• Compassion: Definitions and controversies

      Gilbert, Paul; Gilbert, Paul; University of Derby (Routledge, 2017)
    • Compassionate care: The theory and the reality.

      Cole-King, Alys; Gilbert, Paul; University of Derby (Routledge, 2014-07-08)
    • Compassionate mind coaching

      Anstiss, Tim; Gilbert, Paul; University of Derby (Kogan Page, 2014-09-03)
    • Competence-based training and assessment by portfolio: the health psychology model

      Elander, James; Fox, Pauline; Towell, Tony; University of Derby (Sage, 2007-09)
      All UK postgraduate qualifications in applied areas of psychology will soon be competence-based. This will improve the professional recognition and esteem of applied psychology, and make it easier to transfer qualifications between psychology and other disciplines and between psychology sub-disciplines. However, the changes pose considerable challenges because there is very little clear evidence about the effectiveness of competence-based training and portfolio assessment. Health psychology has led the development of competence-based training in psychology with the ‘stage two’ qualification in health psychology, and this article considers postgraduate health psychology training in the context of what is known about competence-based training and portfolio assessment in professions such as medicine, nursing and education. This raises a number of questions for professional training and qualifications in psychology.
    • Complex interventions - Exploring the application of behaviour change theory to doctoral supervisor training.

      Lipka, Sigrid; University of Derby (2018-02-22)
      Rationale: The student-supervisor relationship is an important factor impacting on doctoral student satisfaction and successful completion rates (e.g., Hodsdon & Buckley 2011; Kulej & Park 2008). Good supervision affects the student experience, student wellbeing and happiness (e.g., Cowling, 2017). Given the complex nature of effective supervision and the many specific behaviours it consists of (e.g., Debowski, 2016; Hyatt, 2017; Lee, 2008; Peelo, 2011), a key question is whether desired supervisory behaviours can be created by staff development trainings. Aims: The Com-B model (e.g., Michie et al. 2011) was used as a framework with the aim to i) define capabilities, opportunities and motivations that underpin supervisor behaviours towards their doctoral students, ii) design a research supervisor training programme and iii) develop criteria for measuring and evaluating the effectiveness of such trainings. Methodology: The Com-B framework has been tested over a period of seven years by applying it to the development, implementation and evaluation of a supervisor development training at a UK university. The training, delivered by a team of experienced researchers and supervisors, is aimed at academics new to the role of doctoral supervisor. It was designed to build new supervisors’ practical skills, knowledge of regulatory requirements and critical awareness of pedagogical literature required to engage in effective supervisory behaviour. The training consists of three, three-hour long sessions spread over three months. Questionnaires were handed out to 87 new supervisors from a range of subject areas and types of doctoral degree at the end of their training programme. 61 staff (70%) returned completed questionnaires. The questionnaire consisted of open-ended questions about participants’ motivations to do the training, confidence in newly learned skills and knowledge, most useful aspects of the training received and areas for further training. Analysis: Responses were analysed thematically and frequencies of common types of responses were compared. Results: The great majority of supervisors reported an increase in their knowledge, capabilities and confidence as a result of the training, whilst a minority expressed a desire for more exposure to actual supervisory practice as part of the training. Many candidates mentioned exchange and discussion with colleagues from different subject areas as useful and motivational. Only very few specific suggestions for what else to include in the training were made, asking for more opportunities aimed at bridging a perceived knowledge-practice gap. Conclusions: The findings suggest that the behaviour change framework provides a promising strategy for creating, implementing and evaluating doctoral supervisor trainings. Desired supervisory behaviours can be created by improving staff capabilities (their knowledge, skills) and confidence through training, in line with previous research (e.g., Kiley, 2011; McCulloch & Loeser, 2016; Peelo, 2011). Future interventions need to include further activities to bridge the practice-knowledge gap experienced by new supervisors, and extend discussion with a fuller range of stakeholders. Future research should establish the long-term effects of supervisory training on supervisory behaviours and investigate how opportunities provided by institutional and wider contexts affect supervisor behaviour and the health and wellbeing of doctoral students throughout their doctoral journey.
    • Complex skills and academic writing: a review of evidence about the types of learning required to meet core assessment criteria

