• The business of the body

      Holland, Fiona G.; University of Derby (Federation of Holistic Therapists, 2015-12)
    • Caenorhabditis elegans, a model organism for investigating immunity.

      Marsh, Elizabeth K; May, Robin C; University of Birmingham (2012-03-09)
      The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been a powerful experimental organism for almost half a century. Over the past 10 years, researchers have begun to exploit the power of C. elegans to investigate the biology of a number of human pathogens. This work has uncovered mechanisms of host immunity and pathogen virulence that are analogous to those involved during pathogenesis in humans or other animal hosts, as well as novel immunity mechanisms which appear to be unique to the worm. More recently, these investigations have uncovered details of the natural pathogens of C. elegans, including the description of a novel intracellular microsporidian parasite as well as new nodaviruses, the first identification of viral infections of this nematode. In this review, we consider the application of C. elegans to human infectious disease research, as well as consider the nematode response to these natural pathogens.
    • Can compassion, happiness and sympathetic concern be differentiated on the basis of facial expression?

      Condliffe, Otto; Maratos, Frances A.; University of Shanghai; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2020-04-11)
      Recent research has demonstrated the importance of positive emotions, and especially compassion, for well-being. Via two investigations, we set out to determine if facial expressions of happiness, “kind” compassion and sympathetic concern can be distinguished, given limitations of previous research. In investigation one, prototypes of the three expressions were analysed for similarities and differences using the facial action coding system (FACS) by two certified independent coders. Results established that each expression comprised distinct FACS units. Thus, in investigation 2, a new photographic stimulus set was developed using a gender/racially balanced group of actors to pose these expressions of “kind” compassion, happiness, sympathetic concern, and the face in a relaxed/neutral pose. 75 participants were then asked to name the FACS generated expressions using not only forced categorical quantitative ratings but, importantly, free response. Results revealed that kind compassionate facial expressions: (i) engendered words associated with contented and affiliative emotions (although, interestingly, not the word “kind”); (ii) were labelled as compassionate significantly more often than any of the other emotional expressions; but (iii) in common with happiness expressions, engendered happiness word groupings and ratings. Findings have implications for understandings of positive emotions, including specificity of expressions and their veridicality.
    • Case study 2: HADRIAN: A human factors computer-aided inclusive design tool for transport planning.

      Porter, J. Mark; Marshall, Russell; Case, Keith; Gyi, Diane E.; Sims, Ruth; Summerskill, Steve; Loughborough University (Loughborough University. Published by The Institution of Engineering and Technology, 2006)
      HADRIAN is a computer-based inclusive design tool developed initially to support the design of kitchen and shopping based tasks. The tool is currently being expanded to include data on an individual’s ability to undertake a variety of transport-related tasks, such as vehicle ingress/egress, coping with uneven surfaces, steps, street furniture and complex pedestrian environments. A feature of the enhanced HADRIAN tool will be a journey planner that compares an individual’s physical, cognitive and emotional abilities with the demands that will placed upon that individual depending on the mode(s) of transport available and the route options.
    • Children's construction task performance and spatial ability: controlling task complexity and predicting mathematics performance.

      Richardson, Miles; Hunt, Thomas E.; Richardson, Cassandra; University of Derby (2014-12)
      This paper presents a methodology to control construction task complexity and examined the relationships between construction performance and spatial and mathematical abilities in children. The study included three groups of children (N = 96); ages 7-8, 10-11, and 13-14 years. Each group constructed seven pre-specified objects. The study replicated and extended previous findings that indicated that the extent of component symmetry and variety, and the number of components for each object and available for selection, significantly predicted construction task difficulty. Results showed that this methodology is a valid and reliable technique for assessing and predicting construction play task difficulty. Furthermore, construction play performance predicted mathematical attainment independently of spatial ability.
    • Children’s well-being and nature connectedness: Exploring the impact of a ‘3-good-things’ writing task on nature connectedness and well-being.

      Harvey, Caroline; Sheffield, David; Richardson, Miles; University of Derby (2016-09-10)
      The health benefits of being connected to nature are well documented amongst both adults and children therefore simple interventions that lead to greater connectedness are valuable. The ‘3-good-things’ writing task is a positive psychology intervention which has been shown to increase happiness and decrease depression. Focusing the 3-good-things writing tasks on nature related good things has been found to increase nature connection in a sample of adults and the present research extends this to explore the impact of the intervention on nature connectedness in children. Children (n= 167) aged 9-11 completed measures of nature connection, mindfulness and life satisfaction at three time points, before and after the intervention, and again approximately eight weeks later. The intervention consisted of writing 3 good things about nature that they noticed every day for 5 days, whilst the control group wrote about 3 things they had noticed. Data will be analysed using factorial mixed design analysis. Relationships between the dependent variables will be explored using multiple regression.
    • Chronic apelin analogue administration is more effective than established incretin therapies for alleviating metabolic dysfunction in diabetic db/db mice.

