• Parental self-efficacy in managing food allergy and mental health predicts food allergy related quality of life

      Knibb, Rebecca C.; Barnes, Christopher; Stalker, Carol; Aston University; University of Derby; University of Derby; Psychology, School of Life and Health Sciences; Aston University; Birmingham U.K; Psychology, College of Life and Natural Sciences; University of Derby; Derby U.K; Psychology, College of Life and Natural Sciences; University of Derby; Derby U.K (2016-03-28)
      Food allergy has been shown to have a significant impact on quality of life (QoL) and can be difficult to manage in order to avoid potentially life threatening reactions. Parental self-efficacy (confidence) in managing food allergy for their child might explain variations in QoL. This study aimed to examine whether self-efficacy in parents of food allergic children was a good predictor of QoL of the family. Methods: Parents of children with clinically diagnosed food allergy completed the Food Allergy Self-Efficacy Scale for Parents (FASE-P), the Food Allergy Quality of Life Parental Burden Scale (FAQL-PB), the GHQ-12 (to measure mental health) and the Food Allergy Independent Measure (FAIM), which measures perceived likelihood of a severe allergic reaction. Results: A total of 434 parents took part. Greater parental QoL was significantly related to greater self-efficacy for food allergy management, better mental health, lower perceived likelihood of a severe reaction, older age in parent and child and fewer number of allergies (all p<0.05). Food allergy self-efficacy explained more of the variance in QoL than any other variable and self-efficacy related to management of social activities and precaution and prevention of an allergic reaction appeared to be the most important aspects. Conclusions: Parental self-efficacy in management of a child’s food allergy is important and is associated with better parental QoL. It would be useful to measure self-efficacy at visits to allergy clinic in order to focus support; interventions to improve self-efficacy in parents of food allergic children should be explored.
    • “A peculiar time in my life”: making sense of illness and recovery with gynaecological cancer

      Phillips, Eleanor; Montague, Jane; Archer, Stephanie; University of Derby; Imperial College London; Psychology, University of Derby, Derby, UK; Psychology, University of Derby, Derby, UK; NIHR Imperial Patient Safety Translational Research Centre, Imperial College London, St Mary’s Hospital, London, UK (Taylor and Francis, 2017-08-31)
      Purpose: Worldwide there are nearly 1.1 million new cases of gynaecological cancer annually. In England, uterine, ovarian and cervical cancers comprize the third most common type of new cancer in women. Research with gynaecological cancer patients within 6 months of diagnosis is rare, as is data collection that is roughly contemporaneous with treatment. Our aim was to explore the experiences of women who were, at study entry, within 6 weeks of surgery or were undergoing chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Methods: An interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) of data from 16 women in five focus groups was conducted in the UK, exploring women’s experiences of being diagnosed with and treated for gynaecological cancer. Results: Participants conceptualized their experiences temporally, from the shock of diagnosis, through their cancer treatment, to thinking about recovery. They tried to make sense of diagnosis, even with treatment being complete. In the context of the Self-Regulation Model, these women were struggling to interpret a changing and multi-faceted illness identity, and attempting to return to pre-illness levels of health. Conclusions: This study adds to this under-studied time period in cancer survivorship. The results suggest that survivors’ goals may change from returning to pre-illness status to reformulating goals as survival time increases.
    • Pellino-1 regulates immune responses to Haemophilus influenzae in models of inflammatory lung disease.

