• Mental models or probabilistic reasoning or both: Reviewing the evidence for and implications of dual-strategy models of deductive reasoning

      Beeson, Natasha; Stupple, Edward J N; Schofield, Malcolm; Staples, Paul; University of Derby (University of Rijeka, 2019-04-30)
      The present paper presents an overview of contemporary reasoning research to examine the evidence for and implications of the Dual Strategy Model of Reasoning. The Dual Strategy Model of Reasoning proposes that there are two types of reasoning strategy applied in deductive reasoning – counterexample and statistical. The paper considers Mental Models Theory and The Probability Heuristics Model as candidate specifications for these respective strategies and hypotheses are proposed on this basis. The Dual Strategy Model is further considered in the context of Dual Process theory, the Dual Source Model and Meta-reasoning and implications of the synergy between these proposals are considered. We finally consider the Dual Strategy Model in the context of individual differences, and normative considerations before proposing novel hypotheses and further avenues of research which we argue require exploration in this context.
    • Mental representations of the supernatural: A cluster analysis of religiosity, spirituality and paranormal belief

      Schofield, Malcolm B.; Baker, Ian S.; Staples, Paul; Sheffield, David; University of Derby (2016-06-25)
      The aim of the study was to establish a new typology of belief in the supernatural; categorising people, based on their levels of religiosity, spirituality and paranormal belief. Examining how the various beliefs are defined was a further objective. The reasons for people having different levels of these beliefs were discussed, highlighting ‘Metaphysical Chauvinism’ as a possible explanation. Previous research that used variousmethods to measure religiosity, spirituality and paranormal belief were discussed. Participants (n = 307) completed an online survey consisting of the revised Religious Life Inventory (rRLI), the Intrinsic Spirituality Scale (ISS) and the revised Paranormal Belief Scale (rPBS). Two cluster analyses were performed: one on the three main scales and a secondary analysis on the ISS, the subscales of the rRLI and the rPBS. The results revealed a four cluster solution for each analysis. For the main analysis the clusters were ‘believers’, ‘paranormal believers’, ‘sceptics’ and ‘religious believers’. Metaphysical Chauvinism was supported; however, it was acknowledged that there still appears to be a lack of consensus when defining supernatural beliefs. It is proposed that the cluster analysis approach is more effective than a simple scale when trying establish how a person believes.
    • Microcell-mediated chromosome transfer identifies EPB41L3 as a functional suppressor of epithelial ovarian cancers.

      Dafou, Dimitra; Grun, Barbara; Sinclair, Jonathan; Lawrenson, Kate; Benjamin, Elizabeth C.; Hogdall, Estrid; Kruger-Kjaer, Susanne; Christensen, Lise; Sowter, Heidi M.; Al-Attar, Ahmed; et al. (2010-07)
      We used a functional complementation approach to identify tumor-suppressor genes and putative therapeutic targets for ovarian cancer. Microcell-mediated transfer of chromosome 18 in the ovarian cancer cell line TOV21G induced in vitro and in vivo neoplastic suppression. Gene expression microarray profiling in TOV21G(+18) hybrids identified 14 candidate genes on chromosome 18 that were significantly overexpressed and therefore associated with neoplastic suppression. Further analysis of messenger RNA and protein expression for these genes in additional ovarian cancer cell lines indicated that EPB41L3 (erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.1-like 3, alternative names DAL-1 and 4.1B) was a candidate ovarian cancer-suppressor gene. Immunoblot analysis showed that EPB41L3 was activated in TOV21G(+18) hybrids, expressed in normal ovarian epithelial cell lines, but was absent in 15 (78%) of 19 ovarian cancer cell lines. Using immunohistochemistry, 66% of 794 invasive ovarian tumors showed no EPB41L3 expression compared with only 24% of benign ovarian tumors and 0% of normal ovarian epithelial tissues. EPB41L3 was extensively methylated in ovarian cancer cell lines and primary ovarian tumors compared with normal tissues (P = .00004), suggesting this may be the mechanism of gene inactivation in ovarian cancers. Constitutive reexpression of EPB41L3 in a three-dimensional multicellular spheroid model of ovarian cancer caused significant growth suppression and induced apoptosis. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy demonstrated many similarities between EPB41L3-expressing cells and chromosome 18 donor-recipient hybrids, suggesting that EPB41L3 is the gene responsible for neoplastic suppression after chromosome 18 transfer. Finally, an inducible model of EPB41L3 expression in three-dimensional spheroids confirmed that reexpression of EPB41L3 induces extensive apoptotic cell death in ovarian cancers.
    • Mitotic control of human papillomavirus genome-containing cells is regulated by the function of the PDZ-binding motif of the E6 oncoprotein.

