• An assessment of the relative influence of pain coping, negative thoughts about pain, and pain acceptance on health-related quality of life among people with hemophilia

      Elander, James; Robinson, Georgina; Mitchell, Kathryn; Morris, John; University of Derby; University of West London; Katherine Dormandy Trust (Elsevier, 2009-09)
      Many people with hemophilia are affected by chronic arthritic joint pain as well as acute bleeding pain. In this cross-sectional study, 209 men with hemophilia A or B completed the Hemophilia Pain Coping Questionnaire (HPCQ), the Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire (CPAQ), and the RAND 36-item Health Survey (SF-36), a measure of health-related quality of life. Multiple regression was used to test the influence of active pain coping, passive adherence coping, and negative thoughts about pain (HPCQ scales), and activity engagement and pain willingness (CPAQ scales), on physical and mental components of quality of life (SF-36 PCS and MCS scales), taking account of age, hemophilia severity, use of clotting factor, and pain intensity. Pain intensity was the main influence on physical quality of life and negative thoughts was the main influence on mental quality of life. Activity engagement and pain willingness had small but significant influences on physical and mental quality of life. Pain willingness also moderated and partly mediated the influence of pain intensity on physical quality of life, and activity engagement and pain willingness mediated the influence of negative thoughts on mental quality of life. Negative thoughts moderated and partly mediated the influence of pain intensity on mental quality of life. There was no evidence that active pain coping influenced quality of life. The findings suggest that quality of life in hemophilia could potentially be improved by interventions to increase pain acceptance and reduce negative thoughts about pain, especially among those with less severe pain.
    • Assisting you to advance with ethics in research: an introduction to ethical governance and application procedures

      Sivasubramaniam, Shivadas; Dlabolová, Henek Dlabolova; Kralikova, Veronika; Reza Khan, Zeenath; University of Derby; Mendel University in Brno, Zemědělská, 1665, Brno, Czechia; University of Wollongong in Dubai, Dubai, UAE (Springer Nature, 2021-07-13)
      Ethics and ethical behaviour are the fundamental pillars of a civilised society. The focus on ethical behaviour is indispensable in certain fields such as medicine, finance, or law. In fact, ethics gets precedence with anything that would include, affect, transform, or influence upon individuals, communities or any living creatures. Many institutions within Europe have set up their own committees to focus on or approve activities that have ethical impact. In contrast, lesser-developed countries (worldwide) are trying to set up these committees to govern their academia and research. As the first European consortium established to assist academic integrity, European Network for Academic Integrity (ENAI), we felt the importance of guiding those institutions and communities that are trying to conduct research with ethical principles. We have established an ethical advisory working group within ENAI with the aim to promote ethics within curriculum, research and institutional policies. We are constantly researching available data on this subject and committed to help the academia to convey and conduct ethical behaviour. Upon preliminary review and discussion, the group found a disparity in understanding, practice and teaching approaches to ethical applications of research projects among peers. Therefore, this short paper preliminarily aims to critically review the available information on ethics, the history behind establishing ethical principles and its international guidelines to govern research. The paper is based on the workshop conducted in the 5th International conference Plagiarism across Europe and Beyond, in Mykolas Romeris University, Lithuania in 2019. During the workshop, we have detailed a) basic needs of an ethical committee within an institution; b) a typical ethical approval process (with examples from three different universities); and c) the ways to obtain informed consent with some examples. These are summarised in this paper with some example comparisons of ethical approval processes from different universities. We believe this paper will provide guidelines on preparing and training both researchers and research students in appropriately upholding ethical practices through ethical approval processes.
    • Attentional bias towards threatening and neutral facial expressions in high trait anxious children.

