• Motivational and behavioural models of change: A longitudinal analysis of change among men with chronic haemophilia-related joint pain

      Elander, James; Richardson, Cassandra; Morris, John; Robinson, Georgina; Schofield, Malcolm B.; University of Derby; University of Central Lancashire; Haemophilia Society UK; London Metropolitan University; Centre for Psychological Research; University of Derby; UK; et al. (Wiley, 2017-08-10)
      Background: Motivational and behavioral models of adjustment to chronic pain make different predictions about change processes, which can be tested in longitudinal analyses. Methods: We examined changes in motivation, coping and acceptance among 78 men with chronic hemophilia-related joint pain. Using cross-lagged regression analyses of changes from baseline to 6 months as predictors of changes from 6 to 12 months, with supplementary structural equation modelling, we tested two models in which motivational changes influence behavioral changes, and one in which behavioral changes influence motivational changes. Results: Changes in motivation to self-manage pain influenced later changes in pain coping, consistent with the motivational model of pain self-management, and also influenced later changes in activity engagement, the behavioral component of pain acceptance. Changes in activity engagement influenced later changes in pain willingness, consistent with the behavioral model of pain acceptance. Conclusions: Based on the findings, a combined model of changes in pain self-management and acceptance is proposed, which could guide combined interventions based on theories of motivation, coping and acceptance in chronic pain.
    • Motor performance during experimental pain: The influence of exposure to contact sports

      Thornton, Claire; Sheffield, David; Baird, Andrew; University of Derby (Wiley, 2019-01-30)
      Athletes who play contact sports are regularly exposed to pain, yet manage to perform complex tasks without significant decrement. Limited research has suggested that superior pain tolerance in contact athletes may be important in this context and this may be altered via experience of pain. Other psychological variables such as challenge states, pain bothersomeness and coping style may also influence skill execution during pain. Forty experienced contact athletes (>3 years experience), 40 novice contact athletes (<6 months experience) and 40 non-contact athletes performed a motor task both in pain and without pain. During the pain condition, pressure pain was induced and half of each group were given challenge instructions and the other half threat based instructions. Measures of cognitive appraisal, heart rate variability, pain bothersomeness, tolerance and intensity and coping styles were taken. Contact athletes, regardless of experience, performed better during pain compared to the non-contact athletes, this relationship was mediated by pain tolerance and physical bothersomeness. During the threat condition, experience of contact sports moderated performance. Contact athletes were challenged by the pain, regardless of the instructions given, had higher direct coping and found pain less psychologically bothersome. Experienced contact athletes had higher pain tolerance and reported pain as less intense than the other groups. Ahletes who play contact sports may have better coping and adjustment to experimental pain, especially during threatening conditions. Performance during experimental pain is mediated by pain tolerance and physical pain bothersomeness. Athletes with even relatively small amounts of contact sport experience perform better during experimental pain than athletes who play non-contact sports. Experienced contact athletes had higher levels of direct coping and were more challenged and less threatened by pain than non-contact athletes.
    • Multiple interpretations of child art–the importance of context and perspective.

      Hallam, Jenny; Lee, Helen A. N.; Das Gupta, Mani; University of Derby (2012)
      Experimentally based research within developmental psychology has suggested that the way children are taught art shapes their artistic growth. Thus, researchers have begun to acknowledge the importance of studying the wider contexts which shape children’s experiences of art. This paper builds on previous educational policy based research by examining how art is taught in English Primary Schools. Ethnographic methods informed by social constructionism are used to investigate the ways in which Reception teachers work with 4 - 5 year old children during art lessons held in two English primary schools. Reflexive ethnography and a synthesis approach to discourse analysis are utilised to examine i) the positions adopted by teachers as they introduce an art activity and ii) wider art values drawn upon to conceptualise ‘good’ art. It is argued that teachers adopt differing approaches which promote realistic art. This is discussed in relation to curriculum policy and practice.
    • Multivariate design inclusion using HADRIAN.

      Marshall, Russell; Summerskill, Steve; Porter, J. Mark; Case, Keith; Sims, Ruth; Gyi, Diane E.; Davis, Peter; Loughborough University (2008)
      This paper details the development of our computer based design tool: HADRIAN. Developed to address the area of user accommodation within design and in particular the support for ‘design for all’, HADRIAN provides an integrated database and analysis system. The data element of HADRIAN is an attempt to simplify the understanding and use of ergonomics data by the design community in addition to encouraging empathy with the end user. Anthropometry and functional abilities were collected from 100 individuals many of whom are older or have some form of disability. In addition, behavioural data was collected from the individuals performing common tasks associated with daily living and the use of transport. The individuals in the database effectively form a virtual user group that can then be used to investigate and evaluate a concept design of a product, or environment through a task analysis feature. Further developments for the HADRIAN tool also include an inclusive journey planner that allows individual travellers, or transport planners to evaluate the inclusiveness of a particular route. Together this package of tools provides a richer, more accessible set of data for human modelling and ergonomics design, and a means to assess the inclusiveness of a product, environment, or journey.
    • Narcissism, social anxiety and self-presentation in exercise.

