• Innovative guidelines and tools for vulnerable road users safety in India and Brazil

      Appelt, Viet; Astapenko, Anna; Musso, Antonio; Corazza, Maria V.; Tripodi, Antonino; Quigley, Claire; Rackliff, Lucy; Danton, Russell; Pearce, Duncan; Talbot, Rachel; et al. (2011)
    • Innovative guidelines and tools for vulnerable road users safety in India and Brazil

      Sims, Ruth; Quigley, Claire; Tripodi, Antonino; van der Kloof, Angela; van de Leur, Martijn; Wolf, Daniel; Pietrantonio, Hugo; Loughborough University (2011)
      This report details the functionalities and specifications of the Decision Support System for Vulnerable Road Users
    • Innovative guidelines and tools for vulnerable road users safety in India and Brazil

      Tripodi, Antonino; Quigley, Claire; Sims, Ruth; van de Leur, Martijn; van der Kloof, Angela; Fornasiero, Alessandro; Carroccia, Roberto; Loughborough University (2011)
      The document provides an overview of objectives, characteristics, functions of the DSS, as well as a guide for its use.
    • Inspiratory muscle training abolishes the blood lactate increase associated with volitional hyperpnoea superimposed on exercise and accelerates lactate and oxygen uptake kinetics at the onset of exercise.

      Brown, Peter I.; Sharpe, Graham R.; Johnson, Michael A.; University of Derby, Department of Sport and Exercise (2012-06)
      We examined the effects of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) upon volitional hyperpnoea-mediated increases in blood lactate ([lac(-)](B)) during cycling at maximal lactate steady state (MLSS) power, and blood lactate and oxygen uptake kinetics at the onset of exercise. Twenty males formed either an IMT (n = 10) or control group (n = 10). Prior to and following a 6-week intervention, two 30 min trials were performed at MLSS (207 ± 28 W), determined using repeated 30 min constant power trials. The first was a reference trial, whereas during the second trial, from 20 to 28 min, participants mimicked the breathing pattern commensurate with 90% of the maximal incremental exercise test minute ventilation ([Formula: see text]). Prior to the intervention, the MLSS [lac(-)](B) was 3.7 ± 1.8 and 3.9 ± 1.6 mmol L(-1) in the IMT and control groups, respectively. During volitional hyperpnoea, [Formula: see text] increased from 79.9 ± 9.5 and 76.3 ± 15.4 L min(-1) at 20 min to 137.8 ± 15.2 and 135.0 ± 19.7 L min(-1) in IMT and control groups, respectively; [lac(-)](B) concurrently increased by 1.0 ± 0.6 (+27%) and 0.9 ± 0.7 mmol L(-1) (+25%), respectively (P < 0.05). Following the intervention, maximal inspiratory mouth pressure increased 19% in the IMT group only (P < 0.01). Following IMT only, the increase in [lac(-)](B) during volitional hyperpnoea was abolished (P < 0.05). In addition, the blood lactate (-28%) and phase II oxygen uptake (-31%) kinetics time constants at the onset of exercise and the MLSS [lac(-)](B) (-15%) were reduced (P < 0.05). We attribute these changes to an IMT-mediated increase in the oxidative and/or lactate transport capacity of the inspiratory muscles.
    • Inspiratory muscle training improves cycling time-trial performance and anaerobic work capacity but not critical power.

      Johnson, Michael A.; Sharpe, Graham R.; Brown, Peter I.; University of Derby, Department of Sport and Exercise (2007-12)
      We examined whether inspiratory muscle training (IMT) improved cycling time-trial performance and changed the relationship between limit work (W (lim)) and limit time (T (lim)), which is described by the parameters critical power (CP) and anaerobic work capacity (AWC). Eighteen male cyclists were assigned to either a pressure-threshold IMT or sham hypoxic-training placebo (PLC) group. Prior to and following a 6 week intervention subjects completed a 25-km cycling time-trial and three constant-power tests to establish the W (lim)-T (lim) relationship. Constant-power tests were prescribed to elicit exercise intolerance within 3-10 (Ex1), 10-20 (Ex2), and 20-30 (Ex3) min. Maximal inspiratory mouth pressure increased by (mean +/- SD) 17.1 +/- 12.2% following IMT (P < 0.01) and was accompanied by a 2.66 +/- 2.51% improvement in 25-km time-trial performance (P < 0.05); there were no changes following PLC. Constant-power cycling endurance was unchanged following PLC, as was CP (pre vs. post: 249 +/- 32 vs. 250 +/- 32 W) and AWC (30.7 +/- 12.7 vs. 30.1 +/- 12.5 kJ). Following IMT Ex1 and Ex3 cycling endurance improved by 18.3 +/- 15.1 and 15.3 +/- 19.1% (P < 0.05), respectively, CP was unchanged (264 +/- 62 vs. 263 +/- 61 W), but AWC increased from 24.8 +/- 5.6 to 29.0 +/- 8.4 kJ (P < 0.05). In conclusion, these data provide novel evidence that improvements in constant-power and cycling time-trial performance following IMT in cyclists may be explained, in part, by an increase in AWC.
    • Inspiratory muscle training reduces blood lactate concentration during volitional hyperpnoea.

