• Response.

      Johnson, Michael A.; Mills, Dean E.; Brown, Peter I.; Sharpe, Graham R. (2013-01)
    • A review of evidence about behavioural and psychological aspects of chronic joint pain among people with haemophilia

      Elander, James; University of Derby; University of Derby; Derby UK (2014-03)
      Joint pain related to haemophilia affects large numbers of people and has a significant impact on their quality of life. This article reviews evidence about behavioural and psychological aspects of joint pain in haemophilia, and considers that evidence in the context of research on other chronic pain conditions. The aim is to inform initiatives to improve pain self-management among people with haemophilia. Reduced pain intensity predicts better physical quality of life, so better pain management should lead to improved physical quality of life. Increased pain acceptance predicts better mental quality of life, so acceptance-based approaches to self-management could potentially be adapted for people with haemophilia. Pain self-management interventions could include elements designed to: improve assessment of pain; increase understanding of the difference between acute and chronic pain; improve adherence to clotting factor treatment; improve knowledge and understanding about the benefits and costs of using pain medications; improve judgments about what is excessive use of pain medication; increase motivation to self-manage pain; reduce negative emotional thinking about pain; and increase pain acceptance. The influence of behavioural and psychological factors related to pain are similar in haemophilia and other chronic pain conditions, so there should be scope for self-management approaches and interventions developed for other chronic pain conditions to be adapted for haemophilia, provided that careful account is taken of the need to respond promptly to acute bleeding pain by administering clotting factor.
    • Review of preventative behavioural interventions for dermal and respiratory hazards.

      Lunt, J. A.; Sheffield, David; Bell, N.; Bennett, V.; Morris, L. A.; Health and Safety Laboratory, Harpur Hill, Buxton, Derbyshire; University of Derby, Centre for Psychological Research (2011-08)
      No previous systematic review of the evidence base has been undertaken to help occupational health professionals understand how to reliably lower the instance of occupational ill-health through reducing risk-taking behaviour.
    • The role of Eag and HERG channels in cell proliferation and apoptotic cell death in SK-OV-3 ovarian cancer cell line.

      Asher, Viren; Warren, Averil; Shaw, Robert; Sowter, Heidi M.; Bali, Anish; Khan, Raheela; Royal Derby Hospital, School of Graduate Entry Medicine and Health; University of Derby, Faculty of Education, Health and Science (2011-03)
      The voltage gated potassium (K+) channels Eag and HERG have been implicated in the pathogenesis of various cancers, through association with cell cycle changes and programmed cell death. The role of these channels in the onset and progression of ovarian cancer is unknown. An understanding of mechanism by which Eag and HERG channels affect cell proliferation in ovarian cancer cells is required and therefore we investigated their role in cell proliferation and their effect on the cell cycle and apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells.
    • The role of perceived descriptive and injunctive norms on the self-reported frequency of meat and plant-based meal intake in UK-based adults

      Sharps, Maxine; Fallon, Vicky; Ryan, Sean; Helen, Coulthard; De Montfort University; University of Liverpool; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2021-07-28)
      Perceived social norms refer to beliefs that people hold about what other people do (descriptive norms) and approve of (injunctive norms), and are associated with food intake. However, less is known about whether perceived social norms are associated with meat and plant-based meal intake. Using a cross-sectional survey design 136 participants (aged 19-66 years, mean age=39.63, SD=12.85 years, mean BMI=25.77, SD=5.30, 80.9% female, 77.9% omnivores, 22.1% flexitarians) answered questions about how frequently they consumed meat and plant-based meals, and how frequently they perceived people in their social environment to consume (perceived descriptive norms), and approve of consuming (perceived injunctive norms) meat and plant-based meals. Perceived descriptive and injunctive norms were positively associated with participants’ frequency of meat intake: participants ate meat more frequently when they perceived their significant other to frequently eat meat (descriptive norm), and when they perceived their significant other and friends to approve of (injunctive norm) frequently eating meat. Perceived descriptive norms were positively associated, but injunctive norms were negatively associated with participants’ frequency of plant-based meal intake: participants ate plant-based meals more frequently when they perceived their extended family, friends, and significant other to frequently eat plant-based meals. However, participants ate plant-based meals more frequently when they perceived their extended family to approve of less frequent plant-based meal intake. These results suggest that different social groups may be important for meat and plant-based meal intake, with significant others and friends appearing to be important reference points for both food types. Further research examining the contexts in which the different social groups influence eating behaviour would be of value.
    • The role of protein kinase A regulation of the E6 PDZ-binding domain during the differentiation-dependent life cycle of human papillomavirus type 18.