      Kelly, Lauren; Maratos, Frances A.; Lipka, Sigrid; Croker, Steve; University of Derby (2016-07-03)
      Research suggests anxious children display increased attentional biases for threat-related stimuli. However, findings based upon spatial domain research are equivocal. Moreover, few studies allow for the independent analysis of trials containing neutral (i.e., potentially ambiguous) faces. Here, we report two temporal attentional blink experiments with high trait anxious (HTA) and low trait anxious (LTA) children. In an emotive experiment, we manipulated the valence of the second target (T2: threatening/positive/neutral). Results revealed that HTA, relative to LTA, children demonstrated better performance on neutral trials. Additionally, HTA children demonstrated a threat-superiority effect whereas LTA children demonstrated an emotion-superiority effect. In a non-emotive control, no differences between HTA and LTA children were observed. Results suggest trait anxiety is associated with an attentional bias for threat in children. Additionally, the neutral face finding suggests HTA children bias attention towards ambiguity. These findings could have important implications for current anxiety disorder research and treatments.
    • Attentional biases towards familiar and unfamiliar foods in children. The role of food neophobia

      Maratos, Frances A.; Staples, Paul; University of Derby (2015-04-08)
      Familiarity of food stimuli is one factor that has been proposed to explain food preferences and food neophobia in children, with some research suggesting that food neophobia (and familiarity) is at first a predominant of the visual domain. Considering visual attentional biases are a key factor implicated in a majority of fear-related phobias/anxieties, the purpose of this research was to investigate attentional biases to familiar and unfamiliar fruit and vegetables in 8 to 11 year old children with differing levels of food neophobia. To this end, 70 primary aged children completed a visual-probe task measuring attentional biases towards familiar and unfamiliar fruit/vegetables, as well as the food neophobia, general neophobia and willingness to try self-report measures. Results revealed that as an undifferentiated population all children appeared to demonstrate an attentional bias toward the unfamiliar fruit and vegetable stimuli. However, when considering food neophobia, this bias was significantly exaggerated for children self-reporting high food neophobia and negligible for children self-reporting low food neophobia. In addition, willingness to try the food stimuli was inversely correlated with attentional bias toward the unfamiliar fruits/vegetables. Our results demonstrate that visual aspects of food stimuli (e.g. familiarity) play an important role in childhood food neophobia. This study provides the first empirical test of recent theory/models of food neophobia (e.g. Brown & Harris, 2012). Findings are discussed in light of these models and related anxiety models, along with implications concerning the treatment of childhood food neophobia.
    • Attitudes towards mental health problems scale: Confirmatory factor analysis and validation in the Portuguese population.

      Cabral Master, Joana Moura; Barreto Carvalho, Célia Maria de Oliveira; Motta, Carolina Dall’Antonia; Sousa, Marina Correia; Gilbert, Paul; University of Azores; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2016-08-19)
      Several studies about stigmatization and shame toward mental health problems have contributed to minimizing the impact of these negative attitudes on people diagnosed with mental illnesses, on their families and on their communities. The Attitudes Towards Mental Health Problems Scale (ATMHP) is a self-report scale aimed at the assessment of attitudes toward mental health that involve several factors relating to attitudes and shame (internal, external, and reflected shame) when facing mental health problems. The goal of the current study was to translate, and to adapt this scale to the Portuguese population, and to study its psychometric properties in a sample of Azorean adults with and without psychiatric problems. The scale was administered to 411 participants with ages between 19 and 81 years. Confirmatory factor analysis was carried out on the initial model proposed by the authors of the ATMHP, and results showed a poor adjustment. An alternative model comprising an additional factor was tested and presented good model fit indices. Based on the alternative model, further analysis revealed that the scale has good psychometric properties.
    • Availability of breastfeeding peer-support in the UK: a cross-sectional survey.

      Grant, Aimee; McEwan, Kirsten; Tedstone, Sally; Greene, Giles; Copeland, Lauren; Hunter, Billie; Sanders, Julia; Phillips, Rhiannon; Brown, Amy; Robling, Mike; et al. (Wiley, 2017-07-07)
      Peer support is recommended by the World Health Organization for the initiation and continuation of breastfeeding, and this recommendation is included in United Kingdom (U.K.) guidance. There is a lack of information about how, when, and where breastfeeding peer support was provided in the U.K. We aimed to generate an overview of how peer support is delivered in the U.K. and to gain an understanding of challenges for implementation. We surveyed all U.K. infant feeding coordinators (n = 696) who were part of U.K.‐based National Infant Feeding Networks, covering 177 National Health Service (NHS) organisations. We received 136 responses (individual response rate 19.5%), covering 102 U.K. NHS organisations (organisational response rate 58%). We also searched NHS organisation websites to obtain data on the presence of breastfeeding peer support. Breastfeeding peer support was available in 56% of areas. However, coverage within areas was variable. The provision of training and ongoing supervision, and peer‐supporter roles, varied significantly between services. Around one third of respondents felt that breastfeeding peer‐support services were not well integrated with NHS health services. Financial issues were commonly reported to have a negative impact on service provision. One quarter of respondents stated that breastfeeding peer support was not accessed by mothers from poorer social backgrounds. Overall, there was marked variation in the provision of peer‐support services for breastfeeding in the U.K. A more robust evidence base is urgently needed to inform guidance on the structure and provision of breastfeeding peer‐support services.
    • Awareness of oral and genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in young adolescents prior to gender-neutral vaccination