      O'Harte, Finbarr P M; Parthsarathy, Vadivel; Flatt, Peter R; University of Ulster (Elsevier, 2020-01-03)
      Stable apelin-13 peptide analogues have shown promising acute antidiabetic effects in mice with diet-induced obesity diabetes. Here the efficacy of (pGlu)apelin-13 amide (apelin amide) and the acylated analogue (pGlu)(Lys8GluPAL)apelin-13 amide (apelin FA), were examined following chronic administration in db/db mice, a genetic model of degenerative diabetes. Groups of 9-week old male db/db mice (n = 8) received twice daily injections (09:00 and 17:00 h; i.p.) or saline vehicle, apelin amide, apelin FA, or the established incretin therapies, exendin-4(1-39) or liraglutide, all at 25 nmol/kg body weight for 21 days. Control C57BL/6J mice were given saline twice daily. No changes in body weight or food intake were observed with either apelin or liraglutide treatments, but exendin-4 showed a reduction in cumulative food intake (p < 0.01) compared with saline-treated db/db mice. Apelin analogues and incretin mimetics induced sustained improvements of glycaemia (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001, from day 9-21), lowered HbA1c at 21 days (p < 0.05) and raised plasma insulin concentrations. The treatments also improved OGTT and ipGTT with enhanced insulin responses compared with saline-treated control db/db mice (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001). Apelin amide was superior to incretin mimetics in lowering plasma triglycerides by 34% (p < 0.05). Apelin analogues unlike both incretin mimetics reduced pancreatic α-cell area (p < 0.05 to p < 0.01) and all peptide treatments enhanced pancreatic insulin content (p < 0.05 to p < 0.01). In conclusion, longer-term administration of apelin-13 analogues, induced similar and in some respects more effective metabolic improvements than incretin mimetics in db/db mice, providing a viable alternative approach for counteracting metabolic dysfunction for mild and more degenerative forms of the disease.
    • The chronometrics of confirmation bias: Evidence for the inhibition of intuitive judgements

      Stupple, Edward J. N.; Ball, Linden J.; University of Derby; Lancaster University (2011-03-29)
      Mercier & Sperber (M&S) claim that the phenomenon of belief bias – which they consider to be an archetypal manifestation of a general confirmation bias in human reasoning – provides fundamental support for their argumentative theory and its basis in intuitive judgement. We propose that chronometric evidence necessitates a more nuanced account of belief bias that is not readily captured by argumentative theory.
    • Clinical utility of assessing changes of personality functioning during substance misuse treatment

      Papamalis, Fivos E; Psychology Department, University of Derby UK, Thessaloniki, Greece (SAGE Publications, 2020-07-03)
      Dimensional models for classifying personality have received extensive empirical support in the treatment of substance misuse. However, we do not currently understand whether and which dimensions of personality functioning are amenable to change. The aim was to examine whether there are clinically significant changes between pre- and during-treatment and assess whether these differ between those completing or dropping out of treatment. From the 200 participants from the outpatient and 340 from the inpatient treatment, a purposeful selection was utilised of 75 cases that participated in both phases and had complete datasets of the assessment battery. A quantitative multi-site individual follow-up design allowed the examination of the potential effects of treatment in personality functioning as well as the degree of clinical significant change of personality functioning. We use Jacob and Truax’s formula of reliable and clinically significant change. Five independent mixed between-within subject analyses of variance were performed. All personality adaptations changed towards higher-functioning levels, except Social Concordance, which remained stable. Compared to those dropping out, completers had significantly more changes towards functional characteristic adaptations and higher clinical improvement. The persistence of maladaptive characteristic adaptations may be an important risk marker for poor treatment outcomes, requiring therapeutic attention.
    • Cognitive and affective components of challenge and threat states

