• Using the theoretical domains framework to improve access to cervical screening for women with intellectual disabilities

      Whitelegg, Victoria; Elander, James; University of Derby (British Psychological Society, 2020-07-03)
      Regular attendance for screening can prevent most cervical cancers, but women with learning disabilities are potentially at greater risk of developing and dying from cervical cancer because current screening processes and practices create inequitable barriers, restricting their access to screening. In response, an objective of Public Health England’s 2018 ‘Screening Inequalities Strategy’ was to reduce inequalities through ‘evidence-based contributions’ to policy and best practice (Public Health England, 2018b). Health psychologists could contribute to this objective by facilitating collaborative work with cervical screening practitioners using the Theoretical Domains Framework. This enables health psychology evidence and theory, combined with the perceptions and experiences of screening practitioners, to identify relevant barriers and enablers to access, and this information can inform interventions and policy changes to make cervical screening programmes more open and effective for women with learning disabilities.
    • Using webinars to support your continuing professional development

      Bryson, David; University of Derby (Taylor & Francis, 2020-10-08)
      The transition from face to face to online learning in response to COVD-19 has massively increased the availability of webinars and other online learning experiences whether virtual meetings with colleagues or even the conversion of conferences into a webinar series. This transformation is especially advantageous for organisations whose members are so widespread geographically that regional meetings can be difficult to attend.
    • Validação da escala percepção de autoeficácia daparentalidade materna em amostra brasileira

      Adamson-Macedo, Elvidina N.; Tristao, Rosana; Neiva , Elaine; Barnes, Christopher; University of Derby; University of Oxford; Universidade de Brasília; University of Wolverhampton (Revista Brasileira de Crescimento e Desenvolvimento Humano, 2015-10-25)
      Self-efficacy matches the belief that a person has that she is able to produce theresults she wants to achieve. The beliefs of self-efficacy that parents have about the baby emerge asa powerful predictor of positive parenting. Objective: this study aimed to evaluate the maternalself-efficacy behavior in hospitalized mothers and validate an instrument for measuring this conceptdeveloped and validated in England by Barnes and Adamson-Macedo, in 2007. Method: this cross-sectional exploratory study convenience cohort comprised 87 mothers of newborn babies, 26premature and 61 full-term infants. The scale Perceived Maternal Parenting Self-Efficacy (PMP S-E),which consists of 20 items that represent four subscales was tested for reliability and validity. Results:the internal consistency of the scale PAEPM reached a value of .86, the internal consistency andreliability estimates for each of the subscales also reached acceptable values. Exploratory FactorAnalysis (EFA) confirmed the validity of the construct and the scores of self-efficacy were normallydistributed for both subgroups and total sample. Conclusions: PMP S-E scale proved to be an easyapplication tool and psychometrically robust, reliable and valid for use with mothers of hospitalizednew-borns both premature as the term clinically stable. It is a reliable method of identifying mothersof babies who need more support from the hospital staff.
    • Validation of the English version of the scale for psychosocial factors in food allergy and the relationship with mental health, quality of life, and self-efficacy

      Knibb, Rebecca C.; Cortes, Aaron; Barnes, Christopher; Stalker, Carol; Aston University; University of Derby; Universidad de Chile Clinical Hospital (2016-08-21)
      Background. The Scale for Psychosocial Factors in Food Allergy (SPS-FA) is based on the biopsychosocial model of health and was developed and validated in Chile to measure the interaction between psychological variables and allergy symptoms in the child. We sought to validate this scale in an English speaking population and explore its relationship with parental quality of life, self-efficacy, and mental health. Methods. Parents (𝑛 = 434) from the general population in the UK, who had a child with a clinical diagnosis of food allergy, completed the SPS-FA and validated scales on food allergy specific parental quality of life (QoL), parental self-efficacy, and general mental health. Findings. The SPS-FA had good internal consistency (alphas = .61–.86). Higher scores on the SPS-FA significantly correlated with poorer parental QoL, self-efficacy, and mental health. All predictors explained 57% of the variance in SPS-FA scores with QoL as the biggest predictor (𝛽 = .52). Discussion. The SPS-FA is a valid scale for use in the UK and provides a holistic view of the impact of food allergy on the family. In conjunction with health-related QoL measures, it can be used by health care practitioners to target care for patients and evaluate psychological interventions for improvement of food allergy management.
    • Validation of the HADRIAN system using an ATM evaluation case study