      Knight, Gillian; Roberts, Ben; Aston University; University of Derby (BMJ, 2020-04-02)
      Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) and oropharyngeal cancer prevalence are increasing, particularly in men. Raising greater awareness of male HPV disease is perceived as an important intervention strategy. This study investigated the effectiveness of HPV education on adolescents’ perception of HPV disease and the impact of HPV vaccination on their sexual health. An HPV questionnaire was completed by 357 UK-based adolescents, aged 12–13 years. Most adolescents knew HPV causes cervical cancer and HPV vaccination prevents this. A minority acknowledged HPV causes other genital cancers, with under one-fifth knowing HPV causes genital warts. Adolescents’ awareness of HPV transmission activities were limited. There was very poor awareness of oral HPV infection or HPV-induced oropharyngeal cancer. Half of the participants stated HPV vaccination reduced their concerns about sexually transmitted infection contraction. Over half the males said they may take more sexual risks following vaccination, while a similar proportion of females did not expect their partner to take more risks. Adolescents had little awareness of male HPV infection and the role HPV vaccination can play in preventing these diseases. With variable rates of HPV vaccination uptake in males reported worldwide, this study indicates that in the UK greater emphasis on male HPV disease within educational information is required, to raise better awareness of how HPV affects both genders. As both genders preferred to receive education via healthcare professionals, educating a wider range of healthcare professionals on oral HPV could help facilitate awareness of HPV’s role in head and neck cancer.
    • Belief–logic conflict resolution in syllogistic reasoning: Inspection-time evidence for a parallel-process model

      Stupple, Edward J. N.; Ball, Linden J.; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2008-04-29)
      An experiment is reported examining dual-process models of belief bias in syllogistic reasoning using a problem complexity manipulation and an inspection-time method to monitor processing latencies for premises and conclusions. Endorsement rates indicated increased belief bias on complex problems, a finding that runs counter to the “belief-first” selective scrutiny model, but which is consistent with other theories, including “reasoning-first” and “parallel-process” models. Inspection-time data revealed a number of effects that, again, arbitrated against the selective scrutiny model. The most striking inspection-time result was an interaction between logic and belief on premise-processing times, whereby belief – logic conflict problems promoted increased latencies relative to non-conflict problems. This finding challenges belief-first and reasoning-first models, but is directly predicted by parallel-process models, which assume that the outputs of simultaneous heuristic and analytic processing streams lead to an awareness of belief – logic conflicts than then require time-consuming resolution.
    • Beneficial long-term antidiabetic actions of N- and C-terminally modified analogues of apelin-13 in diet-induced obese diabetic mice

