• Three insights gained – Delivering doctoral supervision training

      Lipka, Sigrid; University of Derby (2017-02-15)
      The student-supervisor relationship is one of the most important factors impacting on doctoral student satisfaction and successful completion rates (see e.g., Hodsdon & Buckley 2011; Kulej & Park 2008). Given the complex nature of this relationship and the range of functions it serves, key questions are whether and how doctoral supervisors can be taught to build successful supervisory relationships. This talk focusses on a research supervision training programme for new doctoral supervisors that has been designed by myself and colleagues. It is delivered in three, 3-hour long sessions spread over three months. The training covers key challenges of the supervisory relationship, i.e., identifying a good research applicant, research ethics, managing supervisory relationships, progress monitoring and effective feedback, preparing for the thesis write up/viva and student career management. The training aims to build i) practical skills required to deal with these challenges and ii) knowledge and critical evaluation of local and national regulations and requirements as well as pedagogical literature relating to these challenges. Three insights gained from running the training over a period of more than five years will be discussed. It is concluded that delivering doctoral supervision training does work, in line with e.g., McCulloch & Loeser (2016). It is recommended that employers facilitate ongoing supervisory training and opportunities for reflecting on supervisory practice. It is suggested that further research is needed on two fronts: i) to define the behaviours and knowledge that a doctoral supervisor needs in order to build a trusting supervisory relationship and ii) to establish valid methods for evaluating the changes that supervisory trainings create.
    • Thresholds of size: An interpretative phenomenological analysis of childhood messages around food, body, health and weight.

      Holland, Fiona G.; Peterson, Karin; Archer, Stephanie; University of Derby; University of North Carolina Asheville; Imperial College London (Open Journal Systems, 2018-05-04)
      This study explores the lived experiences of non-dieting, middle-aged Western women classified as ‘overweight’ or ‘obese’ on BMI charts. Qualitative research that has focused on non-weight loss experiences with this population has been rare. This study aims to allow their experiences to be heard within the mainstream health literature. Four women from aged 40-55 were interviewed about their early messages and experiences around food, body, health and weight. An interpretative phenomenological analysis was conducted. Three themes were identified: 1) family culture and body norms 2) thresholds of size and 3) action and outcome. Participants identified a range of influences upon their early body appraisal, with parents, extended family, peers and community members contributing to their understanding of what constituted as an acceptable size. The impact upon their sense of identity and emotional wellbeing is discussed. This study contributes to the role of the modelling and messages around size and value given by important others and the psychological ramifications these can have over time.
    • Transport planning guidelines for vulnerable road user safety in emerging economies.

      Quigley, Claire; Sims, Ruth; Hill, Julian; Tripodi, Antonino; Persia, Luca; Pietrantonio, Hugo; Kharat, Mahendra; Loughborough University (2012)
      With the rapid expanse of motorised traffic in countries such as Brazil and India, the safety of vulnerable road users (VRUs) needs to be a key component in any transportation development. It should be considered what can be learnt from European transport planning experiences. This review identifies current good practice in Europe and considers how VRU safety is considered in the process. Based on this review, recommendations are given for:Stakeholder participation; •The development of a step by step planning process; •The implementation of VRU principles into the process. •An assessment of the feasibility and implications for safety of applying European practice to Emerging Economies is also given. Keywords Transport planning; European best practice; Vulnerable Road User Safety; Emerging Economies; India; Brazil
    • ‘Trying to bring attention to your body when you’re not sure where it is’: An interpretative phenomenological analysis of drivers and barriers to mindfulness for people with spinal cord injury