      Summerskill, Steve; Marshall, Russell; Case, Keith; Gyi, Diane E.; Sims, Ruth; Davis, Peter; Day, Philip N.; Rohan, C.; Birnie, S.; Loughborough University (2010)
      The HADRIAN human modelling system is under development as part of the EPSRC funded AUNT-SUE project. The HADRIAN system aims to foster a 'design for all' ethos by allowing ergonomists and designers to see the effects of different kinds of disability on the physical capabilities of elderly and people with disabilities. This system is based upon the long established SAMMIE system, and uses data collected from 102 people, 79 of whom are registered as disabled, or have age related mobility issues. The HADRIAN system allows three dimensional CAD data of new products to be imported, with a subsequent automated analysis using all of the 102 sample members. The following paper describes the process and results gathered from a validation study using an ATM design as a case study. The results indicated that fine tuning of the behavioural data built into HADRIAN would improve the accuracy of an automated product analysis.
    • Validation of the HADRIAN system using an ATM evaluation case study

      Summerskill, Steve; Marshall, Russell; Case, Keith; Gyi, Diane E.; Sims, Ruth; Davis, Peter; Loughborough University (2009)
      The HADRIAN human modelling system is under development as part of the EPSRC funded AUNT-SUE project. The HADRIAN system aims to foster a ‘design for all’ ethos by allowing ergonomists and designers to see the effects of different kinds of disability on the physical capabilities of elderly and disabled people. This system is based upon the long established SAMMIE system, and uses data collected from 102 people, 79 of whom are registered as disabled, or have age related mobility issues. The HADRIAN system allows three dimensional CAD data of new products to be imported, with a subsequent automated analysis using all of the 102 sample members. The following paper describes the process and results gathered from a validation study using an ATM design as a case study. The results indicated that fine tuning of the behavioural data built into HADRIAN would improve the accuracy of an automated product analysis.
    • Virtual fitting trails using SAMMIE and HADRIAN

      Marshall, Russell; Porter, J. Mark; Case, Keith; Sims, Ruth; Gyi, Diane E.; Loughborough University (2003)
      Fitting trials are a common technique employed in ergonomics evaluation. Fitting trials employ a panel of users carefully selected to be representative of the population at which the product, or environment, has been targeted. The panel are then used to evaluate the design against a set of criteria in order to determine a level of suitability of the design. Whilst traditionally this process has taken place with real people and full size mock-ups, increasingly the process is becoming computer supported and makes use of CAD models and human manikins in a ‘virtual’ fitting trial. The use of these technologies can clearly play a key role in supporting user-centred design, however, there are a number of shortcomings in the current technology, data, and infrastructure used for computer aided ergonomics evaluations in design. This paper will introduce HADRIAN, a computer aided ergonomics analysis tool developed at Loughborough University. HADRIAN works together with the existing system SAMMIE. The paper will focus on the novel aspects of the systems demonstrating how, together they may be employed to not only make virtual fitting trails more efficacious but also encourage empathy with the end user.
    • Virtual task analysis in 'design for all'.

      Marshall, Russell; Case, Keith; Porter, J. Mark; Gyi, Diane E.; Sims, Ruth; Loughborough University (2003)
      Design for All’ or ‘Inclusive Design’ is an approach to product, environment or service design that aims to maximise the applicability of a particular design. However, the concept is not to tailor designs in a bespoke fashion, but rather to provide a single solution that accommodates the needs of all users including those who are older or disabled. In order to educate and support the designer in their endeavours to ‘Design for All’ a computer aided design and analysis tool has been developed. The tool, known as HADRIAN, has been developed to meet two key areas of deficiency in existing approaches. HADRIAN provides improved data for the designer with a sample database of 100 individuals across a broad spectrum of ages and abilities. HADRIAN also provides a means of using this data for ergonomics evaluations through a task analysis tool. Working in combination with the existing human modelling system SAMMIE the system allows the designer to assess their designs against the population in the database to determine the percentage who are effectively ‘designed out’.
    • Virtual task simulation for inclusive design.