      Delury, Craig P; Marsh, Elizabeth K; James, Claire D; Boon, Siaw Shi; Banks, Lawrence; Knight, Gillian L; Roberts, Sally; University of Birmingham (American Society for Microbiology, 2013-08-13)
      Human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 proteins of high-risk alpha types target a select group of PSD95/DLG1/ZO1 (PDZ) domain-containing proteins by using a C-terminal PDZ-binding motif (PBM), an interaction that can be negatively regulated by phosphorylation of the E6 PBM by protein kinase A (PKA). Here, we have mutated the canonical PKA recognition motif that partially overlaps with the E6 PBM in the HPV18 genome (E6153PKA) and compared the effect of this mutation on the HPVl8 life cycle in primary keratinocytes with the wild-type genome and with a second mutant genome that lacks the E6 PBM (E6ΔPDZ). Loss of PKA recognition of E6 was associated with increased growth of the genome-containing cells relative to cells carrying the wild-type genome, and upon stratification, a more hyperplastic phenotype, with an increase in the number of S-phase competent cells in the upper suprabasal layers, while the opposite was seen with the E6ΔPDZ genome. Moreover, the growth of wild-type genome-containing cells was sensitive to changes in PKA activity, and these changes were associated with increased phosphorylation of the E6 PBM. In marked contrast to E6ΔPDZ genomes, the E6153PKA mutation exhibited no deleterious effects on viral genome amplification or expression of late proteins. Our data suggest that the E6 PBM function is differentially regulated by phosphorylation in the HPV18 life cycle. We speculate that perturbation of protein kinase signaling pathways could lead to changes in E6 PBM function, which in turn could have a bearing on tumor promotion and progression.
    • Self-confidence and performance: A little self-doubt helps.

      Woodman, Tim; Akehurst, Sally; Hardy, Lew; Beattie, Stuart; Aberystwyth University; Bangor University (Elsevier, 2010-06-04)
      Objectives: To test the hypothesis that a decrease in confidence on a well-learned task will increase effort and performance. Design: A 2 (group: control, experimental) 2 (trial: practice, competition) mixed-model with repeated measures on the second factor. Method: Expert skippers’ (n ¼ 28) self-confidence was reduced via a combination of task (i.e., change of rope) and competitive demands. Performance was the number of skips in a 1-min period. On-task effort was measured via the verbal reaction time to an auditory probe. Results: The group trial interaction (F (1, 26) ¼ 6.73, p < .05, h2 ¼ .21) supported the hypothesis: Posthoc tests revealed a significant decrease in self-confidence and a significant improvement in performance from practice to competition for the experimental group only. No significant effort effects were revealed. Conclusions: Some self-doubt can benefit performance, which calls into question the widely accepted positive linear relationship between self-confidence and performance. As effort did not increase with decreased confidence, the precise mechanisms via which self-confidence will lead to an increase or a decrease in performance remain to be elucidated.
    • Self-disclosure and self-deprecating self-reference: Conversational practices of personalization in police interviews with children reporting alleged sexual offenses

      Childs, Carrie; Walsh, Dave; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2017-11-06)
      This article examines how police officers ostensibly reveal personal information about themselves in investigative interviews with children reporting their being victim of alleged sexual offenses. We identify two practices of personalization. First, we show how, during the opening phase of interviews, officers engage in clear, unambiguous self-disclosure and how these self-disclosures are designed to elicit expressions of affiliation from witnesses. Second, we identify instances of self-deprecating self-reference as in ‘I’m going deaf that's all’. These self-references are delivered to manage trouble responsibility in environments of repair. We show how they manage the conflicting demands of rapport building and the requirement to make interviewees feel as if they are being listened to and understood, on the one hand, and the need for effective evidence gathering, on the other. The present study extends understanding of how officers personalize the investigative interview, as recommended by best practice guidelines.
    • Self-disgust, self-hatred, and compassion focused therapy.

      Gilbert, Paul; University of Derby (Karnac Books, 2015-03)
    • Self-harm in a mixed clinical population: The roles of self-criticism, shame, and social rank.

      Gilbert, Paul; McEwan, Kirsten; Irons, Christopher Paul; Bhundia, Rakhee; Christie, Rachael; Broomhead, Claire; Rockliff, Helen; University of Derby; Kingsway Hospital (British Psychological Society, 2010-11)
      Objectives. This study explored the relationship of forms and functions of self‐criticism, shame, and social rank variables to self‐harm, depression, and anxiety. Design. The study used a questionnaire design. Method. In‐patients and day‐patients (N = 73) completed a series of questionnaires measuring self‐harm, mood, self‐criticism, shame, and social comparison. Results. Self‐harm was significantly associated with forms and functions of self‐criticism, shame, and feelings of inferiority (low social rank). The self‐persecuting function of self‐criticism was especially linked to self‐harm, depression, and anxiety. Conclusions. This study adds to a growing literature on the importance of recognizing the pathogenic effects of negative self‐critical thoughts and feelings about the self and the value of distinguishing different types of self‐criticism.
    • Shame and the vulnerable self in medical contexts: the compassionate solution.