      Hearn, Jasmine Heath; Finlay, Katherine Anne; Sheffield, David; University of Derby; Manchester Metropolitan University; The University of Buckingham (Wiley, 2020-08-04)
      Work is beginning to explore the impact of mindfulness in managing the physical and psychological health of people with spinal cord injury (SCI). However, no previous work has sought to understand what drives people with such conditions to try mindfulness, and what barriers are experienced in accessing mindfulness. An exploratory, qualitative, interview design, utilizing interpretative phe- nomenological analysis. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 people with SCI who had experience of mindfulness since sustaining their injury. Verbatim transcripts were analysed using IPA to understand the lived experience of mindfulness post-SCI. Analysis suggested that managing physical and mental health, and viewing mindfulness as proactive and protective were key drivers for exploring mindfulness. However, multiple barriers to accessing opportunities and developing capability impeded engagement. These included the focus on areas of the body that participants had reduced sensation in, physical environments that could not be navigated in a wheelchair, social stigma surrounding the use of mindfulness, and a sense of obligation and risk of failure implied by perceived requirements for engagement. The results demonstrate the need for specific interventions to accom- modate the reduced sensory and physical function experienced by people with neurological conditions and to enhance sense of control and autonomy. In addition, recommendations include minimizing the stigma surrounding mindfulness, and the potentially demotivating impact of the perception of ‘failing’ to engage.
    • Turning assault into a “harmless prank”— teenage perspectives on happy slapping

      Palasinski, Marek; University of Derby (Sage, 2013-05-01)
      The article describes the ways in which 41 adolescents from three large English cities discussed the phenomenon of happy slapping, which is typically defined as recording a physical assault on an unsuspecting victim on a cameraenabled phone for Internet upload. Using discourse analysis, the construal of motivations for its creation and watching is explored, elaborating on social, cultural, and legal implications. The identified repertoires (creation of comedy, denial of grievous bodily harm, accomplice-witness ambiguity, and reflection of postmodern culture) caution against attributing happy slapping just to boredom, as the mainstream British press does and puts spotlight on other factors, like seeking originality and keeping “pranks” under control. Concluding with the apparent similarities between the discursive worlds inhabited by unconvicted adolescents and convicted offenders, this study provides a theoretical platform for further research on the subtle and intriguing overlap.
    • A two-gene balance regulates Salmonella typhimurium tolerance in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

      Marsh, Elizabeth K; van den Berg, Maaike C W; May, Robin C; University of Birmingham (Public Library of Science, 2011-03-02)
      Lysozymes are antimicrobial enzymes that perform a critical role in resisting infection in a wide-range of eukaryotes. However, using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a model host we now demonstrate that deletion of the protist type lysozyme LYS-7 renders animals susceptible to killing by the fatal fungal human pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans, but, remarkably, enhances tolerance to the enteric bacteria Salmonella Typhimurium. This trade-off in immunological susceptibility in C. elegans is further mediated by the reciprocal activity of lys-7 and the tyrosine kinase abl-1. Together this implies a greater complexity in C. elegans innate immune function than previously thought.
    • Understanding the causes of problematic pain management in sickle cell disease: evidence that pseudoaddiction plays a more important role than genuine analgesic dependence

      Elander, James; Lusher, Joanne; Bevan, David; Telfer, Paul; Burton, Bernice; University of Derby (2004)
      Treatment of painful episodes in sickle cell disease (SCD) is sometimes complicated by disputes between patients and staff and patient behaviors that raise concerns about analgesic misuse. Those concern-raising behaviors could indicate either drug seeking caused by analgesic dependence or pseudoaddiction caused by undertreatment of pain. To make a systematic assessment of concern-raising behaviors and examine their associations with other factors, including DSM-IV symptoms of substance dependence, individual, in-depth interviews with SCD patients were conducted to apply pre-established criteria for concernraising behaviors. These included disputes with staff, tampering with analgesic delivery systems, passing prescribed analgesics from one person to another, being suspected or accused of analgesic misuse, self-discharging from hospital, obtaining analgesic prescriptions from multiple sources, using illicit drugs, and injecting analgesics. Assessments were also made of pain-related symptoms of substance dependence (where behaviors resemble substance dependence but reflect attempts to manage pain, increasing the risk of pseudoaddiction), non-pain-related symptoms of substance dependence (where substance dependence reflects analgesic use beyond pain management), and pain coping strategies (using the Pain Coping Strategies Questionnaire). Inter-rater reliability for the assessment of concern-raising behaviors was high, with Kappa coefficients of 0.63 to 1.0. The most frequent concern-raising behaviors were disputes with staff about pain or analgesics. The least frequent were tampering with analgesic delivery systems and passing analgesics between patients in hospital. The odds of concern-raising behaviors in hospital were raised eightfold by less use of ignoring pain as a coping strategy, and more than doubled by each additional pain-related symptom of substance dependence. Non-painrelated symptoms of substance dependence had no independent effect on concern-raising behaviors. Concern-raising behaviors were more closely associated with pain behaviors that make patients vulnerable to misperceptions of substance dependence than they were with genuine substance dependence. The results show how pseudoaddiction can adversely influence hospital pain management, and suggest that more emphasis should be placed on patients’ pain and analgesic needs when responding to concern-raising behaviors in hospital.
    • The use of an e-learning module on return to work advice for physiotherapists - A prospective cohort study.