      Brown, Peter I.; Sharpe, Graham R.; Johnson, Michael A.; University of Derby, Department of Sport and Exercise (2008-09)
      Although reduced blood lactate concentrations ([lac(-)](B)) have been observed during whole-body exercise following inspiratory muscle training (IMT), it remains unknown whether the inspiratory muscles are the source of at least part of this reduction. To investigate this, we tested the hypothesis that IMT would attenuate the increase in [lac(-)](B) caused by mimicking, at rest, the breathing pattern observed during high-intensity exercise. Twenty-two physically active males were matched for 85% maximal exercise minute ventilation (.V(E) max) and divided equally into an IMT or a control group. Prior to and following a 6 week intervention, participants performed 10 min of volitional hyperpnoea at the breathing pattern commensurate with 85% .V(E) max. The IMT group performed 6 weeks of pressure-threshold IMT; the control group performed no IMT. Maximal inspiratory mouth pressure increased (mean +/- SD) 31 +/- 22% following IMT and was unchanged in the control group. Prior to the intervention in the control group, [lac(-)](B) increased from 0.76 +/- 0.24 mmol L(-1) at rest to 1.50 +/- 0.60 mmol L(-1) (P < 0.05) following 10 min volitional hyperpnoea. In the IMT group, [lac(-)](B) increased from 0.85 +/- 0.40 mmol L(-1) at rest to 2.02 +/- 0.85 mmol L(-1) following 10 min volitional hyperpnoea (P < 0.05). After 6 weeks, increases in [lac(-)](B) during volitional hyperpnoea were unchanged in the control group. Conversely, following IMT the increase in [lac(-)](B) during volitional hyperpnoea was reduced by 17 +/- 37% and 25 +/- 34% following 8 and 10 min, respectively (P < 0.05). In conclusion, increases in [lac(-)](B) during volitional hyperpnoea at 85% .V(E) max were attenuated following IMT. These findings suggest that the inspiratory muscles were the source of at least part of this reduction, and provide a possible explanation for some of the IMT-mediated reductions in [lac(-)](B), often observed during whole-body exercise.
    • The integration of the workable range model into a mindfulness-based stress reduction course: a practice-based case study

      Rose, Sally A.; Sheffield, David; Harling, Martyn; University of Leeds; University of Derby; University of Nottingham (Springer, 2017-08-29)
      Didactic teaching about stress is part of the Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) curriculum. The content and methods of integrating conceptual teaching within the experiential pedagogy are rarely explored. Workable range is a model of stress and emotion regulation that illustrates patterns of physical, emotional and cognitive reactivity in relation to mindful presence. This is a qualitative case study of the inclusion of the workable range model into an MBSR course as a refinement of the didactic teaching about stress. The focus is to illuminate how the inclusion worked in practice. Ten staff, on a MBSR course in a higher educational setting, were recruited as participant researchers with an overlap between their own first-person investigation during the course and the research data. Adapted diagrams and written answers to two question schedules, completed as reflective exercises within the course, were analysed thematically using template analysis. This revealed how participant researchers engaged with and intuitively used the model to notice and describe their own patterns of feeling balanced or stressed and explore how they related to those experiences. How learning the model integrated with MBSR and the applicability of workable ranges as a teaching resource in MBSR is discussed. The study highlights questions about how conceptual and experiential teaching and learning interrelate in mindfulness-based interventions. There is scope for further research using mindfulness practice as a first-person methodology to investigate the processes within mindfulness-based programs.
    • Internal representations, external representations and ergonomics: towards a theoretical integration

