulting structures means that a growing number of careers professionals’ roles are based in a Faculty or another part of their institution such as a Graduate School, in some cases being employed directly by them rather than the Careers Service itself. This decentralization was often linked to supporting departments in achieving higher NSS and other employability related metrics.
    • The 50 great books on education

      Hayes, Dennis; University of Derby (The Conversation Trust (UK), 2014-31-03)
    • A Guide to instrumentalism: Initial teacher education in the lifelong learning sector

      Atkins, Liz; University of Huddersfield (01/01/2011)
      This paper provides a critique of the competence based approach to teacher education in the Learning and Skills Sector. This critique is made at a time of consultation of proposed developments to the current standards, which are due for implementation from 2012 and which will involve only minor changes. The existing, Lifelong Learning UK (LLUK) standards were introduced in September 2006 following withdrawal of the old FENTO standards (FENTO, 1999) which had been subject to criticism that they did not meet the needs of trainee teachers and did not adequately reflect the developmental nature of Initial Teacher Education (ITE). The revised standards were intended to reflect this developmental process, and to contribute raising standards and the professionalisationof the sector (DfES/Standards Unit 2004); however, even before their introduction concerns were raised about over-regulation (Lucas, 2004:49). Despite a significant level of investment in the new standards, what eventually emerged has been subject to even greater criticism than the FENTO standards (e.g. see Lucas, 2007; Finlay et al 2007; Gleeson and James, 2007 and Simmons and Thompson 2007). Key features in this criticism have been the narrow concept of learning and skills, and the lack of recognition of both the wider dimensions of professional practice and the importance of knowledge. Contextualised within this literature, this paper argues that the detailed and prescriptive competency based structure of contemporary teacher training in the FE sector, together with wider regulation such as Ofsted and LLUK endorsement requirements, is productive of teachers who are instrumental and conformist but who lack the knowledge to engage with the concerns for social justice which are fundamental to working in the FE sector. In turn, these teachers deliver an instrumental and competency based vocational curriculum which, the paper argues, is complicit with other systems and structures in education in the reproduction of labour and of social class. The paper also draws on literature addressing issues around assessment (Ecclestone, 2010) and professionalism (e.g. Gleeson and James, 2007; Bathmaker, 2006) as well as class based critiques of the FE system which draw on work by, amongst others, Avis, (2007), Atkins (2009) and Colley (2006). The arguments in this paper are also supported by a deconstruction of the current standards. This deconstruction has been used to identify what is and is not supported or promoted by the standards in the context of education and wider notions of professionalism and to problematise them in the context of contemporary literature.
    • Academic freedom and the diminished subject

      Hayes, Dennis; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2009)
    • The academics vs the bureaucracy

      Hayes, Dennis; University of Derby (spiked Ltd., 2016-09-21)
      Why the Stern Review of the Research Excellence Framework (REF) could mean the end of the university as we know it.
    • Actantial construction of career guidance in parliament of Finland’s education policy debates 1967–2020

      Varjo, Janne; Kalalahti, Mira; Hooley, Tristram; University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Elverum, Norway; University of Derby (Informa UK Limited, 2021-09-14)
      In this paper we examine the objectives and meanings of the career guidance provided in comprehensive education as set out in discussions in the Parliament of Finland. We approach the topic through an exploration of parliamentary sessions concerning three major legislative proposals for reforming compulsory education in Finland. The premise is that the parliamentary discussions concerning guidance provided in comprehensive education reflect the rationalities that underpin guidance in different eras in Finland and elsewhere. Examining these rationalities provides a way to explore the principles which frame career guidance policy in Finland. Using the actantial model as a methodological tool, the analysis aims to discover the actantial positions in the parliamentary discussions and the interactions that emerge between these. The various actantial narratives demonstrate the way in which guidance is influenced by wider ideological trends. The actantial analysis portrays a shift from the more structural corporatist approaches of the 1960s when the object of guidance was to fulfil the needs of society, towards more third way individualism in 1990s. The current reform of 2020 to extend compulsory education and reinforce guidance may represent some return to more structural approaches.
    • Addressing unrealistic optimism with counterfactual reasoning in an employability module in higher education

      Hanson, Jill; Burke, Ciaran; Univerity of West England; University of Derby (Emerald, 2020-09-01)
      The study aimed to explore the effect of second year business students engaging in counterfactual reasoning on their unrealistic optimism regarding attainment on an employability module. Using an experimental design, the study compared the module performance of those who generated reasons why they would and would not achieve a series of specific grades. A control group who did not generate any reasons also took part. Students who generated reasons why they would not achieve a good grade were less likely to be unrealistically optimistic and more likely to attain a good grade on their assessment. This is a small sample of students from one form of programme, so replication with a greater sample drawn from other programmes would increase reliability. The results suggest an easily applied and practical way of engaging students in employability modules to support their development of a range of capitals. The findings are considered in relation to the theory of possible selves, the value for students, particularly widening participation of students, of improved engagement with employability modules and the possibility of applying this technique in wider educational settings. This paper extends Hoch’s (1985) original study by considering the use of counterfactual reasoning for assessment performance and offering a an easy-to-apply tool for module leaders to support student attainment in employability development modules
    • Advancing ambitions: the role of career guidance in supporting social mobility