      Chance-Larsen, Fiona; Chance-Larsen, Kenneth; Divanoglou, Anestis; Baird, Andrew; Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust; University of Central Lancashire; University of Iceland; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2018-06-20)
      Nonspecific low back pain (LBP) can progress to chronic disability and prolonged absence from work. Despite clinical and professional guidelines, physiotherapists often fail to address return to work outcomes. The aim of this exploratory study was to determine whether an e-learning resource tailored to physiotherapy practice could affect physiotherapists’ attitudes and beliefs regarding return to work advice for their patients. Design: A prospective interventional cohort study (pilot). Methods: Participants were recruited via the Chartered Society of Physiotherapy website. Responses on a clinical vignette, the Health Care Providers’ Pain and Impairment Scale (HC-Pairs), and the Behavioral Constructs Questionnaire (BCQ) were collected online at baseline (Q1) and 2-months post-intervention (Q2). Fifty-four physiotherapists completed Q1 and the response rate for Q2 was 44/54 (81%). Changes in the degree of agreement with guidelines indicated that the intervention made an impact on respondents (kappa 0.345; p = 0.003). HC-Pairs and BCQ results showed a nonstatistically significant trend toward the target behavior. There is a need for interventions to improve adherence with advice for return to work following nonspecific LBP. An e-learning tool for physiotherapists on advising patients regarding return to work has potential to positively affect self-reported clinical behavior.
    • Using Hadrian for eliciting virtual user feedback in 'Design For All'

      Marshall, Russell; Porter, J. Mark; Case, Keith; Sims, Ruth; Gyi, Diane E.; Loughborough University (2004)
      Design for All' is an approach to product, environment or service design that aims to maximise the usability of a particular design. However, a key concept of this approach is not to tailor designs to the user in a bespoke fashion, but rather to provide a single solution that accommodates the needs of all users including those who are older or disabled. In order to support the designer / design team in ‘Design for All’ a computer aided design and analysis tool has been developed. The tool, known as HADRIAN, has been developed to address two critical factors. The first factor is the provision of accurate and applicable data on the target users including a broad spectrum of size, shape, age and ability. The second factor is an efficient and effective means of utilising the data for ergonomics evaluations during the concept stages of design. HADRIAN’s database and task analysis tool work in combination with the existing human modelling system SAMMIE. The system as a whole allows assessment of a design against the population in the database providing a means to elicit some of the feedback that might be gained by real user trials at a stage in the design process when physical mock-ups and user group selection would be prohibitively time consuming and expensive.
    • Using journal alerts to support your continuing professional development

      Bryson, David; University of Derby (Taylor & Francis, 2020-04-06)
      There are many ways to keep up to date with research that affect your role and personal development. You can regularly use PubMed or Scholar to find recent papers using keyword search, you can rely on others to do the work for you with literature reviews, share the job with Journal clubs or using Journal alerts you can have the papers and research you want delivered to your inbox.
    • Using the theoretical domains framework to improve access to cervical screening for women with intellectual disabilities

      Whitelegg, Victoria; Elander, James; University of Derby (British Psychological Society, 2020-07-03)
      Regular attendance for screening can prevent most cervical cancers, but women with learning disabilities are potentially at greater risk of developing and dying from cervical cancer because current screening processes and practices create inequitable barriers, restricting their access to screening. In response, an objective of Public Health England’s 2018 ‘Screening Inequalities Strategy’ was to reduce inequalities through ‘evidence-based contributions’ to policy and best practice (Public Health England, 2018b). Health psychologists could contribute to this objective by facilitating collaborative work with cervical screening practitioners using the Theoretical Domains Framework. This enables health psychology evidence and theory, combined with the perceptions and experiences of screening practitioners, to identify relevant barriers and enablers to access, and this information can inform interventions and policy changes to make cervical screening programmes more open and effective for women with learning disabilities.
    • Using webinars to support your continuing professional development