      Meijen, Carla; Jones, Marc V.; McCarthy, Paul J.; Sheffield, David; Allen, Mark S.; Staffordshire University; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2013-04)
      This study examined the relationship among cardiovascular responses indicative of challenge and threat states, self-efficacy, perceived control and emotions before an upcoming competition. Using a repeated-measures design, 48 collegiate athletes talked about an upcoming competition (sport-specific speech task) and the topic of friendship (control speech task), whilst cardiovascular responses (heart rate, preejection period, cardiac output, and total peripheral resistance) were collected and self-report measures of self-efficacy, perceived control, and emotions completed. Findings showed that participants with a physiological threat response reported higher levels of self-efficacy and excitement. Further, none of the other emotions or the cognitive appraisals of challenge and threat predicted cardiovascular patterns indicative of either a challenge or threat state. Thus, cardiovascular responses and self-report measures of self-efficacy, perceived control, and emotions did not correlate in the manner predicted by the theory of challenge and threat states in athletes. This finding may reflect methodological aspects, or that perhaps highly efficacious individuals believe they can perform well and so the task itself is more threatening because failure would indicate under-performance.
    • Cognitive control in belief-laden reasoning during conclusion processing: An ERP study

      Luo, Junlong; Liu, Xin; Stupple, Edward J. N.; Zhang, Entao; Xiao, Xiao; Jia, Lei; Yang, Qun; Li, Haijiang; Zhang, Qinglin; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2013-06)
      Belief bias is the tendency to accept conclusions that are compatible with existing beliefs more frequently than those that contradict beliefs. It is one of the most replicated behavioral findings in the reasoning literature. Recently, neuroimaging studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and event-related potentials (ERPs) have provided a new perspective and have demonstrated neural correlates of belief bias that have been viewed as supportive of dual-process theories of belief bias. However, fMRI studies have tended to focus on conclusion processing, while ERPs studies have been concerned with the processing of premises. In the present research, the electrophysiological correlates of cognitive control were studied among 12 subjects using high-density ERPs. The analysis was focused on the conclusion presentation phase and was limited to normatively sanctioned responses to valid–believable and valid–unbelievable problems. Results showed that when participants gave normatively sanctioned responses to problems where belief and logic conflicted, a more positive ERP deflection was elicited than for normatively sanctioned responses to nonconflict problems. This was observed from −400 to −200 ms prior to the correct response being given. The positive component is argued to be analogous to the late positive component (LPC) involved in cognitive control processes. This is consistent with the inhibition of empirically anomalous information when conclusions are unbelievable. These data are important in elucidating the neural correlates of belief bias by providing evidence for electrophysiological correlates of conflict resolution during conclusion processing. Moreover, they are supportive of dual-process theories of belief bias that propose conflict detection and resolution processes as central to the explanation of belief bias.
    • Collaborative cognition: Co-creating children's artwork in an educational context

      Hallam, Jenny; Lee, Helen A. N.; Das Gupta, Mani; University of Derby (2014-04-16)
      This paper presents an empirical analysis which addresses discursive and extra-discursive practices. A range of data which examines the co–creation of art in English primary schools is used to explore the use of ethnography within a critical realist framework. Case studies are presented to systematically analyse the different contextual layers which shaped the creation of children’s artwork. These are analysed multi-dimensionally presenting i) a photograph of a piece of artwork created during the lesson and ethnographic notes about the aims and scope of the class; ii) analysis of classroom interaction between children which shaped the creation of the artwork and iii) video stills and ethnographic notes to analyse the ways in which space and materials, shaped interaction and the creation of a material object – the artwork. Attention to meso, micro and extra-discursive contexts demonstrates how ethnographic methods might be used to examine interaction between discursive and extra-discursive practices.
    • Collection of anthropometry from older and physically impaired persons: traditional methods versus TC2 3-D body scanner

      Sims, Ruth; Marshall, Russell; Gyi, Diane E.; Summerskill, Steve; Case, Keith (2013-07-12)
      With advances in technology it is now possible to collect a wide range of anthropometric data, to a high degree of accuracy, using 3D light-based body scanners. This gives the potential to speed up the collection of anthropometric data for design purposes, to decrease processing time and data input required, and to reduce error due to inaccuracy of measurements taken using more traditional methods and equipment (anthropometer, stadiometer and sitting height table). However, when the data collection concerns older and/or physically impaired people there are serious issues for consideration when deciding on the best method to collect anthropometry. This paper discusses the issues arising when collecting data using both traditional methods of data collection and a first use by the experimental team of the TC2 3D body scanner, when faced with a ‘non-standard’ sample, during an EPSRC funded research project into issues surrounding transport usage by older and physically impaired people. Relevance to industry: Designing products, environments and services so that the increasing ageing population, as well as the physically impaired, can use them increases the potential market. To do this, up-to-date and relevant anthropometry is often needed. 3D light-based bodyscanners offer a potential fast way of obtaining this data, and this paper discusses some of the issues with using one scanner with older and disabled people.
    • Communicating choice: an exploration of mothers’ experiences of birth