      Hughes, Bethany; Burton, Charlotte; Reese, Abigail; Jabeen, Maisha; Wright, Carl; Khoshaein, Nika; Marsh, Elizabeth; Peachell, Peter; Sun, Shao-Cong; Dockrell, David; et al. (Frontiers Media, 2019-07-31)
      Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a frequent cause of lower respiratory tract infection in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Pellino proteins are a family of E3 ubiquitin ligases that are critical regulators of TLR signalling and inflammation. The aim of this study was to identify a role for Pellino-1 in airway defence against NTHi in the context of COPD. Pellino-1 is rapidly upregulated by LPS and NTHi in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) isolated from individuals with COPD and healthy control subjects, in a TLR4 dependent manner. C57BL/6 Peli1-/- and wild-type (WT) mice were subjected to acute (single LPS challenge) or chronic (repeated LPS and elastase challenge) airway inflammation followed by NTHi infection. Both WT and Peli1-/- mice develop airway inflammation in acute and chronic airway inflammation models. Peli1-/- animals recruit significantly more neutrophils to the airway following NTHi infection which is associated with an increase in the neutrophil chemokine, KC, in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid as well as enhanced clearance of NTHi from the lung. These data suggest that therapeutic inhibition of Pellino-1 may augment immune responses in the airway and enhance bacterial clearance in individuals with COPD.
    • Pellino-1 regulates the responses of the airway to viral infection

      Marsh, Elizabeth K; Prestwich, Elizabeth C; Marriott, Helen M; Williams, Lynne; Hart, Amber R; Muir, Claire F; Parker, Lisa C; Jonker, Marnix R; Heijink, Irene H; Timens, Wim; et al. (Frontiers, 2020-08-31)
      Exposure to respiratory pathogens is a leading cause of exacerbations of airway diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Pellino-1 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase known to regulate virally-induced inflammation. We wished to determine the role of Pellino-1 in the host response to respiratory viruses in health and disease. Pellino-1 expression was examined in bronchial sections from patients with GOLD stage 2 COPD and healthy controls. Primary bronchial epithelial cells (PBECs), in which Pellino-1 expression had been knocked down, were extracellularly challenged with the TLR3 agonist poly(I:C). C57BL/6 Peli1-/- mice and wild type littermates were subjected to intranasal infection with clinically-relevant respiratory viruses; rhinovirus (RV1B) and influenza A. We find that Pellino-1 is expressed in the airways of normal subjects and those with COPD, and that Pellino-1 regulates TLR3 signalling and responses to airways viruses. In particular we observed that knockout of Pellino‐1 in the murine lung resulted in increased production of proinflammatory cytokines IL‐6 and TNFα upon viral infection, accompanied by enhanced recruitment of immune cells to the airways, without any change in viral replication. Pellino-1 therefore regulates inflammatory airway responses without altering replication of respiratory viruses.
    • Perceived maternal parenting self-efficacy (PMP S-E) tool: development and validation with mothers of hospitalized preterm neonates.

      Barnes, Christopher; Adamson-Macedo, Elvidina N.; University of Wolverhampton, Division of Psychology. (2007-12)
      This paper is a report of a study to develop and test the psychometric properties of the Perceived Maternal Parenting Self-Efficacy tool.
    • Perceptions of the paranormal.

      Baker, Ian S.; University of Derby (Pan European Networks, 2012-12-05)
      Dr Ian Baker, Parapsychologist and Chartered psychologist explains how apparently paranormal phenomena can be scientifically investigated in an effort to expand the human understanding of the world.
    • Performance under stress: an eye-tracking investigation of the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT).

      Simonovic, Boban; Stupple, Edward J. N.; Gale, Maggie; Sheffield, David; University of Derby (Frontiers Media, 2018-09-28)
      Stress pervades everyday life and impedes risky decision making. The following experiment is the first to examine effects of stress on risky decision making in the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), while measuring inspection time and conscious awareness of deck contingencies. This was original as it allowed a fine grained rigorous analysis of the way that stress impedes awareness of, and attention to maladaptive financial choices. The extended Cognitive Reflection Task (CRT) further afforded examination of the impact of impaired reflective thinking on risky decision making. Stressed participants were slower to avoid the disadvantageous decks and performed worse overall. They inspected disadvantageous decks for longer than the control condition and were slower in developing awareness of their poor deck quality compared to the control condition. Conversely, in the control condition greater inspection times for advantageous decks were observed earlier in the task, and better awareness of the deck contingencies was shown as early as the second block of trials than the stress condition. Path analysis suggested that stress reduced IGT performance by impeding reflective thinking and conscious awareness. Explicit cognitive processes, moreover, were important during the preliminary phase of IGT performance—a finding that has significant implications for the use of the IGT as a clinical diagnostic tool. It was concluded that stress impedes reflective thinking, attentional disengagement from poorer decks, and the development of conscious knowledge about choice quality that interferes with performance on the IGT. These data demonstrate that stress impairs risky decision making performance, by impeding attention to, and awareness of task characteristics in risky decision making.
    • The personal experience of online learning: an interpretative phenomenological analysis