      Marsh, Elizabeth K.; Delury, Craig P.; Davies, Nicholas J.; Weston, Christopher J.; Miah, Mohammed A. L.; Banks, Lawrence; Parish, Joanna L.; Higgs, Martin R.; Roberts, Sally; University of Birmingham; et al. (Impact Journals, 2017-01-03)
      The function of a conserved PDS95/DLG1/ZO1 (PDZ) binding motif (E6 PBM) at the C-termini of E6 oncoproteins of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types contributes to the development of HPV-associated malignancies. Here, using a primary human keratinocyte-based model of the high-risk HPV18 life cycle, we identify a novel link between the E6 PBM and mitotic stability. In cultures containing a mutant genome in which the E6 PBM was deleted there was an increase in the frequency of abnormal mitoses, including multinucleation, compared to cells harboring the wild type HPV18 genome. The loss of the E6 PBM was associated with a significant increase in the frequency of mitotic spindle defects associated with anaphase and telophase. Furthermore, cells carrying this mutant genome had increased chromosome segregation defects and they also exhibited greater levels of genomic instability, as shown by an elevated level of centromere-positive micronuclei. In wild type HPV18 genome-containing organotypic cultures, the majority of mitotic cells reside in the suprabasal layers, in keeping with the hyperplastic morphology of the structures. However, in mutant genome-containing structures a greater proportion of mitotic cells were retained in the basal layer, which were often of undefined polarity, thus correlating with their reduced thickness. We conclude that the ability of E6 to target cellular PDZ proteins plays a critical role in maintaining mitotic stability of HPV infected cells, ensuring stable episome persistence and vegetative amplification.
    • Moments, not minutes: The nature-wellbeing relationship

      Richardson, Miles; Passmore, Holli-Anne; Lumber, Ryan; Thomas, Rory; Hunt, Alex; University of Derby; National Trust (University of Waikato, 2021-01-31)
      A wealth of literature has evidenced the important role that the greater-than-human natural environment plays in our mental health and wellbeing (reviews by Bratman et al., 2019; Capaldi et al., 2014, 2015; Pritchard et al., 2019). Spending time in nature, engaging with nature directly and indirectly, and a strong sense of nature connectedness (a psychological/emotional connection with nature) have each been shown to positively impact wellbeing. Few studies, however, have examined the importance that various nature-related factors have on our wellbeing when examined in concert with each other, with none including factors of nature connection and engagement. In the current study, using a national United Kingdom sample of 2,096 adults, we provide new insights into this gap in the literature. Our primary focus was on examining, when considered simultaneously, the patterns and relative predictive importance to hedonic wellbeing (i.e., happiness), eudaimonic wellbeing (i.e., worthwhile life), illbeing (i.e., depression and anxiety), and general physical health of five nature-related factors: (1) nature connectedness, (2) time in nature, (3) engagement with nature through simple everyday activities, (4) indirect engagement with nature, and (5) knowledge and study of nature. A consistent pattern of results emerged across multiple analytical approaches (i.e., correlations, linear regression, dominance analyses, commonality analysis), wherein time in nature was not the main (or significant) predictive nature-related factor for wellbeing. Rather, nature connectedness and engaging with nature through simple activities (e.g., smelling flowers) consistently emerged as being the significant and prominent factors in predicting and explaining variance in mental health and wellbeing. Implications for practical application and policy/programme planning are discussed.
    • The Monty Hall problem revisited: Autonomic arousal in an inverted version of the game.

      Massad, Eduardo; dos Santos, Paulo Cesar Costa; da Rocha, Armando Freitas; Stupple, Edward J. N.; University of Sao Paulo; London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine; University of Derby; Fundacao Getulio Vargas (Public Library of Science (PLOS), 2018-03-26)
      The asymmetry of autonomic arousal for potential losses and gains was assessed by the galvanic skin response (GSR) of participants playing classic and inverted versions of the Monty Hall problem (MHP). In both versions, the prize remained the same (a pen valued at £10 for the right answer), but in the modified version, prizes were received prior to choosing the door. Both experimental groups showed increased levels of GSR while completing the task, demonstrating increased autonomic arousal during the game. However, a robust difference in GSR was detected between classic and inverted versions of the MHP, thus demonstrating the differing autonomic arousal involved in deciding between the alternatives presented by the game. Participants experienced a stronger autonomic response when they could lose the prize than when they could win the prize. This experiment presents the first demonstration of this effect on the MHP. The stronger autonomic arousal for the inverted task may indicate a stronger emotional reaction and/or greater attentional focus than for the standard version of the task. These data demonstrate that potential losses increase arousal in more complex tasks than is typically shown.
    • Motivational and behavioural models of change: A longitudinal analysis of change among men with chronic haemophilia-related joint pain