      Hooley, Tristram; Matheson, Jesse; Watts, A. G.; University of Derby (The Sutton Trust, 2014-10)
      Career guidance describes activities which support individuals to learn about education and employment and plan for their future lives, learning and work. These activities contribute to social mobility, helping people to discover and access opportunities that might exist outside of their immediate networks. They also encourage individuals to challenge their pre-existing assumptions about what they are capable of and to develop practical strategies to operationalise their aspirations.
    • Advising on career image: perspectives, practice and politics

      Yates, Julia; Hooley, Tristram; University of East London; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2017-02-17)
      This article analyses qualitative data gathered from a survey of career practitioners on the issue of career image (n = 355, 75% female, 89% white and 78% from the UK). Findings reveal three key themes which represent how career image relates to practitioners’ values and beliefs, how practitioners make decisions about whether to address the topic in their practice and the strategies they use to address career image with their clients. Findings are discussed with reference to Watts’s socio-political ideologies of guidance. The data indicate that career practitioners are often uncomfortable about discussing career image, but address it where they believe that it is important to their clients’ success. While some practitioners believe the existing structures to be unjust, they generally seek to address this injustice at the individual level rather than seeking any kind of social transformation.
    • Affect: knowledge, communication, creativity and emotion

      Ecclestone, Kathryn; Hayes, Dennis; Oxford Brookes University; University of Derby (Futurelab, 2008-12)
      Concerns about emotional well-being have recently become the focus of social policy, particularly in education settings. This is a sudden and unique development in placing new ideas about emotion and creativity and communication in curriculum content, pedagogy and assessment, but also in redefining fundamentally what it is to ‘know’. Our report charts the creation of what we call an ‘emotional epistemology’ that may undermine all previous ideas about epistemology, draws out implications for educational aspirations and purposes and evaluates potential implications for these aspirations and purposes if trends we identify here continue into the future.
    • Alternative schooling

      Flower, Annie; Cottle, Vanessa; University of Derby (Pearson Education Limited, 2011)
      This chapter provides you with a general introduction to approaches to education and school curricula by considering examples of schools from Europe and the USA, which have a role in providing alternative curricula to the English National Curriculum and also considers educational policy.
    • An Absence of Policy: Vocational education and special educational needs

      Atkins, Liz; Northumbria University (Routledge, 06/07/2013)
      Vocational programmes at the lowest levels have been subject to significant criticism, not least from Government sponsored reports both before and after the last election (eg. Working Group on 14-19 reform, 2004; Wolf 2011). The Coalition government has, in common with earlier administrations, focussed policy initiatives on higher level and higher status vocational education. This paper explores the tension between this reality and the rhetoric of inclusion which forms much of the narrative of education policy. It considers this in the context of the implications of vocational education policy for the most marginalised young people: those with special educational needs and the poorest post- 16 outcomes, who are engaged with vocational education at its lowest levels and who are ambivalently positioned between mainstream education and special educational provision. The paper suggests that whilst some recent policy initiatives, such as the introduction of University Technical Colleges and the proposed Technical Baccalaureatemay be successful in raising the esteem of some types of specialised vocational education, they will also reinforce different degrees of exclusion and in/equalities within vocational education. It concludes that broad vocational courses at lower levels, held in low esteem and conferring little or no educational advantage, are likely to persist in the absence of any proposals for a meaningful alternative. Finally, it calls for concerted action in terms of both research and curriculum development to which could lead to more meaningful education at this level.
    • An Analysis of Tanzania's Policies and whether they represent Gender Equity in Education

      Pepper, Laura; Spencer, Sophie; University of Derby (University of Derby, 2021-11-03)
      To determine how educational gender equity is understood and constructed within the official publications of the Tanzanian Government and it’s agencies. 1. Exploring the equivocality of policies regarding commitments to educational equity for females. 2. Investigating degrees of equivocality in the policy documents regarding the acknowledged and unacknowledged barriers to educational equity for females. 3. Exploring the extent to which female rights and voices are present in the policies. We conducted text analysis using authentic texts, acknowledging any bias that may be present. Text was chosen based on: 1. Have they been published between 2011 and 2021? 2. What is the source of the document? 3. Is there sufficient data within the document to analyse in sufficient depth? 4. Acknowledge any bias within the document e.g. is it from a Government source? We then conducted thematic analysis using Braun and Clarke, followed by thematic reduction.
    • ‘ … and now it’s over to you’: recognising and supporting the role of careers leaders in schools in England