      Elander, James; Harrington, Katherine; Norton, Lin; Robinson, Hannah; Reddy, Peter; University of Derby (2006)
      Assessment criteria are increasingly incorporated into teaching, making it important to clarify the pedagogic status of the qualities to which they refer. We reviewed theory and evidence about the extent to which four core criteria for student writing—critical thinking, use of language, structuring, and argument—refer to the outcomes of three types of learning: generic skills learning, a deep approach to learning, and complex learning. The analysis showed that all four of the core criteria describe to some extent properties of text resulting from using skills, but none qualify fully as descriptions of the outcomes of applying generic skills. Most also describe certain aspects of the outcomes of taking a deep approach to learning. Critical thinking and argument correspond most closely to the outcomes of complex learning. At lower levels of performance, use of language and structuring describe the outcomes of applying transferable skills. At higher levels of performance, they describe the outcomes of taking a deep approach to learning. We propose that the type of learning required to meet the core criteria is most usefully and accurately conceptualized as the learning of complex skills, and that this provides a conceptual framework for maximizing the benefits of using assessment criteria as part of teaching.
    • A computer aided ergonomics tool to support accessible transport design

      Marshall, Russell; Case, Keith; Porter, J. Mark; Sims, Ruth; Gyi, Diane E.; Loughborough University (2005)
      Accessible design is being promoted through concepts such as ‘Design for All’. This is an approach to design that aims to maximise the accessibility of a product, environment, or service through the provision of a solution that accommodates the needs of all users including those who are older or disabled. To support a ‘Design for All’ approach a computer aided design and analysis tool called HADRIAN has been developed. Initial developments addressed the provision of accurate and applicable data on the target users together with a means of using the data for ergonomics evaluations during the concept stages of design. This paper details some of this initial development together with the current focus for the HADRIAN system, namely that of transport design. The novel aspect of this research moves the focus away from isolated design problems such as the accessible design of a train or taxi, onto the concept of the journey and the system of design problems that must be addressed in order to create truly accessible transport.
    • Concordance to pressure relief regimen for pressure injury prevention in seated spinal cord injury -- A new measurement tool.

      Liu, Liang Q.; Deegan, Rachel; Chapman, Sarah; Allan, Helen T.; Traynor, Michael; Dyson, Sue E.; Knight, Sarah L.; Gall, Angela (2018-02-16)
    • Conflict and dual process theory: The case of belief bias.

      Ball, Linden J.; Thompson, Valerie; Stupple, Edward J. N.; University of Central Lancashire; University of Saskatchewan; University of Derby (Routledge, 2017-11)
    • Constraint modelling in 'design for all'

      Case, Keith; Goonetilleke, Thanuja Shiromie; Marshall, Russell; Porter, J. Mark; Gyi, Diane E.; Sims, Ruth; Loughborough University (CIT Press, 2003)
      Design for All', or Inclusive Design, is an approach to the design of products and workplaces that aims to maximise suitability for a wide range of consumers/workers. In particular attempts are made to include elderly and disabled consumers/workers without stigmatising the product or in any other way detracting from its attractiveness to younger more able-bodied users. The interest in Design for All stems from the increasing number of elderly and disabled people in western societies, the considerable economic power that they command and pressure from a wide variety of legislative forces. Research has recently been completed that provides a new basis for the application of ergonomics through computer aided design based on multivariate techniques using anthropometric and other data related to individuals rather than populations. The design tool created (known as HADRIAN) is briefly described. This tool is capable of assessing the percentage of the individuals that are able to perform a task whether this be in a domestic or industrial environment. However, it is not capable of suggesting design changes to improve this percentage accommodation, and hence ongoing research is concerned with ‘design synthesis’. The design synthesis approach uses a constraint modeller (SWORDS, which has been used elsewhere in many design and industrial applications) to search a potentially infinite design space to find sets of spatial characteristics of the design that maximise the user accommodation. This design synthesis approach is presented in this paper and described by a case study.
    • Continuing professional development and journaling

      Bryson, David; University of Derby (Informa UK Limited, 2021-09-13)
      This professional development paper looks at CPD and journaling which will help you discover how journaling can support your professional practice, mental health and continuing professional development.
    • The contribution that a co-design approach can make to idea generation for workplace travel plans

      Ross, Tracy; Mitchell, Val; May, Andrew; Sims, Ruth; Loughborough University (Universities' Transport Study Group (UTSG), 2013)
      This study proposed the cooperative processes of ‘co-design’ as a means by which to increase ‘active’ participation in the early stages of workplace travel plan development. In particular, the research takes a first step towards a quantitative comparison of solutions/ideas generated using a co-design approach versus the more traditional methods normally used in travel planning by comparing the number, originality, breadth and type of ideas generated. One group of staff took part in a co-design study and another in a non-co-design study. The main findings were that co-design techniques appear to: encourage a greater number of ideas overall, a greater number of ideas that are innovative in the specific organisational context and different types of idea (particularly ones that tend towards more psychological-based interventions). However both approaches are similar in terms of the global innovativeness of the ideas they generate which was generally low.
    • Controlled antenatal thyroid screening II: Effect of treating maternal suboptimal thyroid function on child cognition.