      Marshall, Russell; Case, Keith; Summerskill, Steve; Sims, Ruth; Gyi, Diane E.; Davis, Peter; Loughborough University (2009)
      Human modelling tools provide a means to perform virtual task evaluations upon designs within the computer environment. The ability to evaluate the accommodation of a design early on in the design process before physical prototypes can be built has many advantages. These advantages are particularly relevant in supporting people in attempting to design products that are inclusive and accessible. HADRIAN is a new tool developed to provide accessible, and applicable data on people with a broad range of size, age, and ability together with a means of optimising virtual task evaluations. This paper describes the use of HADRIAN in performing a task evaluation, focusing on the underlying methodology that aims to achieve a virtual simulation that mimics a real world user trial.
    • Visual processing speeds in children

      Maratos, Frances A.; Croker, Steve; University of Derby (Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2011-03)
      The aim of this study was to investigate visual processing speeds in children. A rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task with schematic faces as stimuli was given to ninety-nine 6–10-year-old children as well as a short form of the WISC-III. Participants were asked to determine whether a happy face stimulus was embedded in a stream of distracter stimuli. Presentation time was gradually reduced from 500 ms per stimulus to 100 ms per stimulus, in 50 ms steps. The data revealed that (i) RSVP speed increases with age, (ii) children aged 8 years and over can discriminate stimuli presented every 100 ms—the speed typically used with RSVP procedures in adult and adolescent populations, and (iii) RSVP speed is significantly correlated with digit span and object assembly. In consequence, the RSVP paradigm presented here is appropriate for use in further investigations of processes of temporal attention within this cohort.
    • The vulnerability of rules in complex work environments: dynamism and uncertainty pose problems for cognition

      Clewley, Richard; Stupple, Edward J. N.; University of Derby (2015-01-15)
      Many complex work environments rely heavily on cognitive operators using rules. Operators sometimes fail to implement rules, with catastrophic human, social and economic costs. Rule-based error is widely reported, yet the mechanisms of rule vulnerability have received less attention. This paper examines rule vulnerability in the complex setting of airline transport operations. We examined ‘the stable approach criteria rule’, which acts as a system defence during the approach to land. The study experimentally tested whether system state complexity influenced rule failure. The results showed increased uncertainty and dynamism led to increased likelihood of rule failure. There was also an interaction effect, indicating complexity from different sources can combine to further constrain rule-based response. We discuss the results in relation to recent aircraft accidents and suggest that ‘rule-based error’ could be progressed to embrace rule vulnerability, fragility and failure. This better reflects the influence that system behaviour and cognitive variety have on rule-based response. Practitioner Summary: In this study, we examined mechanisms of rule vulnerability in the complex setting of airline transport operations. The results suggest work scenarios featuring high uncertainty and dynamism constrain rule-based response, leading to rules becoming vulnerable, fragile or failing completely. This has significant implications for rule-intensive, safety critical work environments.
    • “We all had an experience in there together”: a discursive psychological analysis of collaborative paranormal accounts by paranormal investigation Team members

      Childs, Carrie; Murray, Craig D. (Taylor and Francis, 2013-05-24)
      This is a study of the verbal accounts of paranormal investigators. The focus of analysis is upon the rhetorical organization of event descriptions in ways that establish the factual status of reports in order to highlight the inherent problems associated with current understandings of reports of spontaneous cases. Drawing upon a corpus of interviews conducted with six investigation group members, analysis was conducted using discursive psychology, in particular the rhetorical approach, with an examination of the ways in which accounts were presented and the interactional consequences of describing events in particular ways. Analysis revealed how speakers worked to imply the paranormal status of events while avoiding explicitly labelling experiences as “paranormal.” By focussing upon the production of event descriptions, the construction of intersubjectivity and the importance of the context in which accounts are elicited, the current work has implications for the way in which parapsychologists currently utilize and understand accounts of spontaneous cases.
    • "We've been exploring and adventuring." A investigation into young people's engagement with a semi wild, disused space