      Parthsarathy, Vadivel; Hogg, Christopher; Flatt, Peter R.; O'Harte, Finbarr P. M.; University of Ulster; School of Biomedical Sciences, SAAD Centre for Pharmacy and Diabetes; University of Ulster; Coleraine Northern Ireland, UK; School of Biomedical Sciences, SAAD Centre for Pharmacy and Diabetes; University of Ulster; Coleraine Northern Ireland, UK; School of Biomedical Sciences, SAAD Centre for Pharmacy and Diabetes; University of Ulster; Coleraine Northern Ireland, UK; School of Biomedical Sciences, SAAD Centre for Pharmacy and Diabetes; University of Ulster; Coleraine Northern Ireland, UK (Wiley, 2017-07-20)
      To investigate the chronic effects of twice-daily administration of stable apelin analogues, apelin-13 amide and pyroglutamyl (pGlu) apelin-13 amide, on metabolic variables in glucose-intolerant and insulin-resistant diet-induced obese mice fed a high-fat diet for 150 days. Groups of mice received twice-daily (9 am and 5 pm) injections of saline vehicle, apelin-13 amide, (pGlu)apelin-13 amide or exendin-4(1-39) for 28 days (all at 25 nmol/kg). Energy intake, body weight, non-fasting blood glucose, plasma insulin, glucose tolerance, metabolic response to feeding and insulin sensitivity, together with pancreatic hormone content and biochemical variables such as lipids and total GLP-1 were monitored. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry analysis and indirect calorimetry were also performed. Administration of apelin-13 amide, (pGlu)apelin-13 amide or exendin-4 significantly decreased body weight, food intake and blood glucose and increased plasma insulin compared with high-fat-fed saline-treated controls (P < .05 and P < .001), Additionally, all peptide-treated groups exhibited improved glucose tolerance (oral and intraperitoneal), metabolic responses to feeding and associated insulin secretion. (pGlu)apelin-13 amide also significantly improved glycated haemoglobin and insulin sensitivity after 28 days. Both (pGlu)apelin-13 amide and exendin-4 increased bone mineral content and decreased respiratory exchange ratio, whereas only (pGlu)apelin-13 amide increased energy expenditure. All treatment groups displayed reduced circulating triglycerides and increased glucagon-like peptide-1 concentrations, although only (pGlu)apelin-13 amide significantly reduced LDL cholesterol and total body fat, and increased pancreatic insulin content. These data indicate the therapeutic potential of stable apelin-13 analogues, with effects equivalent to or better than those of exendin-4.
    • 'Beyond Jack and Jill': designing for individuals using HADRIAN

      Porter, J. Mark; Case, Keith; Marshall, Russell; Gyi, Diane E.; Sims, Ruth; Loughborough University (Elsevier, 2004)
      In order to support the practice of ‘design for all’within the design community two key areas have been identified that are critical to success. The first is the provision of accurate and relevant data on the target users, in this case people of all shapes, sizes, ages and abilities. The second is the efficient and effective support in the use of these data during concept generation and product development. A database of individual people was created including their 3D anthropometry and functional abilities. Data sets for individuals are kept intact, a radical departure from the traditional approach which involves effectively ‘dismembering’people to create tables of percentiles for every dimension of interest. This database is accessed by HADRIAN, our CAD-based design tool, which is integrated with the SAMMIE CAD human modelling system. Using this system, proposed designs of products or services can be automatically evaluated for each individual in the database, based upon criteria set by the designer (e.g. access, reach, vision, mobility and strength). The tool can identify which individuals will be ‘designed in’or ‘designed out’and can support the designer in modifying the proposed design to achieve a greater percentage of people accommodated.
    • Beyond knowing nature: Contact, emotion, compassion, meaning, and beauty are pathways to nature connection

      Lumber, Ryan; Richardson, Miles; Sheffield, David; DeMontfort University; University of Derby (Public Library of Science (PLOS), 2017-05-09)
      Feeling connected to nature has been shown to be beneficial to wellbeing and pro-environmental behaviour. General nature contact and knowledge based activities are often used in an attempt to engage people with nature. However the specific routes to nature connectedness have not been examined systematically. Two online surveys (total n = 321) of engagement with, and value of, nature activities structured around the nine values of the Biophila Hypothesis were conducted. Contact, emotion, meaning, and compassion, with the latter mediated by engagement with natural beauty, were predictors of connection with nature, yet knowledge based activities were not. In a third study (n = 72), a walking intervention with activities operationalising the identified predictors, was found to significantly increase connection to nature when compared to walking in nature alone or walking in and engaging with the built environment. The findings indicate that contact, emotion, meaning, compassion, and beauty are pathways for improving nature connectedness. The pathways also provide alternative values and frames to the traditional knowledge and identification routes often used by organisations when engaging the public with nature.
    • Beyond restoration: considering emotion regulation in natural well-being