      Bryson, David; University of Derby (Taylor & Francis, 2020-10-08)
      The transition from face to face to online learning in response to COVD-19 has massively increased the availability of webinars and other online learning experiences whether virtual meetings with colleagues or even the conversion of conferences into a webinar series. This transformation is especially advantageous for organisations whose members are so widespread geographically that regional meetings can be difficult to attend.
    • Validação da escala percepção de autoeficácia daparentalidade materna em amostra brasileira

      Adamson-Macedo, Elvidina N.; Tristao, Rosana; Neiva , Elaine; Barnes, Christopher; University of Derby; University of Oxford; Universidade de Brasília; University of Wolverhampton (Revista Brasileira de Crescimento e Desenvolvimento Humano, 2015-10-25)
      Self-efficacy matches the belief that a person has that she is able to produce theresults she wants to achieve. The beliefs of self-efficacy that parents have about the baby emerge asa powerful predictor of positive parenting. Objective: this study aimed to evaluate the maternalself-efficacy behavior in hospitalized mothers and validate an instrument for measuring this conceptdeveloped and validated in England by Barnes and Adamson-Macedo, in 2007. Method: this cross-sectional exploratory study convenience cohort comprised 87 mothers of newborn babies, 26premature and 61 full-term infants. The scale Perceived Maternal Parenting Self-Efficacy (PMP S-E),which consists of 20 items that represent four subscales was tested for reliability and validity. Results:the internal consistency of the scale PAEPM reached a value of .86, the internal consistency andreliability estimates for each of the subscales also reached acceptable values. Exploratory FactorAnalysis (EFA) confirmed the validity of the construct and the scores of self-efficacy were normallydistributed for both subgroups and total sample. Conclusions: PMP S-E scale proved to be an easyapplication tool and psychometrically robust, reliable and valid for use with mothers of hospitalizednew-borns both premature as the term clinically stable. It is a reliable method of identifying mothersof babies who need more support from the hospital staff.
    • Validation of the English version of the scale for psychosocial factors in food allergy and the relationship with mental health, quality of life, and self-efficacy

      Knibb, Rebecca C.; Cortes, Aaron; Barnes, Christopher; Stalker, Carol; Aston University; University of Derby; Universidad de Chile Clinical Hospital (2016-08-21)
      Background. The Scale for Psychosocial Factors in Food Allergy (SPS-FA) is based on the biopsychosocial model of health and was developed and validated in Chile to measure the interaction between psychological variables and allergy symptoms in the child. We sought to validate this scale in an English speaking population and explore its relationship with parental quality of life, self-efficacy, and mental health. Methods. Parents (𝑛 = 434) from the general population in the UK, who had a child with a clinical diagnosis of food allergy, completed the SPS-FA and validated scales on food allergy specific parental quality of life (QoL), parental self-efficacy, and general mental health. Findings. The SPS-FA had good internal consistency (alphas = .61–.86). Higher scores on the SPS-FA significantly correlated with poorer parental QoL, self-efficacy, and mental health. All predictors explained 57% of the variance in SPS-FA scores with QoL as the biggest predictor (𝛽 = .52). Discussion. The SPS-FA is a valid scale for use in the UK and provides a holistic view of the impact of food allergy on the family. In conjunction with health-related QoL measures, it can be used by health care practitioners to target care for patients and evaluate psychological interventions for improvement of food allergy management.
    • Validation of the HADRIAN system using an ATM evaluation case study

      Summerskill, Steve; Marshall, Russell; Case, Keith; Gyi, Diane E.; Sims, Ruth; Davis, Peter; Day, Philip N.; Rohan, C.; Birnie, S.; Loughborough University (2010)
      The HADRIAN human modelling system is under development as part of the EPSRC funded AUNT-SUE project. The HADRIAN system aims to foster a 'design for all' ethos by allowing ergonomists and designers to see the effects of different kinds of disability on the physical capabilities of elderly and people with disabilities. This system is based upon the long established SAMMIE system, and uses data collected from 102 people, 79 of whom are registered as disabled, or have age related mobility issues. The HADRIAN system allows three dimensional CAD data of new products to be imported, with a subsequent automated analysis using all of the 102 sample members. The following paper describes the process and results gathered from a validation study using an ATM design as a case study. The results indicated that fine tuning of the behavioural data built into HADRIAN would improve the accuracy of an automated product analysis.
    • Validation of the HADRIAN system using an ATM evaluation case study