      Akehurst, Sally; Thatcher, Joanne; Aberystwyth University (Elsevier, 2010-04-10)
      In an exercise setting where impression motivation might be high but self-presentation efficacy low, social anxiety is likely to occur (Schlenker & Leary, 1982). Narcissism is, however, associated with low anxiety, high confidence, and a keenness for social evaluation (Wallace, Baumeister, & Vohs, 2005) and therefore may protect exercisers from social anxiety. One hundred and sixty undergraduates (88 males and 72 females; Mage = 20.45 years, SD = 2.49 years) completed measures of narcissism, social anxiety, and self-presentation in exercise. In females, narcissism moderated the impression motivation/construction– social anxiety relationships. Findings extend our understanding of the self-presentational processes involved in exercise and, specifically, how narcissism protects individuals from experiencing high social anxiety.
    • National guidelines and your continuing professional development

      Bryson, David; University of Derby (Taylor & Francis, 2020-01-23)
      There are several links between the national guidelines produced by the Institute of Medical Illustrators (IMI), the development of evidence-based practice and continuing professional development (CPD). This includes their development, research and testing in practice, their use either to support the development of best practice or their direct implementation. This paper suggests a number of ways to engage with the guidelines to support your professional learning and CPD.
    • Nature contact, nature connectedness and associations with health, wellbeing and pro-environmental behaviours

      White, Mathew P.; Hunt, Anne; Richardson, Miles; Pahl, Sabine; Burt, Jim; University of Plymouth; University of Exeter; Natural England, UK; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2020-01-18)
    • Nature Engagement for Human and Nature’s Wellbeing during the Corona Pandemic

      Richardson, Miles; Hamlin, Iain; University of Derby (Emerald, 2021-05-28)
      To explore the associations between noticing nature, nature connectedness, time in nature and human and nature’s wellbeing during the Corona pandemic restrictions. Natural England’s People and Nature Survey (PANS) data (n=4206) from the UK was used to assess a number of wellbeing outcomes (loneliness, life satisfaction, worthwhile life and happiness) and pro-nature behaviours as a function of longer-term physical time in nature and psychological connectedness to nature and shorter-term visits and noticing of nature. Longer-term factors of nature connectedness and time in nature were both consistent significant predictors of wellbeing measures (apart from loneliness) and pro-nature conservation behaviours. Considered alone short-term visits and noticing were again consistent and significant predictors of three wellbeing measures, but recent visits to nature were not associated with pro-nature conservation behaviours. A combined regression highlighted the importance of a longer-term relationship with nature in all outcomes apart from loneliness, but also revealed that, even when considered in concert with longer-term factors, currently noticing nature had a role in feeling one’s life was worthwhile, pro-nature behaviours and loneliness. The closeness of the human-nature relationship and noticing nature have rarely been examined in concert with nature visits. Further, the reciprocal benefits of pro-nature behaviours are often overlooked.
    • Nature: a new paradigm for well-being and ergonomics

      Richardson, Miles; Maspero, Marta; Golightly, David; Sheffield, David; Staples, Vicki; Lumber, Ryan; University of Derby; University of Nottingham (2016-03-22)
      Nature is presented as a new paradigm for ergonomics. As a discipline concerned with well-being, the importance of natural environments for wellness should be part of ergonomics knowledge and practice. This position is supported by providing a concise summary of the evidence of the value of the natural environment to well-being. Further, an emerging body of research has found relationships between well-being and a connection to nature, a concept that reveals the integrative character of human experience which can inform wider practice and epistemology in ergonomics. Practitioners are encouraged to bring nature into the workplace, so that ergonomics keeps pace with the move to nature-based solutions, but also as a necessity in the current ecological and social context.
    • Negations in syllogistic reasoning: Evidence for a heuristic–analytic conflict

      Stupple, Edward J. N.; Waterhouse, Eleanor F.; University of Derby (2009-08)
      An experiment utilizing response time measures was conducted to test dominant processing strategies in syllogistic reasoning with the expanded quantifier set proposed by Roberts (2005). Through adding negations to existing quantifiers it is possible to change problem surface features without altering logical validity. Biases based on surface features such as atmosphere, matching, and the probability heuristics model (PHM; Chater & Oaksford, 1999; Wetherick & Gilhooly, 1995) would not be expected to show variance in response latencies, but participant responses should be highly sensitive to changes in the surface features of the quantifiers. In contrast, according to analytic accounts such as mental models theory and mental logic (e.g., Johnson-Laird & Byrne, 1991; Rips, 1994) participants should exhibit increased response times for negated premises, but not be overly impacted upon by the surface features of the conclusion. Data indicated that the dominant response strategy was based on a matching heuristic, but also provided evidence of a resource-demanding analytic procedure for dealing with double negatives. The authors propose that dual-process theories offer a stronger account of these data whereby participants employ competing heuristic and analytic strategies and fall back on a heuristic response when analytic processing fails.
    • Negotiating in the world of mixed beliefs and value systems: A compassion-focused model