      Symeonides, Roberta; Childs, Carrie; University of Derby (2015-06-19)
      Student interaction is critical to online social cohesion and collaborative learning. However, online learners need to adjust to the computer mediated communication (CMC) medium of the online environment. This study explores online learners’ experiences of asynchronous text-based CMC using an interpretative phenomenological analysis of interviews with six online students. The analysis revealed that the constraints of written communication and lack of human interaction causes difficulties in adjusting and coping with the online learning environment. Four major themes were identified: the inability to express one’s self fully; difficulties establishing relationships; comparing one’s self to others and the written word as an ineffective learning medium. The study’s findings highlight a need for better student and tutor collaboration to facilitate a safe and interactive environment. Effective academic and social support can enhance online learning, improve student satisfaction and encourage students to persist with their learning.
    • Physical activity self-management and coaching compared to social interaction in huntington disease: results from the ENGAGE-HD randomized, controlled, pilot feasibility trial.

      Busse, Monica; Quinn, Lori; Drew, Cheney; Kelson, Mark; Trubey, Rob; McEwan, Kirsten; Jones, Carys; Townson, Julia; Dawes, Helen; Tudor-Edwards, Rhiannon; et al. (Oxford Academic, 2017-03-24)
      Abstract Background: Self-management and self-efficacy for physical activity is not routinely considered in neurologic rehabilitation. Objective: We assessed feasibility and outcomes of a 14 week physical activity self-management and coaching intervention compared with social contact in Huntington's disease (HD) to inform the design of a future full-scale trial. Design: Assessor blind, multi-site, randomized pilot feasibility trial. Setting: Participants were recruited and assessed at baseline, 16 weeks following randomisation, and then again at 26 weeks in HD specialist clinics with intervention delivery by trained coaches in the participants’ homes. Patients and Intervention: People with HD were allocated to the ENGAGE-HD physical activity coaching intervention or a social interaction intervention. Measurements: Eligibility, recruitment, retention and intervention adherence were determined at 16 weeks. Other outcomes of interest included measures of functional, home and community mobility, self-efficacy, physical activity and disease-specific measures of motor and cognition. Fidelity and costs for both the physical activity and social comparator interventions were established. Results: Forty % (n=46) of eligible patients were enrolled and 22 randomised to the physical intervention and 24 to social intervention. Retention rates in the physical intervention and social intervention were 77% and 92% respectively. Minimum adherence criteria were achieved by 82% of participants in the physical intervention and 100% in the social intervention. There was no indication of between group treatment effects on function, however increases in self-efficacy for exercise and self-reported levels of physical activity in the physical intervention lends support to our pre-defined intervention logic model. Limitations: The use of self-report measures may have introduced bias. Conclusions: An HD physical activity self-management and coaching intervention is feasible and worthy of further investigation.
    • The physiological and emotional effects of touch: Assessing a hand-massage intervention with high self-critics

