• Careers work in higher education in Pakistan: current practice and options for the future

      Zahid, Gulnaz; Hooley, Tristram; Neary, Siobhan; International Centre for Guidance Studies (iCeGS) (Taylor and Francis, 2019-01-31)
      In this article we examine the development of career guidance in Pakistani higher education. The article is primarily based on a review of the existing literature on career guidance in Pakistan, but also includes the consideration of some new data gathered from a review of higher education institutions websites and five case study interviews. It considers both local and global influences as relevant contexts for understanding how the development of career guidance in Pakistani higher education is taking place. Concerns about alignment between skills supply and demand provide key drivers both for the development of career guidance and for wider higher education reform. However the practice of career guidance in Pakistani higher education is shown to be lagging behind the policy aspirations, both due to limited investment and due to more fundamental cultural challenges that have yet to be fully addressed. If career guidance is going to continue to develop within Pakistan it will need to be strengthened by new policy and resources but also through the development of indigenous theories.