      Hallam, Jenny; Gallagher, Laurel; Harvey, Caroline; University of Derby (APA, 2019-10-24)
      This paper uses ethnography to explore young people’s engagement with an intervention run by Feral Spaces which was designed to promote a meaningful connection to a disused space. Over the course of three sessions, each lasting two hours, seven young people aged between 11 and 12 years old took part in a range of den building activities in a semi-wild area which was local to them. The sessions were recorded using audio and video equipment and an inductive thematic analysis informed by a realist framework was used to analyse the naturalistic data collected. The analysis presents four themes - engaging with the environment, developing a sense of awe and wonder, respect and attachment to the space and a sense of belonging which map out the young people’s growing connection to nature evidenced during the intervention. Within each of these themes the young people’s experiences are discussed in relation to theory of biophilia and the pathways to nature model in order to evaluate their relevance for researchers and practitioners who seek to understand children’s connection with nature and promote it. Furthermore, the positive relationships and emotions experienced during the intervention are explored. It is argued that the community-based intervention developed the young people’s understandings of the natural world and their confidence to engage with it in a personally meaningful way. This had positive implications in terms of supporting the young people’s wellbeing.
    • What drives prioritized visual processing? A motivational relevance account

      Maratos, Frances A.; Pessoa, Luiz; University of Derby; University of Maryland (Elsevier, 2019-04-29)
      Emotion is fundamental to our being, and an essential aspect guiding behavior when rapid responding is required. This includes whether we approach or avoid a stimulus, and the accompanying physiological responses. A common tenet is that threat-related content drives stimulus processing and biases visual attention, so that rapid responding can be initiated. In this paper, it will be argued instead that prioritization of threatening stimuli should be encompassed within a motivational relevance framework. To more fully understand what is, or is not, prioritized for visual processing one must, however, additionally consider: (i) stimulus ambiguity and perceptual saliency; (ii) task demands, including both perceptual load and cognitive load; and (iii) endogenous/affective states of the individual. Combined with motivational relevance, this then leads to a multifactorial approach to understanding the drivers of prioritized visual processing. This accords with current recognition that the brain basis allowing for visual prioritization is also multifactorial, including transient, dynamic and overlapping networks. Taken together, the paper provides a reconceptualization of how “emotional” information prioritizes visual processing.
    • What is acceptance, and how could it affect health outcomes for people receiving renal dialysis?

      Stalker, Carol; Elander, James; Mitchell, Kathryn; Taal, Maarten W.; Selby, Nicholas; Stewart, Paul; University of Derby; University of Nottingham (British Psychological Society, 2018-07-20)
      Renal dialysis is a life-saving treatment for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) but is burdensome, invasive and expensive. Patients’ experiences of dialysis and the outcomes of their treatment could potentially be improved by focusing on ‘acceptance’. However, the concept of acceptance has been used in different ways. This article examines ways that acceptance has been conceptualised in research on chronic illness generally and ESRD specifically, and makes proposals for research to understand better what acceptance means for people with ESRD. The aim is to assist the development of acceptance-related measures and interventions to support people with ESRD.
    • When is a face a face? Schematic faces, emotion, attention and the N170

      Maratos, Frances A.; Garner, Matthew; Karl, Anke; Hogan, Alexandra M.; University of Derby (AIMS Press, 2015-09-11)
      Emotional facial expressions provide important non-verbal cues as to the imminent behavioural intentions of a second party. Hence, within emotion science the processing of faces (emotional or otherwise) has been at the forefront of research. Notably, however, such research has led to a number of debates including the ecological validity of utilising schematic faces in emotion research, and the face-selectively of N170. In order to investigate these issues, we explored the extent to which N170 is modulated by schematic faces, emotional expression and/or selective attention. Eighteen participants completed a three-stimulus oddball paradigm with two scrambled faces as the target and standard stimuli (counter-balanced across participants), and schematic angry, happy and neutral faces as the oddball stimuli. Results revealed that the magnitude of the N170 associated with the target stimulus was: (i) significantly greater than that elicited by the standard stimulus, (ii) comparable with the N170 elicited by the neutral and happy schematic face stimuli, and (iii) significantly reduced compared to the N170 elicited by the angry schematic face stimulus. These findings extend current literature by demonstrating N170 can be modulated by events other than those associated with structural face encoding; i.e. here, the act of labelling a stimulus a ‘target’ to attend to modulated the N170 response. Additionally, the observation that schematic faces demonstrate similar N170 responses to those recorded for real faces and, akin to real faces, angry schematic faces demonstrated heightened N170 responses, suggests caution should be taken before disregarding schematic facial stimuli in emotion processing research per se.
    • When logic and belief collide: Individual differences in reasoning times support a selective processing model