      Summerskill, Steve; Marshall, Russell; Case, Keith; Gyi, Diane E.; Sims, Ruth; Davis, Peter; Loughborough University (2009)
      The HADRIAN human modelling system is under development as part of the EPSRC funded AUNT-SUE project. The HADRIAN system aims to foster a ‘design for all’ ethos by allowing ergonomists and designers to see the effects of different kinds of disability on the physical capabilities of elderly and disabled people. This system is based upon the long established SAMMIE system, and uses data collected from 102 people, 79 of whom are registered as disabled, or have age related mobility issues. The HADRIAN system allows three dimensional CAD data of new products to be imported, with a subsequent automated analysis using all of the 102 sample members. The following paper describes the process and results gathered from a validation study using an ATM design as a case study. The results indicated that fine tuning of the behavioural data built into HADRIAN would improve the accuracy of an automated product analysis.
    • Virtual fitting trails using SAMMIE and HADRIAN

      Marshall, Russell; Porter, J. Mark; Case, Keith; Sims, Ruth; Gyi, Diane E.; Loughborough University (2003)
      Fitting trials are a common technique employed in ergonomics evaluation. Fitting trials employ a panel of users carefully selected to be representative of the population at which the product, or environment, has been targeted. The panel are then used to evaluate the design against a set of criteria in order to determine a level of suitability of the design. Whilst traditionally this process has taken place with real people and full size mock-ups, increasingly the process is becoming computer supported and makes use of CAD models and human manikins in a ‘virtual’ fitting trial. The use of these technologies can clearly play a key role in supporting user-centred design, however, there are a number of shortcomings in the current technology, data, and infrastructure used for computer aided ergonomics evaluations in design. This paper will introduce HADRIAN, a computer aided ergonomics analysis tool developed at Loughborough University. HADRIAN works together with the existing system SAMMIE. The paper will focus on the novel aspects of the systems demonstrating how, together they may be employed to not only make virtual fitting trails more efficacious but also encourage empathy with the end user.
    • Virtual task analysis in 'design for all'.

      Marshall, Russell; Case, Keith; Porter, J. Mark; Gyi, Diane E.; Sims, Ruth; Loughborough University (2003)
      Design for All’ or ‘Inclusive Design’ is an approach to product, environment or service design that aims to maximise the applicability of a particular design. However, the concept is not to tailor designs in a bespoke fashion, but rather to provide a single solution that accommodates the needs of all users including those who are older or disabled. In order to educate and support the designer in their endeavours to ‘Design for All’ a computer aided design and analysis tool has been developed. The tool, known as HADRIAN, has been developed to meet two key areas of deficiency in existing approaches. HADRIAN provides improved data for the designer with a sample database of 100 individuals across a broad spectrum of ages and abilities. HADRIAN also provides a means of using this data for ergonomics evaluations through a task analysis tool. Working in combination with the existing human modelling system SAMMIE the system allows the designer to assess their designs against the population in the database to determine the percentage who are effectively ‘designed out’.
    • Virtual task simulation for inclusive design.

      Marshall, Russell; Case, Keith; Summerskill, Steve; Sims, Ruth; Gyi, Diane E.; Davis, Peter; Loughborough University (2009)
      Human modelling tools provide a means to perform virtual task evaluations upon designs within the computer environment. The ability to evaluate the accommodation of a design early on in the design process before physical prototypes can be built has many advantages. These advantages are particularly relevant in supporting people in attempting to design products that are inclusive and accessible. HADRIAN is a new tool developed to provide accessible, and applicable data on people with a broad range of size, age, and ability together with a means of optimising virtual task evaluations. This paper describes the use of HADRIAN in performing a task evaluation, focusing on the underlying methodology that aims to achieve a virtual simulation that mimics a real world user trial.