      Richardson, Miles; Ball, Linden J.; University of Derby; Lancaster University (Taylor and Francis, 2009)
    • An international study of analgesic dependence among people with pain in the general population

      Omimah, Said; Elander, James; Maratos, Frances A.; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2019-03-26)
      Overuse of and dependence on analgesics (including opioids and other pain medications) are major international public health problems. To identify influences on analgesic dependence among analgesic users in the general populations of different countries. Online surveys of 1,283 people with pain in the UK, USA, Australia, Germany, Egypt and China/Macau/Hong Kong. Levels of analgesic overuse and dependence were highest in Egypt and lowest in China/Macau/Hong Kong. In every country except Egypt, frequency of pain and frequency of analgesic use were correlated with analgesic dependence, and scores on the Need subscale of the Pain Medication Attitudes Questionnaire (PMAQ; McCracken et al., 2006) independently predicted analgesic dependence. In the UK, USA, Australia and Germany, frequency of analgesic use mediated the effects of pain frequency or intensity, and Need scores mediated the effects of frequency of analgesic use. In Egypt, more recent pain, analgesic overuse, and the Emotion and Solicitude subscales of the Survey of Pain Attitudes (SOPA) independently predicted analgesic dependence. Across multiple countries, the impact of pain on analgesic dependence was mediated by frequency of analgesic use rather than overuse or abuse, and self-reported need for analgesics was the strongest independent predictor of dependence. Asking people directly about their feelings of needing analgesics could therefore identify those who could be helped to use analgesics less frequently, which should reduce their risk of dependence.
    • An international validation of a clinical tool to assess carers’ quality of life in Huntington’s Disease.

      Aubeeluck, Aimee; Stupple, Edward J. N.; Schofield, Malcolm B.; Hughes, Alis C.; van der Meer, Lucienne; Landwehrmeyer, Bernhard; Ho, Aileen K.; University of Derby; University of Nottingham; Leiden University Medical Centre; et al. (Frontiers, 2019-07-23)
      Family carers of individuals living with Huntington’s disease (HD) manage a distinct and unique series of difficulties arising from the complex nature of HD. This paper presents the validation of the definitive measure of quality of life (QoL) for this group. The Huntington’s Disease Quality of Life Battery for Carers (HDQoL-C) was expanded (n = 47) and then administered to an international sample of 1716 partners and family carers from 13 countries. In terms of the psychometric properties of the tool, exploratory analysis of half of the sample demonstrated good internal consistency and reliability. Some items on the full version did not meet psychometric thresholds and a short version (HDQoL-Cs) (n = 23) was developed based on more stringent criteria. This was achieved using standard psychometric item reduction techniques to both increase reliability and reduce the burden of carers completing the scale. Confirmatory factor analysis of the model structure showed a good fit for all factors and indicated that the HDQoL-C and HDQoL-Cs are psychometrically robust measures of QoL. We found that carers who lived with and looked after their spouse/partner had reduced sense of coping, hope for the future, and overall QoL. Carers with children who were at risk carried the gene or were symptomatic also had poorer QoL outcomes. Findings indicated the HDQoL-C and HDQoL-Cs are valid in multiple languages and across varied cultures as measures of self-reported QoL in family carers of individual’s living with HD. These psychometrically validated tools can aid and guide the implementation of therapeutic interventions to improve life quality in this population and research into international and cross-cultural carer experiences. The HDQoL-Cs is recommended as the definitive international measure of HD carer QoL.
    • Interpersonal sensitivities: their link to mood, anger and gender.

      Gilbert, Paul; Irons, Christopher Paul; Olsen, K.; Gilbert, Jean; McEwan, Kirsten; Kingsway Hospital; University of Derby (British Psychological Society, 2006-03)
      This paper explores two interpersonal sensitivities (to rejection and to social putdown) in a group of 54 depressed men and 50 depressed women. Measures of anhedonia, anxiety, anger, social comparison, and submissive behaviour were also obtained. We found no differences in rejection sensitivity, anger, anhedonia, or anxiety between the sample of depressed men and women. Depressed women rated themselves as more submissive and more inferior than depressed men, and blamed themselves more for being criticized and put-down by other people. Principal components analysis (PCA) revealed three underlying factors: mood (including anxiety and depression), internalization (related to self-blame and feelings of low rank), and externalization (related to anger and blaming others for criticism). For both men and women internalization was significantly correlated with depression. However, externalization was negatively related to depression in women, but positively related to depression in men. Hence, the difference between the genders was on externalization but not internalization.
    • An interpretative phenomenological analysis of men’s and women’s coping strategy selection during early IVF treatment