      Elander, James; Richardson, Cassandra; Morris, John; Robinson, Georgina; Schofield, Malcolm B.; University of Derby; University of Central Lancashire; Haemophilia Society UK; London Metropolitan University; Centre for Psychological Research; University of Derby; UK; et al. (Wiley, 2017-08-10)
      Background: Motivational and behavioral models of adjustment to chronic pain make different predictions about change processes, which can be tested in longitudinal analyses. Methods: We examined changes in motivation, coping and acceptance among 78 men with chronic hemophilia-related joint pain. Using cross-lagged regression analyses of changes from baseline to 6 months as predictors of changes from 6 to 12 months, with supplementary structural equation modelling, we tested two models in which motivational changes influence behavioral changes, and one in which behavioral changes influence motivational changes. Results: Changes in motivation to self-manage pain influenced later changes in pain coping, consistent with the motivational model of pain self-management, and also influenced later changes in activity engagement, the behavioral component of pain acceptance. Changes in activity engagement influenced later changes in pain willingness, consistent with the behavioral model of pain acceptance. Conclusions: Based on the findings, a combined model of changes in pain self-management and acceptance is proposed, which could guide combined interventions based on theories of motivation, coping and acceptance in chronic pain.
    • Motor performance during experimental pain: The influence of exposure to contact sports

      Thornton, Claire; Sheffield, David; Baird, Andrew; University of Derby (Wiley, 2019-01-30)
      Athletes who play contact sports are regularly exposed to pain, yet manage to perform complex tasks without significant decrement. Limited research has suggested that superior pain tolerance in contact athletes may be important in this context and this may be altered via experience of pain. Other psychological variables such as challenge states, pain bothersomeness and coping style may also influence skill execution during pain. Forty experienced contact athletes (>3 years experience), 40 novice contact athletes (<6 months experience) and 40 non-contact athletes performed a motor task both in pain and without pain. During the pain condition, pressure pain was induced and half of each group were given challenge instructions and the other half threat based instructions. Measures of cognitive appraisal, heart rate variability, pain bothersomeness, tolerance and intensity and coping styles were taken. Contact athletes, regardless of experience, performed better during pain compared to the non-contact athletes, this relationship was mediated by pain tolerance and physical bothersomeness. During the threat condition, experience of contact sports moderated performance. Contact athletes were challenged by the pain, regardless of the instructions given, had higher direct coping and found pain less psychologically bothersome. Experienced contact athletes had higher pain tolerance and reported pain as less intense than the other groups. Ahletes who play contact sports may have better coping and adjustment to experimental pain, especially during threatening conditions. Performance during experimental pain is mediated by pain tolerance and physical pain bothersomeness. Athletes with even relatively small amounts of contact sport experience perform better during experimental pain than athletes who play non-contact sports. Experienced contact athletes had higher levels of direct coping and were more challenged and less threatened by pain than non-contact athletes.
    • Multiple interpretations of child art–the importance of context and perspective.

      Hallam, Jenny; Lee, Helen A. N.; Das Gupta, Mani; University of Derby (2012)
      Experimentally based research within developmental psychology has suggested that the way children are taught art shapes their artistic growth. Thus, researchers have begun to acknowledge the importance of studying the wider contexts which shape children’s experiences of art. This paper builds on previous educational policy based research by examining how art is taught in English Primary Schools. Ethnographic methods informed by social constructionism are used to investigate the ways in which Reception teachers work with 4 - 5 year old children during art lessons held in two English primary schools. Reflexive ethnography and a synthesis approach to discourse analysis are utilised to examine i) the positions adopted by teachers as they introduce an art activity and ii) wider art values drawn upon to conceptualise ‘good’ art. It is argued that teachers adopt differing approaches which promote realistic art. This is discussed in relation to curriculum policy and practice.
    • Multivariate design inclusion using HADRIAN.