      Hales, Charlotte; Taylor, Peter N.; Channon, Sue; Paradice, Ruth; McEwan, Kirsten; Zhang, Lei; Gyedu, Michael; Bakhsh, Ameen; Okosieme, Onyebuchi; Muller, Ilaria; et al. (Oxford Academic, 2018-01-15)
      Context and Objective The Controlled Antenatal Thyroid Screening (CATS) study investigated treatment of suboptimal gestational thyroid function (SGTF) on childhood cognition and found no difference in intelligence quotient (IQ) at 3 years between children of treated and untreated SGTF mothers. We have measured IQ in the same children at age 9.5 years and included children from normal gestational thyroid function (normal-GTF) mothers. Design, Setting, and Participants One examiner, blinded to participant group, assessed children’s IQ (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fourth Edition UK), long-term memory, and motor function (Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment II) from children of 119 treated and 98 untreated SGTF mothers plus children of 232 mothers with normal-GTF. Logistic regression explored the odds and percentages of an IQ < 85 in the groups. Results There was no difference in IQ < 85 between children of mothers with normal-GTF and combined SGTF, i.e., treated and untreated (fully adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.15 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.52, 2.51]; P = 0.731). Furthermore, there was no significant effect of treatment [untreated OR = 1.33 (95% CI 0.53, 3.34); treated OR = 0.75 (95% CI 0.27, 2.06) P = 0.576]. IQ < 85 was 6.03% in normal-GTF, 7.56% in treated, and 11.22% in untreated groups. Analyses accounting for treated-SGTF women with free thyroxine > 97.5th percentile of the entire CATS-I cohort revealed no significant effect on a child’s IQ < 85 in CATS-II. IQ at age 3 predicted IQ at age 9.5 (P < 0.0001) and accounted for 45% of the variation. Conclusions Maternal thyroxine during pregnancy did not improve child cognition at age 9.5 years. Our findings confirmed CATS-I and suggest that the lack of treatment effect may be a result of the similar proportion of IQ < 85 in children of women with normal-GTF and SGTF.
    • Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): Forecast of an Emerging Urgency in Pakistan

      Chaudhry, Rabia M; Hanif, Asif; Chaudhary, Muhammad; Minhas, Sadia; Mirza, Khalid; Asif, Tahira; Gilani, Syed A; Kashif, Muhammad; University of Derby (Cureus, Inc., 2020-05-28)
      Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global challenge due to little available knowledge and treatment protocols. Thus, there is a great need for collecting data related to COVID-19 from all around the world. Hence, we conducted this study, collecting daily data on COVID-19, to map the epidemiology outbreak and forecast its trajectory for May 2020. The data was collected from the officially released reports of the National Institute of Health (NIH), Pakistan, and the World Health Organization (WHO). The analysis was done using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 23 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY), and forecasting was done using a simple moving average in time series modeler/expert modeler. The purpose of this study is to draw the attention of international, as well as national, governing bodies to the rapidly rising number of COVID-19 cases in Pakistan, and the urgency of evaluating the efficacy of the currently implemented strategy against COVID-19. According to this study, there is now an alarming increase in the number of COVID-19 patients in Pakistan, despite a contained spread in the beginning. The predicted number of COVID-19 cases can go over 35,000 by the end of May 2020. It is crucial for governing bodies, administrators, and researchers to re-evaluate the current situation, designed policies, and implemented strategies.
    • Cruelty, evolution, and religion: The challenge for the new spiritualities

      Gilbert, Paul; Gilbert, Hannah; University of Derby (Praeger, 2015-02-28)
    • Cultivating the compassionate self against depression: An exploration of processes of change.

      Matos, Marcela; Duarte, Joana; Duarte, Cristiana; Pinto-Gouveia, José; Gilbert, Paul; University of Coimbra; University of Derby (2017-04)
      Introduction Compassion and self-compassion can be protective factors against mental health difficulties, in particular depression. The cultivation of the compassionate self, associated with a range of practices such as slow and deeper breathing, compassionate voice tones and facial expressions, and compassionate focusing, is central to compassion focused therapy (Gilbert, 2010). However, no study has examined the processes of change that mediate the impact of compassionate self-cultivation practices on depressive symptoms. Aims The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of a brief compassionate self training (CST) intervention on depressive symptoms, and explore the psychological processes that mediate the change at post intervention. Methods Using a longitudinal design, participants (general population and college students) were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: Compassionate self training (n = 56) and wait-list control (n = 37). Participants in the CST condition were instructed to practice CST exercises for 15 minutes everyday or in moments of stress during two weeks. Self-report measures of depression, self-criticism, shame and compassion, were completed at pre and post in both conditions. Results Results showed that, at post-intervention, participants in the CST condition decreased depression, self-criticism and shame, and increased self-compassion and openness to receive compassion from others. Mediation analyses revealed that changes in depression from pre to post intervention were mediated by decreases in self-criticism and shame, and increases in self-compassion and openness to the compassion from others. Conclusions These findings support the efficacy of compassionate self training components on lessening depressive symptoms and promoting mental health.
    • Cultural differences in shame-focused attitudes towards mental health problems in Asian and Non-Asian student women.