      Gilbert, Paul; University of Derby (Springer, 2014-11-11)
      In a world of increasing conflicts, over a variety of resources, and with a need for humans to work together to solve common problems, the area of international negotiations is central to these endeavours. This chapter will argue that conflict and conflict resolution can be understood against an evolutionary framework which helps us understand why the human brain is capable of producing highly destructive and conflictual behaviours. This approach opens up new ways of considering the challenges that face international negotiators. This chapter will also argue that although our brain has many destructive potentials, it also has a capacity for altruism, cooperation and compassion. If we learn to cultivate our minds from these qualities, along with mindfulness, this may help negotiators find new ways of negotiating and working with their own complex psychologies.
    • The neural correlates of belief-bias inhibition: The impact of logic training

      Luo, Junlong; Tang, Xiaochen; Zhang, Entao; Stupple, Edward J. N.; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2014-09-27)
      Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate the brain activity associated with response change in a belief bias paradigm before and after logic training. Participants completed two sets of belief biased reasoning tasks. In the first set they were instructed to respond based on their empirical beliefs, and in the second – following logic training – they were instructed to respond logically. The comparison between conflict problems in the second scan versus in the first scan revealed differing activation for the left inferior frontal gyrus, left middle frontal gyrus, cerebellum, and precuneus. The scan was time locked to the presentation of the minor premise, and thus demonstrated effects of belief–logic conflict on neural activation earlier in the time course than has previously been shown in fMRI. These data, moreover, indicated that logical training results in changes in brain activity associated with cognitive control processing.
    • Neural networks engaged in short-term memory rehearsal are disrupted by irrelevant speech in human subjects

      Kopp, Franziska; Schröger, Erich; Lipka, Sigrid (2004)
      Rehearsal mechanisms in human short-term memory are increasingly understood in the light of both behavioural and neuroanatomical findings. However, little is known about the cooperation of participating brain structures and how such cooperations are affected when memory performance is disrupted. In this paper we use EEG coherence as a measure of synchronization to investigate rehearsal processes and their disruption by irrelevant speech in a delayed serial recall paradigm. Fronto-central and fronto-parietal theta (4–7.5 Hz), beta (13–20 Hz), and gamma (35–47 Hz) synchronizations are shown to be involved in our short-term memory task. Moreover, the impairment in serial recall due to irrelevant speech was preceded by a reduction of gamma band coherence. Results suggest that the irrelevant speech effect has its neural basis in the disruption of left-lateralized fronto-central networks. This stresses the importance of gamma band activity for short-term memory operations.
    • The neurophysiological relationship between number anxiety and the EEG gamma-band

      Batashvili, Michael; Staples, Paul; Baker, Ian; Sheffield, David; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2020-06-11)
      The development of math anxiety is thought to originate at a young age, as a form of number anxiety, but has not been investigated extensively. Research has shown greater levels of EEG gamma-band activity are experienced during threat perception and attentional bias. This has been identified in high math anxious individuals when confronted with math-based tasks, but has not yet been explored for number anxiety specifically. Single-digit numbers and letters were presented to 15 high and 15 low math anxious participants, who were required to observe the stimuli. High math anxious participants displayed significantly greater levels of gamma activity during number observation compared to letter observation. Findings suggest high math anxious individuals may have a threat-related response to observation of simple numerical stimuli. Further behavioural investigations are needed, but high math anxious individuals may display avoidance towards number and math due to a threat response associated with increased gamma activity.
    • New lecturers' beliefs about learning, teaching and assessment in higher education: the role of the PGCLTHE programme

      Norton, Lin; Aiyegbayo, Olaojo; Harrington, Katherine; Elander, James; Reddy, Peter (2011-12-01)
      This study was carried out with new lecturers on a two year Post Graduate Certificate in Learning and Teaching in Higher Education programme in a UK university. The aim was to establish their beliefs about how studying on the programme aligned with their teaching and learning philosophy and what, if anything, had changed or constrained those beliefs. Ten lecturers took part in an in-depth semi-structured interview. Content analysis of the transcripts suggested positive reactions to the programme but lecturers’ new insights were sometimes constrained by departments and university bureaucracy, particularly in the area of assessment. The conflicting roles of research and teaching were also a major issue facing these new professionals.
    • A new therapeutic community: Development of a compassion-focussed and contextual behavioural environment