      Marshall, Russell; Summerskill, Steve; Porter, J. Mark; Case, Keith; Sims, Ruth; Gyi, Diane E.; Davis, Peter; Loughborough University (2008)
      This paper details the development of our computer based design tool: HADRIAN. Developed to address the area of user accommodation within design and in particular the support for ‘design for all’, HADRIAN provides an integrated database and analysis system. The data element of HADRIAN is an attempt to simplify the understanding and use of ergonomics data by the design community in addition to encouraging empathy with the end user. Anthropometry and functional abilities were collected from 100 individuals many of whom are older or have some form of disability. In addition, behavioural data was collected from the individuals performing common tasks associated with daily living and the use of transport. The individuals in the database effectively form a virtual user group that can then be used to investigate and evaluate a concept design of a product, or environment through a task analysis feature. Further developments for the HADRIAN tool also include an inclusive journey planner that allows individual travellers, or transport planners to evaluate the inclusiveness of a particular route. Together this package of tools provides a richer, more accessible set of data for human modelling and ergonomics design, and a means to assess the inclusiveness of a product, environment, or journey.
    • Narcissism, social anxiety and self-presentation in exercise.

      Akehurst, Sally; Thatcher, Joanne; Aberystwyth University (Elsevier, 2010-04-10)
      In an exercise setting where impression motivation might be high but self-presentation efficacy low, social anxiety is likely to occur (Schlenker & Leary, 1982). Narcissism is, however, associated with low anxiety, high confidence, and a keenness for social evaluation (Wallace, Baumeister, & Vohs, 2005) and therefore may protect exercisers from social anxiety. One hundred and sixty undergraduates (88 males and 72 females; Mage = 20.45 years, SD = 2.49 years) completed measures of narcissism, social anxiety, and self-presentation in exercise. In females, narcissism moderated the impression motivation/construction– social anxiety relationships. Findings extend our understanding of the self-presentational processes involved in exercise and, specifically, how narcissism protects individuals from experiencing high social anxiety.
    • National guidelines and your continuing professional development

      Bryson, David; University of Derby (Taylor & Francis, 2020-01-23)
      There are several links between the national guidelines produced by the Institute of Medical Illustrators (IMI), the development of evidence-based practice and continuing professional development (CPD). This includes their development, research and testing in practice, their use either to support the development of best practice or their direct implementation. This paper suggests a number of ways to engage with the guidelines to support your professional learning and CPD.
    • Nature contact, nature connectedness and associations with health, wellbeing and pro-environmental behaviours

      White, Mathew P.; Hunt, Anne; Richardson, Miles; Pahl, Sabine; Burt, Jim; University of Plymouth; University of Exeter; Natural England, UK; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2020-01-18)
    • Nature Engagement for Human and Nature’s Wellbeing during the Corona Pandemic

      Richardson, Miles; Hamlin, Iain; University of Derby (Emerald, 2021-05-28)
      To explore the associations between noticing nature, nature connectedness, time in nature and human and nature’s wellbeing during the Corona pandemic restrictions. Natural England’s People and Nature Survey (PANS) data (n=4206) from the UK was used to assess a number of wellbeing outcomes (loneliness, life satisfaction, worthwhile life and happiness) and pro-nature behaviours as a function of longer-term physical time in nature and psychological connectedness to nature and shorter-term visits and noticing of nature. Longer-term factors of nature connectedness and time in nature were both consistent significant predictors of wellbeing measures (apart from loneliness) and pro-nature conservation behaviours. Considered alone short-term visits and noticing were again consistent and significant predictors of three wellbeing measures, but recent visits to nature were not associated with pro-nature conservation behaviours. A combined regression highlighted the importance of a longer-term relationship with nature in all outcomes apart from loneliness, but also revealed that, even when considered in concert with longer-term factors, currently noticing nature had a role in feeling one’s life was worthwhile, pro-nature behaviours and loneliness. The closeness of the human-nature relationship and noticing nature have rarely been examined in concert with nature visits. Further, the reciprocal benefits of pro-nature behaviours are often overlooked.
    • Nature: a new paradigm for well-being and ergonomics

      Richardson, Miles; Maspero, Marta; Golightly, David; Sheffield, David; Staples, Vicki; Lumber, Ryan; University of Derby; University of Nottingham (2016-03-22)
      Nature is presented as a new paradigm for ergonomics. As a discipline concerned with well-being, the importance of natural environments for wellness should be part of ergonomics knowledge and practice. This position is supported by providing a concise summary of the evidence of the value of the natural environment to well-being. Further, an emerging body of research has found relationships between well-being and a connection to nature, a concept that reveals the integrative character of human experience which can inform wider practice and epistemology in ergonomics. Practitioners are encouraged to bring nature into the workplace, so that ergonomics keeps pace with the move to nature-based solutions, but also as a necessity in the current ecological and social context.
    • Negations in syllogistic reasoning: Evidence for a heuristic–analytic conflict