      Richardson, Miles; University of Derby (Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers, 2019-04-22)
      Our relationship with the rest of the natural world can help emotional regulation, yet the role of nature in the regulation of emotions is often overlooked. As the health benefits provided by nature are increasingly recognised there is a need for accessible models that can explain and promote those well-being benefits. To complement existing theories based on restoration and to improve understanding of nature’s role in emotional regulation, this article provides an account of the well-being benefits of nature based on affect regulation. The article considers the relationships between emotional regulation, well-being and nature through an accessible model of affect regulation that explains research reporting physiological responses to nature. The model, and underpinning research, highlight the interconnectedness between people and the rest of nature, fitting a wider narrative about the human role in our ecosystem. Applied implications of this perspective are presented.
    • Blunted cardiovascular reactions are a predictor of negative health outcomes: A prospective cohort study

      Yuenyongchaiwat, Kornanong; Sheffield, David; Thammasat University; University of Derby; Physiotherapy Department; Faculty of Allied Health Sciences; Thammasat University; Khlong Luang Pathum Thani Thailand; Centre for Psychological Research; University of Derby; Derby UK (Wiley, 2017-04-12)
      The study examined whether cardiovascular responses to psychological stress tests predict future anxiety and depression scores 40-months later. Hemodynamic measures were obtained from 102 healthy adults before, during and after mental arithmetic, a speech task, and a cold pressor task. The 14-item Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was administered at initial testing and at 40-months follow-up. At initial testing analyses revealed that high anxiety symptoms were characterized by blunted cardiovascular reactions to acute mental stress, particularly mental arithmetic. Furthermore, after adjustment for baseline blood pressure (BP), baseline anxiety levels and traditional risk factors, attenuated systolic BP responses to mental arithmetic were associated with future anxiety levels (ΔR2 = .055). These findings suggest that blunted cardiovascular reactions to stress may be an independent risk factor for future anxiety levels.
    • Boarfish (Capros aper) protein hydrolysate has potent insulinotropic and GLP‐1 secretory activity in vitro and acute glucose lowering effects in mice

      Parthsarathy, Vadivel; Mclaughlin, Christopher; Harnedy, Padraigin; Allsopp, Phillip; Crowe, William; McSorley, Emeir; FitzGerald, Dick; O'Harte, Finbarr; University of Ulster; University of Limerick (Wiley, 2018-10-16)
      The anti‐diabetic actions of a boarfish protein hydrolysate (BPH) were investigated in cultured cells and mice. A boarfish (Capros aper) muscle protein hydrolysate was generated using the enzymes Alcalase 2.4 L and Flavourzyme 500 L. Furthermore, the BPH was subjected to simulated gastrointestinal digestion (SGID). BPH and SGID samples (0.01–2.5 mg mL−1) were tested in vitro for DPP‐IV inhibition and insulin and GLP‐1 secretory activity from BRIN‐BD11 and GLUTag cells, respectively. The BPH and SGID samples, caused a dose‐dependent increase (4.2 to 5.3‐fold, P < 0.001) in insulin secretion from BRIN‐BD11 cells and inhibited DPP‐IV activity (IC50 1.18 ± 0.04 and 1.21 ± 0.04 mg mL−1), respectively. The SGID sample produced a 1.3‐fold (P < 0.01) increase in GLP‐1 secretion. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was conducted in healthy mice (n = 8), with or without BPH (50 mg/kg bodyweight). BPH mediated an increase in plasma insulin levels (AUC(0–120 min), P < 0.05) and a consequent reduction in blood glucose concentration (P < 0.01), after OGTT in mice versus controls. The BPH showed potent anti‐diabetic actions in cells and improved glucose tolerance in mice.
    • Body dysmorphic disorder: The functional and evolutionary context in phenomenology and a compassionate mind.

      Veale, David; Gilbert, Paul; King's College London; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2013-11-26)
      BACKGROUND: Social wariness and anxiety can take different forms. Paranoid anxiety focuses on the malevolence of others, whereas social anxiety focuses on the inadequacies in the self in competing for social position and social acceptance. This study investigates whether shame and shame memories are differently associated with paranoid and social anxieties.
    • Brief compassion-focused imagery dampens physiological pain responses