      Gilbert, Paul; Bhundia, Rakhee; Mitra, Ranjana; McEwan, Kirsten; Irons, Christopher Paul; Sanghera, Jasvinder; University of Derby; Kingsway Hospital (Routledge, 2007-02-14)
      This study explored differences in shame-focused attitudes to mental health problems in Asian and non-Asian students. The ‘Attitudes Towards Mental Health Problems’ (ATMHP) is a self-report scale designed for this study to measure: external shame (beliefs that others will look down on self if one has mental health problems); internal shame (related to negative self-evaluations); and reflected shame (believing that one can bring shame to family/community). A second questionnaire was designed to measure concerns with confidentiality. Results suggest that Asian students have higher external shame and reflected shame, but not internal shame beliefs. Asian students were also more concerned with confidentiality when it comes to talking about personal feeling/anxieties.
    • The culture of culture plate photography

      Bryson, David; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2021-01-04)
      In medical illustration we all know the role of specimen photography and as part of that the photography of culture plates for records, research and publication. However, there has been a trend towards a wider use of cultures in an artistic context whether part of public understanding of science or as a means of personal expression of identity. The sequence of culture plate photographs in this gallery are really of the ordinary rather than the extraordinary or artistic. The photography of cultures of different colours has even become an art form in its own right.
    • The current and future role of heart rate variability for assessing and training compassion

      Kirby, James N.; Doty, James R.; Petrocchi, Nicola; Gilbert, Paul; Stanford University; University of Queensland; John Cabot University; University of Derby (Frontiers, 2017-03-08)
      The evolution of mammalian caregiving involving hormones, such as oxytocin, vasopressin, and the myelinated vagal nerve as part of the ventral parasympathetic system, enables humans to connect, co-regulate each other's emotions and create prosociality. Compassion-based interventions draw upon a number of specific exercises and strategies to stimulate these physiological processes and create conditions of "interpersonal safeness," thereby helping people engage with, alleviate, and prevent suffering. Hence, compassion-based approaches are connected with our evolved caring motivation and attachment and our general affiliative systems that help regulate distress. Physiologically, they are connected to activity of the vagus nerve and corresponding adaptive heart rate variability (HRV). HRV is an important physiological marker for overall health, and the body-mind connection. Therefore, there is significant value of training compassion to increase HRV and training HRV to facilitate compassion. Despite the significance of compassion in alleviating and preventing suffering, there remain difficulties in its precise assessment. HRV offers a useful form of measurement to assess and train compassion. Specific examples of what exercises can facilitate HRV and how to measure HRV will be described. This paper argues that the field of compassion science needs to move toward including HRV as a primary outcome measure in its future assessment and training, due to its connection to vagal regulatory activity, and its link to overall health and well-being.
    • The dark side of competition: How competitive behaviour and striving to avoid inferiority are linked to depression, anxiety, stress and self-harm.

      Gilbert, Paul; McEwan, Kirsten; Bellew, Rebecca; Mills, Alison; Gale, Corinne; University of Derby (British Psychological Society, 2009-06)
      This study was guided by the social rank theory of depression and aimed to explore the relationship between depression, anxiety, stress and self‐harm with striving to avoid inferiority, feelings of shame and styles of attachment. Participants diagnosed with depression (n=62) completed a series of questionnaires measuring striving to avoid inferiority, fears of missing out, being overlooked and active rejection, attachment, social rank and psychopathologies. Striving to avoid inferiority was significantly linked to social rank variables and anxious attachment. Mediator analyses revealed that the relationship between striving to avoid inferiority and depression was mediated by the social rank variable of external shame, and also anxious attachment. These findings suggest that elevated competitive behaviour can have a ‘dark side’. When people feel insecure in their social environments, it can focus them on a hierarchical view of themselves and others, with a fear of rejection if they feel they have become too inferior or subordinate. This may increase vulnerability to depression, anxiety and stress.