      Phillips, Elly; Elander, James; Montague, Jane; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2014-06-20)
      Objectives: To describe the coping strategies that men and women adopted during the early stages of in vitro fertilisation treatment, and explore why and how they selected those strategies. Background: Previous research has identified coping strategies used during fertility treatment and the impact of those strategies on adjustment, but not how and why individuals choose the strategies they did, which is important for understanding coping strategy use as a self-regulatory process. Methods: Three heterosexual couples took part in two or three individual semi-structured interviews over six months, producing fourteen accounts, which were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Results: The emergent themes were: not dwelling on emotional issues; getting on with treatment; and keeping busy with other things. Participants selected coping strategies in a conscious, deliberate way, by making comparisons with other patients and by drawing on their broader, customary ways of coping. The strategies participants adopted made sense in the context of their long-term goals as well as their short-term treatment objectives. Conclusion: This research shows that for these participants, shorter-term behavioural strategies were informed by longer-term goals, which is consistent with a self-regulatory approach to understanding how people cope with the stress of treatment for infertility.
    • Investigating relationships between perfectionism, forms and functions of self-criticism, and sensitivity to put-down.

      Gilbert, Paul; Durrant, R.; McEwan, Kirsten; Kingsway Hospital; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2006-06-22)
      This study explores the relationship between dimensions of perfectionism, forms and functions of self-criticism/reassurance, and how people attribute blame for external criticism. Previous research has linked perfectionism dimensions with self-criticism, but not investigated the different forms and functions of self-criticism. One hundred and twenty six participants took part in this study. Socially prescribed perfectionism was significantly correlated with all self-critical variables and depression. Other-oriented and self-oriented perfectionism were only associated with the self-correcting function of self-criticism. Blaming self for being criticised by others was associated with all forms and functions of self-criticism/reassurance and socially prescribed perfectionism. In contrast, blaming others for being criticised was negatively associated with the various forms and functions of self-criticism and socially prescribed perfectionism. When self-criticism was entered into a multiple regression the link between perfectionism and depression disappeared. Also when self-criticism is excluded, self-blame for being criticised becomes a predictor of depression but perfectionism does not. This study suggests that it may be self-critical elements associated with forms of perfectionism, and how individuals react to being criticised that is key to depressive symptoms.
    • Investigating the relationship between consultation length and patient experience: a cross-sectional study in primary care

      Elmore, Natasha; Burt, Jenni; Abel, Gary; Maratos, Frances A.; Montague, Jane; Campbell, John; Roland, Martin; University of Derby (Royal College of General Practitioners, 2016-11-24)
      Background Longer consultations in primary care have been linked with better quality of care and improved health-related outcomes. However, there is little evidence of any potential association between consultation length and patient experience. Aim To examine the relationship between consultation length and patient-reported communication, trust and confidence in the doctor, and overall satisfaction. Design and setting Analysis of 440 videorecorded consultations and associated patient experience questionnaires from 13 primary care practices in England. Method Patients attending a face-to-face consultation with participating GPs consented to having their consultations videoed and completed a questionnaire. Consultation length was calculated from the videorecording. Linear regression (adjusting for patient and doctor demographics) was used to investigate associations between patient experience (overall communication, trust and confidence, and overall satisfaction) and consultation length. Results There was no evidence that consultation length was associated with any of the three measures of patient experience (P >0.3 for all). Adjusted changes on a 0–100 scale per additional minute of consultation were: communication score 0.02 (95% confidence interval [CI] = −0.20 to 0.25), trust and confidence in the doctor 0.07 (95% CI = −0.27 to 0.41), and satisfaction −0.14 (95% CI = −0.46 to 0.18). Conclusion The authors found no association between patient experience measures of communication and consultation length, and patients may sometimes report good experiences from very short consultations. However, longer consultations may be required to achieve clinical effectiveness and patient safety: aspects also important for achieving high quality of care. Future research should continue to study the benefits of longer consultations, particularly for patients with complex multiple conditions.
    • An investigation into the ways in which art is taught in an English Waldorf Steiner school