      Maratos, Frances A.; Duarte, Joana; Barnes, Christopher; McEwan, Kirsten; Sheffield, David; Gilbert, Paul; University of Derby; University of Coimbra (Elsevier, 2017-01-25)
      Research demonstrates that highly self-critical individuals can respond negatively to the initial introduction of a range of therapeutic interventions. Yet touch as a form of therapeutic intervention in self-critical individuals has received limited prior investigation, despite documentation of its beneficial effects for well-being. Using the Forms of Self-Criticism/Self-Reassuring Scale, 15 high- and 14 low- self-critical individuals (from a sample of 139 females) were recruited to assess how self-criticism impacts upon a single instance of focused touch. All participants took part in a hand massage- and haptic control- intervention. Salivary cortisol and alpha amylase, as well as questionnaire measures of emotional responding were taken before and after the interventions. Following hand massage, analyses revealed cortisol decreased significantly across all participants; and that significant changes in emotional responding reflected well-being improvements across all participants. Supplementary analyses further revealed decreased alpha amylase responding to hand massage as compared to a compassion-focused intervention in the same (highly self-critical) individuals. Taken together, the physiological and emotional data indicate high self-critical individuals responded in a comparable manner to low self-critical individuals to a single instance of hand massage. This highlights that focused touch may be beneficial when first engaging highly self-critical individuals with specific interventions.
    • A pilot exploration of heart rate variability and salivary cortisol responses to compassion-focused imagery.

      Rockliff, Helen; Gilbert, Paul; McEwan, Kirsten; Lightman, Stafford; Glover, David; University of Derby; Kingsway Hospital; University of Bristol; Manchester Royal Infirmary (Giovanni Fioriti Editore, 2008-06)
      This study measured heart-rate variability and cortisol to explore whether Compassion-Focused Imagery (CFI) could stimulate a soothing affect system. We also explored individual differences (self-reported self-criticism, attachment style and psychopathology) to CFI. Participants were given a relaxation, compassion-focused and control imagery task. While some individuals showed an increase in heart rate variability during CFI, others had a decrease. There was some indication that this was related to peoples self-reports of self-criticism, and attachment style. Those with an increase in heart rate variability also showed a significant cortisol decrease. Hence, CFI can stimulate a soothing affect system and attenuate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in some individuals but those who are more self-critical, with an insecure attachment style may require therapeutic interventions to benefit from CFI.
    • A pilot feasibility study exploring the practising of compassionate imagery exercises in a nonclinical population

      McEwan, Kirsten; Gilbert, Paul; University of Derby; School of Medicine; Cardiff University; UK; Mental Health Research Unit; Kingsway Hospital; Derby UK (Wiley, 2015-10-10)
      This study assessed the acceptability of practising compassionate imagery as an online task without clinician support. Participants completed questionnaires at baseline, after, and 6 months of follow-up. Participants engaged safely and successfully with the tasks. There were significant improvements in questionnaire scores which were largely maintained over 6 months.
    • Postural reorientation does not cause the locomotor after-effect following rotary locomotion

      Osler, Callum J.; Reynolds, Raymond Francis; University of Birmingham, School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, College of Life and Environmental Sciences (Springer, 2012)
      After a period of stepping on a rotating platform, blindfolded subjects demonstrate a tendency to unconsciously turn when stepping in place, an after-effect known as podokinetic after-rotation (PKAR). Recent studies have also reported a change in postural orientation following the adaptive period and have suggested that this is causally related to PKAR. Here, we assess changes in trunk orientation following platform adaptation and determine their relationship to PKAR. Specifically, we determine whether a reorganized standing posture causes PKAR. Ten subjects stepped on a platform rotating at 60deg/s for 10 min, with a cadence of 100 steps/min. Following adaptation, a significant PKAR response was seen, with a mean yaw rotation velocity of 6.0 ± 2.2deg/s. In addition to this dynamic after-effect, there was a significant twist of the trunk with respect to the feet when standing still (6.9 ± 4.5deg; mean ± SD), confirming the presence of a postural reorientation after-effect. However, the magnitudes of the two after-effects did not correlate (r = 0.06, p = 0.87). Furthermore, in a second experiment, a prolonged passive twist of the trunk was used to induce postural reorientation. However, in this case, PKAR was not induced. These results demonstrate that PKAR is not an automatic consequence of reorganized standing posture.
    • Postural threat differentially affects the feedforward and feedback components of the vestibular-evoked balance response