      Gilbert, Paul; University of Derby (BMJ Publishing Group Ltd., 2017-10-13)
      Shame is a powerful experience that plays a vital role in a whole range of aspects of the clinical encounter. Shame experiences can have an impact on our psychological and physiological state and on how we experience ourselves, others and our relationships. The medical encounter is an obvious arena for shame because we are presenting (aspects of) our bodies and minds that can be seen as unattractive and undesirable, diseased, decayed and injured with the various excretions that typically might invite disgust. In contrast, experiences of compassion of acceptance, validation and kindness and can increase approach, openness and preparedness to engage with painful difficult scenarios. While shame is an experience that separates, segregates, marginalises and disengages people, caring and compassion facilitate integration, (re)connection and support. Given the potential opposite impacts of these different types of social experience, this paper will outline their evolutionary origins and compare and contrast them with particular reference to the medical context.
    • Shaping children's artwork in English primary classes: insights from teacher–child interaction during art activities

      Hallam, Jenny; Das Gupta, Mani; Lee, Helen A. N.; University of Derby (2011-09)
      This paper utilises a Vygotskian framework to examine the ways in which teachers shape the creation of children’s artwork in educational contexts. Reflexive ethnography (Burgess, 1984) and a bottom up approach to discourse analysis (Edwards & Potter, 1992) are used to analyse a range of qualitative data including photographs, observational notes and audio recordings collected from a Year 1 and a Year 4 art lesson held in English Primary schools. It is argued that the co-creation of art in the classroom is a dynamic and collaborative process which is negotiated between teachers and children in different ways. This argument is discussed in relation to the ways in which different teaching approaches shape and limit the creation of children’s artwork.
    • Shyness, social anxiety, and social phobia

      Henderson, Lynne; Gilbert, Paul; Zimbardo, Philip; The Shyness Institute; Derbyshire Mental Health Services NHS Trust (Academic Press, 2014-07-25)
      In 1971, one of us conducted the now well-known Stanford Prison Experiment (Zimbardo, 1977), a study with the purpose of examining the role of situational factors in producing behaviors, thoughts, and feelings typically assumed to manifest as dispositional attributes of the person, such as sadism or submissiveness. Preselected normal college students, randomly assigned to play the role of prisoner or guard in a simulated prison, were having such extreme reactions—extreme stress as prisoners, and brutal and sadistic behavior as guards—that they had to be released early. The study demonstrated how powerful context and situation are in producing the syndrome of affect, behavior and cognition relating to authoritarianism, aggression, submission and despair.
    • Sickle cell disease

      Elander, James; University of Derby (Cambridge University Press, 2019-05-16)
      Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a group of inherited blood disorders that cause severe pain, reduce life expectancy and require significant self-management, but are often associated with stigma and discrimination. This chapter provides an overview of evidence about psychological aspects of sickle cell disease, including inheritance, screening and testing, managing painful episodes, and adolescent transitions.
    • Simulated natural environments bolster the effectiveness of a mindfulness programme: A comparison with a relaxation-based intervention

      Choe, Eun Yeong; Jorgensen, Anna; Sheffield, David; University of Sheffield; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2019-12-14)
      This study assesses the effectiveness of incorporating the beneficial effects of exposure to nature in a 3-week mindfulness programme. Participants (n = 122) were randomly assigned to one of two intervention groups (mindfulness, relaxation group) under different simulated environmental conditions (two natural, two non-natural environments) during an intervention lasting three weeks. The participants in the mindfulness group were asked to attend a weekly 1-h mindfulness programme. The relaxation group also spent 1 h per week on relaxation activities of their choice (e.g. reading books or magazines). Participants’ wellbeing outcomes and nature connectedness were measured before and after the three-week intervention, and at one-week follow-up. The findings show that the mindfulness programme was more effective when carried out in a natural environment. In addition, the mindfulness group in natural environments continued to improve even after the intervention was completed. This study offers valuable insights into the benefits of combining a wellbeing intervention with exposure to nature.
    • Slower is not always better: Response-time evidence clarifies the limited role of miserly information processing in the Cognitive Reflection Test