      Stupple, Edward J. N.; Ball, Linden J.; Evans, Jonathan St. B. T.; Kamal-Smith, Emily; University of Derby; Lancaster University; University of Plymouth; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2011-12)
      When the validity of a deductive conclusion conflicts with its believability people often respond in a belief-biased manner. This study used response times to test the selective processing model, which views belief-bias effects as arising from the interplay between superficial heuristic processes and more rigorous analytic processes. Participants were split into three response groups according to their propensity to endorse logically normative conclusions. The low-logic, high belief-bias group demonstrated rapid responding, consistent with heuristic processing. The medium-logic, moderate belief-bias group showed slower responding, consistent with enhanced analytic processing, albeit selectively biased by conclusion believability. The high-logic, low belief-bias group's relatively unbiased responses came at the cost of increased processing times, especially with invalid-believable conclusions. These findings support selective processing claims that distinct heuristic and analytic processing systems underpin reasoning, and indicate that certain individuals differentially engage one system more than the other. A minor amendment is proposed to the current selective processing model to capture the full range of observed effects.
    • Who thrives under pressure? predicting the performance of elite academy cricketers using the cardiovascular indicators of challenge and threat states

      Turner, Martin J.; Jones, Marc V.; Sheffield, David; Slater, Matthew J.; Barker, Jamie B.; Bell, James J.; Staffordshire University, Centre for Sport, Health and Exercise Research; University of Derby, Centre for Psychological Research (2013-08)
      This study assessed whether cardiovascular (CV) reactivity patterns indexing challenge and threat states predicted batting performance in elite male county (N = 12) and national (N = 30) academy cricketers. Participants completed a batting test under pressure, before which CV reactivity was recorded in response to ego-threatening audio instructions. Self-reported self-efficacy, control, achievement goals, and emotions were also assessed. Challenge CV reactivity predicted superior performance in the Batting Test, compared with threat CV reactivity. The relationships between self-report measures and CV reactivity, and self-report measures and performance were inconsistent. A small subsample of participants who exhibited threat CV reactivity, but performed well, reported greater self-efficacy than participants who exhibited threat CV reactivity, but performed poorly. Also a small subsample of participants who exhibited challenge reactivity, but performed poorly, had higher avoidance goals than participants with challenge reactivity who performed well. The mechanisms for the observed relationship between CV reactivity and performance are discussed alongside implications for future research and applied practice.
    • Working out of the ‘toolbox’: an exploratory study with complementary therapists in acute cancer care

      McLaren, Natasha; Mackereth, Peter; Hackman, Eileen; Holland, Fiona G.; University of Derby; The Christie NHS Foundation Trust (Elsevier, 2013-12)
      Aims: The aim of this research was to explore and capture therapists’ experiences of and preparation for working with patients in an acute cancer care setting. Method: Semi structured interviews with therapists (n=18) in an acute cancer hospital in the North West of England. The interviews were transcribed and analysed using thematic coding. Results: Key themes identified included; the need for a ‘tool box’ that goes beyond initial training, building confidence with adapting these new skills in practice, helping patients to become empowered, the need to support carers, research evidence and resources issues, and the role of supervision. Conclusion: This study was limited by being set in a single acute cancer site. Therapists valued having a ‘tool box’ but needed confidence and support to navigate the challenges of clinical practice.