      Osler, Callum J.; Tersteeg, M. C. A.; Reynolds, Raymond Francis; Loram, Ian D.; University of Birmingham, School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, College of Life and Environmental Sciences; Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, Institute for Biomedical Research into Human Movement and Health (Wiley, 2013)
      Circumstances may render the consequence of falling quite severe, thus maximising the motivation to control postural sway. This commonly occurs when exposed to height and may result from the interaction of many factors, including fear, arousal, sensory information and perception. Here, we examined human vestibular-evoked balance responses during exposure to a highly threatening postural context. Nine subjects stood with eyes closed on a narrow walkway elevated 3.85 m above ground level. This evoked an altered psycho-physiological state, demonstrated by a twofold increase in skin conductance. Balance responses were then evoked by galvanic vestibular stimulation. The sway response, which comprised a whole-body lean in the direction of the edge of the walkway, was significantly and substantially attenuated after ~800 ms. This demonstrates that a strong reason to modify the balance control strategy was created and subjects were highly motivated to minimise sway. Despite this, the initial response remained unchanged. This suggests little effect on the feedforward settings of the nervous system responsible for coupling pure vestibular input to functional motor output. The much stronger, later effect can be attributed to an integration of balance-relevant sensory feedback once the body was in motion. These results demonstrate that the feedforward and feedback components of a vestibular-evoked balance response are differently affected by postural threat. Although a fear of falling has previously been linked with instability and even falling itself, our findings suggest that this relationship is not attributable to changes in the feedforward vestibular control of balance.
    • Practical compassions: repertoires of practice and compassion talk in acute mental healthcare

      Brown, Brian; Crawford, Paul; Gilbert, Paul; Gilbert, Jean; Gale, Corinne; DeMontfort University; Nottingham University; University of Derby; Faculty of Health and Life Sciences; De Montfort University; Leicester UK; Division of Nursing; Nottingham University; Nottingham UK; et al. (Wiley, 2013-10-11)
      This article reports an exploratory study of the concept of compassion in the work of 20 mental health practitioners in a UK Midlands facility. Using notions of practice derived from phenomenology and Bourdieusian sociology and notions of emotional labour we identify two contrasting interpretive repertoires in discussions of compassion. The first, the practical compassion repertoire, evokes the practical, physical and bodily aspects of compassion. It involves organising being with patients, playing games, anticipating disruption and taking them outside for cigarettes. Practitioners described being aware that these practical, bodily activities could lead to patients ‘opening up’, disclosing their interior concerns and enabling practical, compassionate mental health work to take place. In contrast, the second, organisational repertoire, concerns organisational constraints on compassionate practice. The shortage of staff, the record-keeping and internal processes of quality control were seen as time-greedy and apt to detract from contact with patients. The findings are discussed in relation to Bourdieu and Merleau-Ponty's phenomenological accounts of practice and habit and set in context in the growing interest in placing compassion centrally in healthcare. We also explore how the exercise of compassion in the way our participants describe it can afford the more effective exercise of medical power.
    • Pragmatic aspects of communication and language comprehension in groups of children differentiated by teacher ratings of inattention and hyperactivity