      Stupple, Edward J. N.; Pitchford, Melanie; Ball, Linden J.; Hunt, Thomas E.; Steel, Richard; University of Derby; University of Bedfordshire; University of Central Lancashire; Loughborough University (Public Library of Science (PLOS), 2017-11-04)
      We report a study examining the role of ‘cognitive miserliness’ as a determinant of poor performance on the standard three-item Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT). The cognitive miserliness hypothesis proposes that people often respond incorrectly on CRT items because of an unwillingness to go beyond default, heuristic processing and invest time and effort in analytic, reflective processing. Our analysis (N = 391) focused on people’s response times to CRT items to determine whether predicted associations are evident between miserly thinking and the generation of incorrect, intuitive answers. Evidence indicated only a weak correlation between CRT response times and accuracy. Item-level analyses also failed to demonstrate predicted response-time differences between correct analytic and incorrect intuitive answers for two of the three CRT items. We question whether participants who give incorrect intuitive answers on the CRT can legitimately be termed cognitive misers and whether the three CRT items measure the same general construct.
    • Smartphone addiction and associated psychological factors

      Pearson, Claire; Hussain, Zaheer; University of Derby (Turkish Green Crescent Society, 2016-10-25)
      The use of smartphone technology has increased drastically resulting in a risk of addiction to certain web applications, such as social networking sites (SNS) that are easily accessible via smartphones. A major concern regarding the increased use of SNS sites is the risk of an increase in narcissism amongst users of SNS. The present study examined the relationship between smartphone use, narcissistic tendencies, and personality as predictors of smartphone addiction. A self-selected sample of 256 smartphone users (M = 29.2; SD = 9.49) completed an online survey. The results revealed that 13.3% of the sample was classified as addicted to smartphones. Regression analysis revealed that narcissism, openness, neuroticism, and age were linked to smartphone addiction. Therefore, it is suggested that smartphones encourage narcissism, even in non-narcissistic users. Future research requires more in-depth qualitative data, addiction scale comparisons, and comparison of use with, and without, SNS access. Further, it is advised that prospective buyers of smartphones be pre-warned of the potential addictive properties of new technology.
    • Smartphone use, addiction, narcissism, and personality: A mixed methods investigation

      Pearson, Claire; Hussain, Zaheer; University of Derby; University of Derby, Derby, UK; Psychology Department, University of Derby, Derby, UK (IGI Global, 2015)
      There are increasing numbers of people who are now using smartphones. Consequently, there is a risk of addiction to certain web applications such as social networking sites (SNSs) which are easily accessible via smartphones. There is also the risk of an increase in narcissism amongst users of SNSs. The present study set out to investigate the relationship between smartphone use, narcissistic tendencies and personality as predictors of smartphone addiction. The study also aimed to investigate the distinction between addiction specificity and co-occurrence in smartphone addiction via qualitative data and discover why people continue to use smartphones in banned areas. A self-selected sample of 256 smartphone users (Mean age = 29.2, SD = 9.49) completed an online survey. The results revealed that 13.3% of the sample was classified as addicted to smartphones. Higher narcissism scores and neuroticism levels were linked to addiction. Three themes of; social relations, smartphone dependence and self-serving personalities emerged from the qualitative data. Interpretation of qualitative data supports addiction specificity of the smartphone. It is suggested smartphones encourage narcissism, even in non-narcissistic users. In turn, this increased use in banned areas. Future research needs to gather more in-depth qualitative data, addiction scale comparisons and comparison of use with and without SNS access. It is advised that prospective buyers of smartphones be pre-warned of the potential addictive properties of new technology.
    • Smoking behaviour and smoking motivations: the effects of alcohol

      Haynes, Caroline Anne; Clements, Keith; University of Derby (British Psychological Society, 2000)
      The present study examines the relationship between smoking motivations and both self-report and experimental measures of smoking behaviour. It also examines the effects of alcohol consumption on the relationship between smoking motivations and smoking. 48 individual completed self-report measures of smoking, and participated in an experiment comparing smoking behaviour in people who had consumed either alcoholic or non-alcoholic drinks. Results indicate a relationship tween self-reported and experimental measure of smoking and various smoking motivation factors. When separate analyses were conducted between groups who had consumed alcoholic or non-alcoholic drinks, smoking motivations only predicted smoking behaviour in those participants who had not consumed alcohol. Smoking for relief of negative affect, for intellectual stimulation and curiosity, and for social attractiveness and sensory stimulation significantly predicted experimental measures of smoking behaviour in the non-alcohol conditions. This indicates that smoking motivations are important predictors of smoking, however when alcohol has been consumed, smoking motivational factors no longer influence smoking behaviour.