• In search of design synthesis by linking ergonomic evaluation and constraint modelling to attain design for all

      Goonetilleke, Thanuja Shiromie; Case, Keith; Marshall, Russell; Porter, J. Mark; Gyi, Diane E.; Sims, Ruth; Loughborough University (2003)
      To enable designers to 'design for all', a sound understanding of the intended users, their anthropometry and mobility is needed. Information is also required regarding users' abilities and disabilities based on the tasks they are to perform while using the product being designed. Users, each of whom is an individual (and not just a part of the population), have different needs, physical sizes, coping strategies, abilities and disabilities. To use and apply each of these parameters together with the variables of the product and to meet the challenges of ‘design for all’ criteria, it is imperative for the designers to use effective and efficient tools. This paper presents an approach for design synthesis with the objective of determining design parameters of a design that would meet the needs of a specified user population or maximise the percentage accommodation. A new software tool is being developed to assist designers in the product development process. This software is able to suggest design parameters that would maximise user accommodation, after considering all the data sets for individual users. To achieve this, the software utilises capabilities of three very different pieces of software. The first of these is called HADRIAN, which is the prototype software currently under development, by the ‘Design for All’ project group at Loughborough University. HADRIAN provides an integrated database about individual users and can carry out a task analysis for the tasks that the user has to perform when interacting with the product or the environment that is being developed. Mathematical analysis software is used to fit functions to this data so that the SWORDS Constraint Modelling software can be used to find the optimum parameters of the design that would maximise the user accommodation. Issues in the design and implementation of this software system are discussed in the context of simple examples from kitchen design and automated teller machines (ATMs).
    • Inclusive design for the mobility impaired

      Porter, J. Mark; Marshall, Russell; Case, Keith; Gyi, Diane E.; Sims, Ruth; Summerskill, Steve; Loughborough University (CRC Press, 2008)
      HADRIAN is a computer-based inclusive design tool developed initially to support the design of kitchen and shopping based tasks. The tool is currently being expanded to include data on an individual’s ability to undertake a variety of transport-related tasks, such as vehicle ingress/egress, coping with uneven surfaces, steps, street furniture and complex pedestrian environments. A feature of the enhanced HADRIAN tool will be a journey planner that compares an individual’s physical, cognitive and emotional abilities with the demands that will placed upon that individual depending on the mode(s) of transport available and the route options.
    • Innovative guidelines and tools for vulnerable road users safety in India and Brazil

      Quigley, Claire; Sims, Ruth; Tripodi, Antonino; Rios, Iaci; Wolf, Daniel; Magar, Rajendra; Quintanilha, Jose Alberto; Loughborough University (2011)
    • Innovative guidelines and tools for vulnerable road users safety in India and Brazil

      Quigley, Claire; Sims, Ruth; Usami, D. Shingo; Tripodi, Antonino; Pietrantonio, Hugo; Kharat, Mahendra; Loughborough University (2011)
    • Innovative guidelines and tools for vulnerable road users safety in India and Brazil

      Quigley, Claire; Sims, Ruth; Corazza, Maria V.; Di Mascio, Paolo; Musso, Antonio; Persia, Luca; Tripodi, Antonino; Kharat, Mahendra; Pietrantonio, Hugo; van der Kloof, Angela; et al. (2011)
    • Innovative guidelines and tools for vulnerable road users safety in India and Brazil

      Appelt, Viet; Astapenko, Anna; Musso, Antonio; Corazza, Maria V.; Tripodi, Antonino; Quigley, Claire; Rackliff, Lucy; Danton, Russell; Pearce, Duncan; Talbot, Rachel; et al. (2011)
    • Innovative guidelines and tools for vulnerable road users safety in India and Brazil

      Sims, Ruth; Quigley, Claire; Tripodi, Antonino; van der Kloof, Angela; van de Leur, Martijn; Wolf, Daniel; Pietrantonio, Hugo; Loughborough University (2011)
      This report details the functionalities and specifications of the Decision Support System for Vulnerable Road Users
    • Innovative guidelines and tools for vulnerable road users safety in India and Brazil

      Tripodi, Antonino; Quigley, Claire; Sims, Ruth; van de Leur, Martijn; van der Kloof, Angela; Fornasiero, Alessandro; Carroccia, Roberto; Loughborough University (2011)
      The document provides an overview of objectives, characteristics, functions of the DSS, as well as a guide for its use.
    • Kitchen living in later life: Exploring ergonomic problems, coping strategies and design solutions

      Maguire, Martin C.; Peace, Sheila; Nicolle, Colette; Marshall, Russell; Sims, Ruth; Percival, John; Lawton, Clare; Loughborough University (2014-04-30)
      The kitchen is an important area in the home serving many purposes both functional and social. It is central to enabling people to stay within their own homes in their later life. As part of a detailed study of ‘past’ and ‘present’ kitchen living, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 48 older people about their current kitchen and how well it met their needs. It was found that personal problems with reaching, bending, dexterity and sight were more likely to be experienced with increasing age while for specific tasks, ironing and cleaning created the most difficulty. The paper reports on coping strategies and simple innovations made by the participants to address the problems they experienced. A challenge for kitchen designers, manufacturers and installers is to think in terms of kitchens that are more flexible and adaptable to people’s changing needs.
    • Multivariate design inclusion using HADRIAN.