      Bignell, Simon; Cain, Kate; University of Derby; University of Lancaster (British Psychological Society, 2007)
      Children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) experience pragmatic language deficits, but it is not known whether these difficulties are primarily associated with high levels of inattention, hyperactivity, or both. We investigated pragmatic aspects of communication and language comprehension in relation to poor attention and/or high hyperactivity in a nondiagnosed population of 7- to 11-year olds. Classroom teachers rated their pupils' attention and hyperactivity/impulsivity on the ADD-H Comprehensive Teacher Rating scale (ACTeRS). Three groups were formed: children with poor attention and low hyperactivity (poor attention group), children with good attention and high hyperactivity (high hyperactivity group), and children with both poor attention and high hyperactivity (poor attention/high hyperactivity group). Their performance was compared with that of same-age controls in two studies: Study 1 (N = 94) investigated the comprehension of figurative language in and out of context and Study 2 (N = 100) investigated the pragmatic aspects of communication using the Children's Communication Checklist – Second Edition. Two groups, the poor attention and the poor attention/high hyperactivity groups, were impaired in both their comprehension of figurative language and their communication skills. The high hyperactivity group was impaired in their comprehension of figurative language but they did not exhibit communication impairments. The findings extend work with clinical populations of children with ADHD: even in a nondiagnosed sample of children, poor attention and elevated levels of hyperactivity are associated with pragmatic language weaknesses.
    • Pragmatic Randomised controlled trial of a trauma-focused guided self-help Programme versus InDividual trauma-focused cognitive behavioural therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder (RAPID): trial protocol.

      Nollett, Claire; Lewis, Catrin; Kitchiner, Neil; Roberts, Neil; Addison, Katy; Brookes-Howell, Lucy; Cosgrove, Sarah; Cullen, Katherine; Ehlers, Anke; Heke, Sarah; et al. (Springer Nature, 2018-03-27)
      Abstract Background: There is good evidence that trauma-focused therapies for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder are effective. However, they are not always feasible to deliver due a shortage of trained therapists and demands on the patient. An online trauma-focused Guided Self-Help (GSH) programme which could overcome these barriers has shown promise in a pilot study. This study will be the first to evaluate GSH against standard face-to-face therapy to assess its suitability for use in the NHS. Methods: The study is a large-scale multi-centre pragmatic randomised controlled non-inferiority trial, with assessors masked to treatment allocation. One hundred and ninety-two participants will be randomly allocated to receive either face-to-face trauma-focused cognitive behaviour therapy (TFCBT) or trauma-focused online guided self-help (GSH). The primary outcome will be the severity of symptoms of PTSD over the previous week as measured by the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale for DSM5 (CAPS-5) at 16 weeks post-randomisation. Secondary outcome measures include PTSD symptoms over the previous month as measured by the CAPS-5 at 52 weeks plus the Impact of Event Scale – revised (IES-R), Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS), Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), General Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7), Alcohol Use Disorders Test (AUDIT-O), Multidimensional Scale for Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), short Post-Traumatic Cognitions Inventory (PTCI), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) and General Self Efficacy Scale (GSES) measured at 16 and 52 weeks post-randomisation. Changes in health-related quality of life will be measured by the EQ-5D and the level of healthcare resource utilisation for health economic analysis will be determined by an amended version of the Client Socio-Demographic and Service Receipt Inventory European Version. The Client Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ) will be collected at 16 weeks post-randomisation to evaluate treatment satisfaction. Discussion: This study will be the first to compare online GSH with usual face-to-face therapy for PTSD. The strengths are that it will test a rigorously developed intervention in a real world setting to inform NHS commissioning. The potential challenges of delivering such a pragmatic study may include participant recruitment, retention and adherence, therapist retention, and fidelity of intervention delivery.
    • Predictors of painkiller dependence among people with pain in the general population