      Andrews, David; Hooley, Tristram; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2016-11-11)
      There is a long history of teachers and schools being involved in the delivery of career education and guidance. As the breadth of career education and guidance activity in English schools grew throughout the twentieth century it became increasingly necessary to have an individual within the school responsible for leading and managing this activity (the careers leader). The transfer of responsibility for career guidance from local authorities to schools following the Education Act 2011 has intensified the need for this role. There have been various attempts to conceptualise and professionalise the role of careers leader and to develop appropriate training and support. This article defines the role and the rationale for the role, sets out its history and makes recommendations for the future professionalisation of the role. It is argued that this will include recognition of the role by policy, professionalisation and the development of a career structure and the development of appropriate training and CPD.
    • Approaches to quality assurance in school-based career development: policymaker perspectives from Australia

      Rice, Suzanne; Hooley, Tristram; Crebbin, Sue; University of Melbourne, Australia; University of Derby (Informa UK Limited, 2021-05-19)
      In this article we explore Australian policymaker perspectives on the quality assurance of career development (CD) programmes in schools. We found that Australian policymakers are concerned about the quality of CD provision in schools and have a wide range of approaches that they deploy to ensure and assure quality at the school level. Quality assurance within the country is focused on the qualifications and professionalism of the people delivering career development programmes rather than on systemic or organisational quality. We also found that the range of quality assurance tools that are deployed by such policymakers varies across the different Australian jurisdictions and is influenced by geography, the size of the jurisdiction and the level of priority given to career guidance.
    • Are young people aged 16-19 using or expecting to use the gig economy for their careers

      Galfalvi, Esther; Hooley, Tristram; Neary, Siobhan; University of Derby (NICEC, 2020-10)
      Amid growing precarity and zero hour contracts, the ‘gig economy’ represents a new way of working mediated by web technology. Workers can sign up to a work platform – a website or smartphone program that manages the work automatically – and take on work at the tap of a button. Some platforms manage labour, such as driving for Uber or delivering food for Deliveroo, while others manage retail activity, such as Ebay or Etsy. Recent research has shown that a significant number of people are using platform work to earn money, with over half being young people aged 16-34. While there are some data regarding satisfaction levels and attractors, there is little research examining specific age segments of workers, or the relationship between platform work and career. Using data from focus group interviews with school and Further Education college students, this paper will discuss findings from research investigating how young people in England aged 16-19 perceive the gig economy and whether they feel that it will be relevant to their careers, with a view to discussing whether it may be necessary to include in careers education programmes or guidance. The interview data indicate that these participants were occasionally using platforms to make money, and a few were earning regularly, usually on retail platforms. While some interviewees appreciated the autonomy and flexibility promised by gig economy work, the uncertainty, perceived low status, and lack of career progression prevented them from taking it seriously as a career option. Instead, they preferred traditional forms of work that provide more stability and organisational support - an increasingly rare commodity in a labour market that is changing rapidly in the opposite direction. We conclude that while there may be little value in giving detailed individual guidance on the gig economy, it could be valuable to use it as a way of teaching young people about the labour market and different types of employment
    • Assessment: Evidence-based teaching for enquiring teachers

      Atherton, Chris; Poultney, Val; Sir John Deane's Sixth Form College; University of Derby (Critical Publishing, 2018)
    • A beacon for guidance : how the International Centre for Guidance Studies has been influencing policy and practice for 16 years

      Hyde, C.; University of Derby, iCeGS; East Midlands Oral History Archive (iCeGS University of Derby, 2014-06)
      The publication documents the history of the International Centre for Guidance Studies (iCeGS) at the University of Derby. It focuses on how the centre has influenced policy and practice in the careers sector over the last 16 years.
    • Beyond brexit

      Hooley, Tristram; Institute of Student Employers (Institute of Student Employers, 2019-04)
      The original Brexit timetable has fallen by the wayside. Given how the process to exit the EU has gone so far, this seems unlikely to be the final twist in the story. We are at the end of the beginning of Brexit rather than the beginning of the end. Negotiations about Britain’s future relationship with Europe will go on for years, possibly decades. And that is saying nothing of the way in which Britain’s own politics, policy and law might develop once it is untethered by EU regulation. The question for members of the ISE will be how this may make a difference to the way in which student recruitment and development works.
    • Black Careers Matter: Improving the early careers of people from Black heritage backgrounds

      Institute of Student Employers; Institute of Student Employers (Institute of Student Employers, 2021-10)
      This report explores the issues that people from Black heritage backgrounds face during their early careers and makes recommendations on what employers can do to ensure that they are more inclusive and diverse.