      Veale, David; Gilbert, Paul; Wheatley, Jon; Naismith, Iona; King's College London; University of Derby; Institute of Psychiatry; King's College London and the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust; London UK; Mental Health Research Unit; Kingsway Hospital; Derby UK; Institute of Psychiatry; King's College London and the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust; London UK; Institute of Psychiatry; King's College London and the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust; London UK (Wiley, 2014-04-14)
      Social relationships and communities provide the context and impetus for a range of psychological developments, from genetic expression to the development of core self-identities. This suggests a need to think about the therapeutic changes and processes that occur within a community context and how communities can enable therapeutic change. However, the ‘therapeutic communities’ that have developed since the Second World War have been under-researched. We suggest that the concept of community, as a change process, should be revisited within mainstream scientific research. This paper briefly reviews the historical development of therapeutic communities and critically evaluates their current theory, practice and outcomes in a systematic review. Attention is drawn to recent research on the nature of evolved emotion regulation systems, the way these are entrained by social relationships, the importance of affiliative emotions in the regulation of threat and the role of fear of affiliative emotions in psychopathology. We draw on concepts from compassion-focussed therapy, social learning theory and functional analytical psychotherapy to consider how members of a therapeutic community can be aware of each other’s acts of courage and respond using compassion. Living in structured and affiliative-orientated communities that are guided by scientific models of affect and self-regulation offers potential therapeutic advantages over individual outpatient therapy for certain client groups. This conclusion should be investigated further. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    • Normative benchmarks are useful for studying individual differences in reasoning

      Stupple, Edward J. N.; Ball, Linden J.; University of Derby; Lancaster University (Cambridge University Press, 2011-10-14)
      We applaud many aspects of E&E’s call for a descriptivist research programme in studying reasoning. Nevertheless, we contend that normative benchmarks are vital for understanding individual differences in performance. We argue that the presence of normative responses to particular problems by certain individuals should inspire researchers to look for converging evidence for analytic processing that may have a normative basis.
    • Obsessive passion: a dependency associated with injury-related risky behaviour in dancers.

      Akehurst, Sally; Oliver, Emily J.; University of Derby; Aberystwyth University (Routledge, 2013-09-09)
      Grounded in self-determination theory, obsessive passion for an activity has been associated with increased risky behaviour and rigid persistence, both symptomatic of dependence. However, it is unknown whether obsessive passion may predict the development of dependence, and furthermore, theoretically important relationships between basic need satisfaction, passion, exercise dependence and subsequent risky behaviour have not been fully explored. A sample of 100 professional dancers (50fs; 50ms; Mage = 20.88; SD = 2.69) completed self-ratings of risk-related behaviours (doctor visits; following treatment, and warming up), passion for dance and dance dependence. Findings supported the maladaptive nature of obsessive passion in relation to risky behaviour and as predicted dance dependence mediated this relationship. Interestingly, need satisfaction was positively related to both obsessive passion and harmonious passion. Results are discussed in the light of self-determination theory and dysfunctions of obsessive passion, suggesting that professional dancers are at risk of employing maladaptive behaviours if high in obsessive passion, which may be detectable via symptoms of dance dependence.
    • Older people's experiences of their kitchens: 2000 to 2010

      Sims, Ruth; Maguire, Martin C.; Nicolle, Colette; Marshall, Russell; Lawton, Clare; Peace, Sheila; Percival, John (2013-07-12)
      Purpose – This paper aims to present the quantitative results based on a comparison and evaluation of older people's experiences, needs and wants from their current kitchens, combining and comparing the results obtained from two studies conducted in 2000 and 2010 to see what progress has been made. Design/methodology/approach – A study in 2010 investigated the life-long and contemporary experiences of kitchens of 48 people aged over 60 years of age. The research included detailed questionnaire interviews asking people about their experiences of living in their current kitchen. A previous study, conducted in 2000, asked many of the same questions of 22 people in the same age group. Findings – By combining and comparing the two sets of data it seems that only limited progress has been made in terms of kitchen design meeting the needs of older people between 2000 and 2010. Research limitations/implications – Owing to the small sizes of the samples it is not possible to compare the figures statistically or present them as fully representative of the British older population but while the two samples are limited both had similar characteristics of age and gender, so differences do show potential trends over time. Practical implications – The research refers to guidance and a computer based design tool and identifies a number of practical implications for design. Social implications – As people age their abilities and needs can change and their kitchen may no longer be as accessible or appropriate to their needs. Originality/value – This paper adds to the relevant guidance for designers, developers and managers of buildings where the continued personal use of a kitchen is important for continuing independence of older people.