      Elander, James; Duarte, Joana; Maratos, Frances A.; Gilbert, Paul; University of Derby; University of Derby; Coimbra University, Coimbra, Portugal; University of Derby; University of Derby (2013-10-23)
      Aims: Self-medication with painkillers is widespread and increasing, and evidence about influences on painkiller dependence is needed to inform efforts to prevent and treat problem painkiller use. Design: Online questionnaire survey. Participants: People in the general population who had pain and used painkillers in the last month (n=112). Measurements: Pain frequency and intensity, use of over-the-counter and prescription painkillers, risk of substance abuse (SOAPP scale), depression, anxiety, stress, alexithymia, pain catastrophizing, pain anxiety, pain self-efficacy, pain acceptance, mindfulness, self-compassion, and painkiller dependence (Leeds Dependence Questionnaire). Findings: In multiple regression, the independent predictors of painkiller dependence were prescription painkiller use (ß 0.21), SOAPP score (ß 0.31), and pain acceptance (ß -0.29). Prescription painkiller use mediated the influence of pain intensity. Alexithymia, anxiety and pain acceptance all moderated the influence of pain. Conclusions: The people most at risk of developing painkiller dependence are those who use prescription painkillers more frequently, who have a prior history of substance-related problems more generally, and who are less accepting of pain. Based on these findings, a preliminary model is presented with three types of influence on the development of painkiller dependence: a) pain leading to painkiller use, b) risk factors for substance-related problems irrespective of pain, and c) psychological factors related to pain. The model could guide further research among the general population and high risk groups, and acceptance-based interventions could be adapted and evaluated as methods to prevent and treat painkiller dependence.
    • Professional football clubs’ involvement in health promotion in Spain: an audit of current practices

      Lozano-Sufrategui, Lorena; Pringle, Andy; Zwolinsky, Stephen; Drew, Kevin J; Leeds Beckett University (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2019-09-20)
      The implementation of effective community-based health interventions within Spanish football clubs has the potential to positively influence the public health agenda and enable the health care system in Spain to be more successful and sustainable. This paper aims to explore the involvement of Spanish football clubs in health promotion activities, their potential for future involvement and what that would require. A mixed methods explanatory sequential design, with a purposive sample of La Liga clubs. Data collection included online questionnaires and phone interviews. Quantitative methods enabled us to describe the number and types of programmes the clubs are currently involved in. Qualitative data was useful to further unpick the processes followed by the clubs in planning and developing health promotion programmes, while identifying any determinants to change. Seventeen clubs completed questionnaires and 11 participated in interviews. Clubs generally support inclusive programmes that target disadvantaged groups. Health-related programmes focus on healthy eating, physical activity and blood donation. Thematic analysis of interviews with 11 representatives of La Liga clubs resulted in three key themes. These related to: (1) Diversity of programmes; (2) (Lack of) evidence-based approaches to intervention design and evaluation; and (3) Contrasting views about a club’s role in health promotion interventions. Spanish football clubs have potential to reach into communities that are currently underserved. However, there is limited infrastructure and understanding within the clubs to do this. Nevertheless, there is huge opportunity for organisations with public health responsibility in Spain to implement translational approaches within football-based settings.
    • Psychological and physiological effects of compassionate mind training: A pilot randomised controlled study

      Matos, Marcela; Duarte, Cristiana; Duarte, Joana; Pinto-Gouveia, José; Petrocchi, Nicola; Basran, Jaskaran; Gilbert, Paul; University of Coimbra; John Cabot University; University of Derby (Springer, 2017-06-08)
      The development of the compassionate self, associated with practices such as slow and deeper breathing, compassionate voice tones and facial expressions and compassionate focusing is central to Compassion Focused Therapy. This study explores the impact of a two-week Compassionate Mind Training (CMT) program on emotional, self-evaluative and psychopathology measures and on heart rate variability (HRV). Participants (general population and college students) were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: CMT (n=56) and Wait-List Control (n=37). Participants in the CMTcondition were instructed to practice CMT exercises during two weeks. Self-report measures of compassion, positive affect, fears of compassion, self-criticism, shame, depression, anxiety and stress, and HRV were collected at pre and post intervention in both conditions. Compared to the control group, the experimental group showed significant increases in positive emotions, associated with feeling relaxed and also safe and content, but not activated; and in self-compassion, compassion for others and compassion from others. There were significant reductions in shame, self-criticism, fears of compassion, and stress. Only the experimental group reported significant improvement in HRV. Developing awareness of the evolved nature and inherent difficulties of our minds allied with practicing CMT exercises has beneficial effects on participants' psychological and physiological well-being.