      Hallam, Jenny; Egan, Susan; Kirkham, Julie; University of Derby (2015-07-26)
      Children who are educated using a Waldorf Steiner approach demonstrate superior expressive drawing skills (Rose, Jolley & Charman, 2011) but little is known about how art is taught within this educational system. Four Waldorf Steiner primary school teachers participated in semi-structured interviews designed to explore the Waldorf Steiner educational philosophy, their training and the ways in which they approach art in the classroom. A social constructionist thematic analysis identified two themes – teacher’s experience of art and the teacher and child’s approach to art. Within these themes the importance of adequate training which stresses the value of art and gives teachers opportunity to engage in art activities was emphasised. Such training was linked to an effective teaching approach which placed importance on teaching skills and encouraging children to develop their understanding of art through discussion.
    • Investigation of manual handling training practices in organisations and beliefs regarding effectiveness

      McDermott, Hilary; Haslam, Cheryl; Clemes, Stacy; Williams, Claire; Haslam, Roger A. (2012-03-20)
    • Investigations of the lactate minimum test.

      Johnson, Michael A.; Sharpe, Graham R.; Brown, Peter I.; University of Derby, Department of Sport and Exercise (2009-06)
      We evaluated: the agreement between lactate minimum and maximal lactate steady state (MLSS) cycling powers (study 1); whether rates of change of blood lactate concentration during the lactate minimum test reflect that of constant power exercise (study 2); whether the lactate minimum power is influenced by the muscle groups used to elevate blood lactate concentration (study 3). Study 1: 32 subjects performed a lactate minimum test comprising a lactate elevation phase, recovery phase, and incremental phase (five 4 min stages); MLSS was subsequently determined. Study 2: 8 subjects performed a lactate minimum test and five 22 min constant power tests at the incremental phase exercise intensities. Study 3: 10 subjects performed two identical lactate minimum tests, except during the second test the lactate elevation phase comprised arm-cranking. Lactate minimum and MLSS powers demonstrated good agreement (mean bias+/-95% limits of agreement: 2+/-22 W). Rates of change of blood lactate concentration during each incremental phase stage and corresponding constant power test did not correlate. Lactate minimum power was lowered when arm-cranking was used during the lactate elevation phase (157+/-29 vs. 168+/-21 W; p<0.05). The lactate elevation phase modifies blood lactate concentration responses during the incremental phase, thus good agreement between lactate minimum and MLSS powers seems fortuitous.
    • The invisible child: sibling experiences of growing up with a brother with severe haemophilia - an interpretative phenomenological analysis.

      Tregidgo, Catherine; Elander, James; University of Derby (Wiley, 2018-12-18)
      Introduction: Haemophilia is an inherited chronic condition that causes bleeding in the joints and soft tissue. Healthy siblings growing up in the family of a person with haemophilia can be affected socially and psychologically. Aim: To explore qualitatively the experiences of healthy siblings who grew up with a brother with severe haemophilia. Methods: 11 healthy siblings (10 female, 1 male) who grew up with a brother with severe haemophilia A were recruited via the Haemophilia Society UK. The verbatim transcripts of individual semi-structured interviews were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). Results: Three themes were identified: lack of parental attention, negative social emotions, and carrier anxiety. Participants described having engaged in attention seeking behaviours because they felt they lacked parental attention. They also described the resentment, anger and frustration they felt about the effect their brothers’ haemophilia had on their lives. Female participants described the impact their carrier status or lack of it had on their lives. Conclusion: These findings could be translated into better advocacy and support for siblings through haemophilia centres. More research is also needed on how healthy siblings are affected by haemophilia, including studies guided by family systems theory.
    • Is BMI alone a sufficient outcome to evaluate interventions for child obesity?

      Kolotourou, Maria; Radley, Duncan; Chadwick, Paul; Smith, Lindsey; Orfanos, Stravos; Kapetanakis, Venediktos; Singhal, Atul; Cole, Tim J.; Sacher, Paul M. (2013-08)
      BMI is often used to evaluate the effectiveness of childhood obesity interventions, but such interventions may have additional benefits independent of effects on adiposity. We investigated whether benefits to health outcomes following the Mind, Exercise, Nutrition.Do It! (MEND) childhood obesity intervention were independent of or associated with changes in zBMI.