      Stupple, Edward J. N.; Waterhouse, Eleanor F.; University of Derby (2009-08)
      An experiment utilizing response time measures was conducted to test dominant processing strategies in syllogistic reasoning with the expanded quantifier set proposed by Roberts (2005). Through adding negations to existing quantifiers it is possible to change problem surface features without altering logical validity. Biases based on surface features such as atmosphere, matching, and the probability heuristics model (PHM; Chater & Oaksford, 1999; Wetherick & Gilhooly, 1995) would not be expected to show variance in response latencies, but participant responses should be highly sensitive to changes in the surface features of the quantifiers. In contrast, according to analytic accounts such as mental models theory and mental logic (e.g., Johnson-Laird & Byrne, 1991; Rips, 1994) participants should exhibit increased response times for negated premises, but not be overly impacted upon by the surface features of the conclusion. Data indicated that the dominant response strategy was based on a matching heuristic, but also provided evidence of a resource-demanding analytic procedure for dealing with double negatives. The authors propose that dual-process theories offer a stronger account of these data whereby participants employ competing heuristic and analytic strategies and fall back on a heuristic response when analytic processing fails.
    • Negotiating in the world of mixed beliefs and value systems: A compassion-focused model

      Gilbert, Paul; University of Derby (Springer, 2014-11-11)
      In a world of increasing conflicts, over a variety of resources, and with a need for humans to work together to solve common problems, the area of international negotiations is central to these endeavours. This chapter will argue that conflict and conflict resolution can be understood against an evolutionary framework which helps us understand why the human brain is capable of producing highly destructive and conflictual behaviours. This approach opens up new ways of considering the challenges that face international negotiators. This chapter will also argue that although our brain has many destructive potentials, it also has a capacity for altruism, cooperation and compassion. If we learn to cultivate our minds from these qualities, along with mindfulness, this may help negotiators find new ways of negotiating and working with their own complex psychologies.
    • The neural correlates of belief-bias inhibition: The impact of logic training

      Luo, Junlong; Tang, Xiaochen; Zhang, Entao; Stupple, Edward J. N.; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2014-09-27)
      Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate the brain activity associated with response change in a belief bias paradigm before and after logic training. Participants completed two sets of belief biased reasoning tasks. In the first set they were instructed to respond based on their empirical beliefs, and in the second – following logic training – they were instructed to respond logically. The comparison between conflict problems in the second scan versus in the first scan revealed differing activation for the left inferior frontal gyrus, left middle frontal gyrus, cerebellum, and precuneus. The scan was time locked to the presentation of the minor premise, and thus demonstrated effects of belief–logic conflict on neural activation earlier in the time course than has previously been shown in fMRI. These data, moreover, indicated that logical training results in changes in brain activity associated with cognitive control processing.
    • Neural networks engaged in short-term memory rehearsal are disrupted by irrelevant speech in human subjects

      Kopp, Franziska; Schröger, Erich; Lipka, Sigrid (2004)
      Rehearsal mechanisms in human short-term memory are increasingly understood in the light of both behavioural and neuroanatomical findings. However, little is known about the cooperation of participating brain structures and how such cooperations are affected when memory performance is disrupted. In this paper we use EEG coherence as a measure of synchronization to investigate rehearsal processes and their disruption by irrelevant speech in a delayed serial recall paradigm. Fronto-central and fronto-parietal theta (4–7.5 Hz), beta (13–20 Hz), and gamma (35–47 Hz) synchronizations are shown to be involved in our short-term memory task. Moreover, the impairment in serial recall due to irrelevant speech was preceded by a reduction of gamma band coherence. Results suggest that the irrelevant speech effect has its neural basis in the disruption of left-lateralized fronto-central networks. This stresses the importance of gamma band activity for short-term memory operations.
    • The neurophysiological relationship between number anxiety and the EEG gamma-band

      Batashvili, Michael; Staples, Paul; Baker, Ian; Sheffield, David; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2020-06-11)
      The development of math anxiety is thought to originate at a young age, as a form of number anxiety, but has not been investigated extensively. Research has shown greater levels of EEG gamma-band activity are experienced during threat perception and attentional bias. This has been identified in high math anxious individuals when confronted with math-based tasks, but has not yet been explored for number anxiety specifically. Single-digit numbers and letters were presented to 15 high and 15 low math anxious participants, who were required to observe the stimuli. High math anxious participants displayed significantly greater levels of gamma activity during number observation compared to letter observation. Findings suggest high math anxious individuals may have a threat-related response to observation of simple numerical stimuli. Further behavioural investigations are needed, but high math anxious individuals may display avoidance towards number and math due to a threat response associated with increased gamma activity.