      Maratos, Frances A.; Sheffield, David; University of Derby (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-09-03)
      Affiliative processes are postulated to improve pain coping. Comparatively, compassion-focused imagery (CFI) also stimulates affiliate affect systems with a burgeoning behavioural, cognitive and physiological evidence base. Thus, the purpose of the present research was to investigate if engaging in brief CFI could improve pain coping. Utilising a randomised repeated measures crossover design, 37 participants were subjected to experimental pain (cold pressor) following counter-balanced engagement with CFI or control imagery, 1 week apart. Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) and questionnaire measures of emotional responding were taken: at baseline, following introduction to the imagery condition (anticipation), and immediately after the cold pressor pain task (actual). Participants exhibited increases in sAA levels in response to pain following control imagery but, no such changes were observed following CFI (i.e. there was a significant time-by-condition interaction). Pain tolerance (the length of time participants immersed their hands in the cold pressor) did not differ by imagery condition. However, sAA responses to actual pain predicted decreased pain tolerance in the CFI condition. Additionally, anticipatory sAA response predicted increased pain tolerance across both conditions. None of the emotional measures of well-being differed by imagery condition, nor by condition over time. These data demonstrate that using CFI can curtail a physiological stress response to pain, as indicated by increases in sAA in the control imagery condition only, following pain; pain tolerance was not influenced by CFI. Compassion-based approaches may therefore help people cope with the stress associated with pain.
    • A brief haemophilia pain coping questionnaire

      Elander, James; Robinson, Georgina; University of Derby (2008)
      Pain coping strategies are important influences on outcomes among people with painful chronic conditions. The pain coping strategies questionnaire (CSQ) was reviously adapted for sickle cell disease and haemophilia, but those versions have 80 items, and a briefer version with similar psychometric properties would facilitate research on pain coping. The full-length haemophilia-adapted CSQ, plus measures of pain frequency and intensity, pain acceptance, pain readiness to change, and health-related quality of life were completed by 190 men with haemophilia. Items were selected for a 27-item short form, which was completed 6 months later by 129 (68%) participants. Factor structure, reliability and concurrent validity were the same in the long and short forms. For the short form, internal reliabilities of the three composite scales were 0.86 for negative thoughts, 0.80 for active coping and 0.76 for passive adherence. Test–retest reliabilities were 0.73 for negative thoughts, 0.70 for active coping and 0.64 for passive adherence. Negative thoughts were associated with less readiness to change, less acceptance of pain and more impaired health-related quality of life, whereas active coping was associated with greater readiness to change and more acceptance of pain. The short form is a convenient brief measure of pain coping with good psychometric properties, and could be used to extend research on pain coping in haemophilia.
    • A brief outline of the evolutionary approach for compassion focused therapy.

      Gilbert, Paul; University of Derby (ECronicon, 2017-06-06)
      Abstract Humans are evolved animals set up to pursue various life tasks. This gives rise to different phenotypes some of which are conducive to well-being, while others are not. Compassion focused therapy seeks to harness the evolved importance of affiliative and caring motivational processing to help alleviate individuals who are caught in high levels of shame and self-criticism and conse
    • Brief report: self-compassion, physical health and the mediating role of health-promoting behaviours

      Dunne, Sara; Sheffield, David; Chilcot, Joseph; University of Derby (2016-04-26)
      To test the hypothesis that self-compassion predicts better physical health and that this is partially mediated through health-promoting behaviours, 147 adults completed self-report measures of self-compassion, health-promoting behaviours and physical health. Self-compassion and health-promoting behaviours were negatively associated with physical symptom scores. Self-compassion was positively associated with health-promoting behaviours. A bootstrapped mediation model confirmed a significant direct effect of self-compassion on physical health through health-promoting behaviours (R(2) = 0.13, b = -8.98, p = 0.015), which was partially mediated through health-promoting behaviours (R(2) = 0.06, b = -3.16, 95 per cent confidence interval [-6.78, -0.86]). Findings underscore the potential health-promoting benefits of self-compassion.
    • Building an online research profile

      Bryson, David; Human Sciences Research Centre (Taylor & Francis, 2019-05-23)
      Research and research publications are key elements in continuing professional development (CPD) as part of the mix of learning and development activities we undertake to keep ourselves current in our practice. Papers published in journals can be used by colleagues to support their evidence based practice. Posters and presentations seen and heard at a conferences can prompt ideas and developments at other organisations. In this way research is more than the publication of a piece of work it is about dissemination and its impact; for our CPD this is about how it benefits us and our patients.