      Hallam, Jenny; Howard, Chris; Locke, Abigail; Thomas, Melissa; UNiversity of Derby (2016-01-19)
      Birth is a significant life event for many women that can have profound, long lasting effects on how they see themselves as women and mothers. Within the literature the importance of control over the birth experience and the support that the birthing woman receives from midwives is stressed. This paper gives an in-depth insight into the ways in which communication between midwives and the birthing woman shape the birth experience. Six women who had recently given birth participated in one to one semi-structured interviews designed to explore the kinds of support they received before, during and after their birth. An inductive thematic analysis was employed in order to identify and explore key issues which ran throughout the interviews. Within the interviews the importance of being an active mother, someone who made decisions in relation to her labour, was stressed. The analysis explores the ways in which communication style and compassionate care either enabled or prevented women from adopting the position of ‘active’ mother. It is argued that a personal connection with midwives and clear and open communication which places the birthing woman in a position of control are key to positive birth experiences.
    • Comparing brief internet-based compassionate mind training and cognitive behavioral therapy for perinatal women: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

      Kelman, Alex R; Stanley, Meagan L; Barrera, Alinne Z; Cree, Michelle; Heineberg, Yotam; Gilbert, Paul; Palo Alto University; i4health; Derbyshire Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust; University of Derby; et al. (JMIR Publications, 2016-04-15)
      Background Depression that occurs during the perinatal period has substantial costs for both the mother and her baby. Since in-person care often falls short of meeting the global need of perinatal women, Internet interventions may function as an alternate to help women who currently lack adequate access to face-to-face psychological resources. However, at present there are insufficient empirically supported Internet-based resources for perinatal women.
    • Compassion as a social mentality: An evolutionary approach

      Gilbert, Paul; Gilbert, Paul; University of Derby (Routledge, 2017)
    • Compassion focused therapy with children and adolescents

      Carona, Carlos; Rijo, Daniel; Salvador, Céu; Castilho, Paula; Gilbert, Paul; University of Coimbra; University of Derby (Royal College of Psychiatrists, 2017-07-03)
      Compassion-focused therapy (CFT) is embedded in an evolutionary, functional analysis of psychopathology, with a focus on affiliative, caring and compassion processes. CFT has been applied in a number of adult settings, but its clinical applications in child and adolescent psychopathology and psychotherapy have not been systematically explored. This article describes the applications of CFT in paediatric populations. Specifically, the following developmental considerations are discussed: the unique importance of parent–child and attachment relationships for the development of self-compassion, being open to compassion from others and being compassionate to others; the potential effect of compassion training on the maturing brain (affective regulation systems); and the therapeutic targeting of shame and self-criticism to alleviate psychological distress and enhance the effectiveness of cognitive–behavioural interventions.
    • Compassion motivations: Distinguishing submissive compassion from genuine compassion and its association with shame, submissive behavior, depression, anxiety and stress

      Catarino, Francisca; Gilbert, Paul; McEwan, Kirsten; Baião, Rita; Derbyshire Healthcare Foundation Trust; University of Coimbra; University of Derby; University of Cardiff (Guildford Press, 2014-05)
      Abstract Recent research has suggested that being compassionate and helpful to others is linked to well-being. However, people can pursue compassionate motives for different reasons, one of which may be to be liked or valued. Evolutionary theory suggests this form of helping may be related to submissive appeasing behavior and therefore could be negatively associated with well-being. To explore this possibility we developed a new scale called the submissive compassion scale and compared it to other established submissive and shame-based scales, along with measures of depression, anxiety and stress in a group of 192 students. As predicted, a submissive form of compassion (being caring in order to be liked) was associated with submissive behavior, shame-based caring, ego-goals and depression, anxiety, and stress. In contrast, compassionate goals and compassion for others were not. As research on compassion develops, new ways of understanding the complex and mixed motivations that can lie behind compassion are required. The desire to be helpful, kind, and compassionate, when it arises from fears of rejection and desires for acceptance, needs to be explored.
    • Compassion, fears, blocks and resistances: An evolutionary investigation.

      Gilbert, Paul; Mascaro, Jennifer; University of Derby; Emory University (Oxford University Press, 2017-11-16)
    • Compassion-focused therapy: Preface and introduction for special section.

      Gilbert, Paul; University of Derby; Mental Health Research Unit; Kingsway Hospital; Derby UK (Wiley, 2014-03)