      Marshall, Russell; Summerskill, Steve; Porter, J. Mark; Case, Keith; Sims, Ruth; Gyi, Diane E.; Davis, Peter; Loughborough University (2008)
      This paper details the development of our computer based design tool: HADRIAN. Developed to address the area of user accommodation within design and in particular the support for ‘design for all’, HADRIAN provides an integrated database and analysis system. The data element of HADRIAN is an attempt to simplify the understanding and use of ergonomics data by the design community in addition to encouraging empathy with the end user. Anthropometry and functional abilities were collected from 100 individuals many of whom are older or have some form of disability. In addition, behavioural data was collected from the individuals performing common tasks associated with daily living and the use of transport. The individuals in the database effectively form a virtual user group that can then be used to investigate and evaluate a concept design of a product, or environment through a task analysis feature. Further developments for the HADRIAN tool also include an inclusive journey planner that allows individual travellers, or transport planners to evaluate the inclusiveness of a particular route. Together this package of tools provides a richer, more accessible set of data for human modelling and ergonomics design, and a means to assess the inclusiveness of a product, environment, or journey.
    • Older people's experiences of their kitchens: dishes and wishes.

      Sims, Ruth; Marshall, Russell; Maguire, Martin C.; Nicolle, Colette; Lawton, Clare; Pearce, S.; Percival, John; Loughborough University (2011)
      A new study is investigating the life-long and contemporary experiences of kitchens of 48 people over 60 years of age. The research includes detailed questionnaire interviews asking people about their experiences of living in their current kitchen. This paper presents the initial quantitative results of peoples’ experiences, needs and wants from their current kitchens. This includes problems experienced with activities of daily life in the current kitchen, changes that have been made or are planned to be made to the current kitchen to increase usability in older age, coping strategies and examples of design that have been found to be really useful to older people.
    • Representing older and disabled people in virtual user trials: data collection methods

      Gyi, Diane E.; Sims, Ruth; Porter, J. Mark; Marshall, Russell; Case, Keith; Loughborough University (2004)
      A database was developed to support the creation of a computer-based tool which will support design teams in evaluating the usability of a design during early prototyping and indicate which individuals are effectively excluded or designed out. Methods are described for the collection of multivariate data on 100 real individuals covering a range of physical characteristics and capabilities. These data were tested to ensure a breadth of representation of individuals (particularly older and disabled people) in terms of anthropometry, joint constraints, postural capabilities and task behaviours. The concept of the design tool itself is explored by conducting virtual user trials in the computer-aided design environment. The novel approach of the research encourages empathy with individual users and allows generic abilities, such as bending, reaching and lifting to be assessed.
    • Slower is not always better: Response-time evidence clarifies the limited role of miserly information processing in the Cognitive Reflection Test

      Stupple, Edward J. N.; Pitchford, Melanie; Ball, Linden J.; Hunt, Thomas E.; Steel, Richard; University of Derby; University of Bedfordshire; University of Central Lancashire; Loughborough University (Public Library of Science (PLOS), 2017-11-04)
      We report a study examining the role of ‘cognitive miserliness’ as a determinant of poor performance on the standard three-item Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT). The cognitive miserliness hypothesis proposes that people often respond incorrectly on CRT items because of an unwillingness to go beyond default, heuristic processing and invest time and effort in analytic, reflective processing. Our analysis (N = 391) focused on people’s response times to CRT items to determine whether predicted associations are evident between miserly thinking and the generation of incorrect, intuitive answers. Evidence indicated only a weak correlation between CRT response times and accuracy. Item-level analyses also failed to demonstrate predicted response-time differences between correct analytic and incorrect intuitive answers for two of the three CRT items. We question whether participants who give incorrect intuitive answers on the CRT can legitimately be termed cognitive misers and whether the three CRT items measure the same general construct.
    • Supporting a design-driven approach to social inclusion and accessibility in transport

      Marshall, Russell; Summerskill, Steve; Case, Keith; Hussain, Amjad; Gyi, Diane E.; Sims, Ruth; Morris, Andrew; Barnes, Jo; Loughborough University (2016-06-07)
      This paper presents research into the area of public transport and accessibility, addressing the support of practitioners in achieving socially inclusive solutions to the mobility issues of diverse populations. For decades social policy has been underpinned by a stereotyping of populations into simplified sub groups: old, young, disabled, etc. and thus solutions often fail to properly address the richness of human variability. These shortcomings are often ‘managed’ through the ability for people to adapt, however, this is not a sustainable way in which to build a socially inclusive transport infrastructure. A software design tool called HADRIAN is presented. This tool provides a means to evaluate designs for their physical inclusiveness through the use of a virtual user group. This virtual user group is the embodiment of over 100 people that can be used to assess an existing or proposed design and to gain an understanding of what may be done to improve its accommodation. A case study exploring the use of the tool is described together with work in exploring the correlation of the individuals within the HADRIAN system with data on the UK population as a whole and how the inclusion or exclusion of individuals with specific characteristics can be used to inform a more representative view of the inclusiveness of a design.
    • Supporting an inclusive, sustainable approach to design and manufacture.

      Marshall, Russell; Case, Keith; Gyi, Diane E.; Summerskill, Steve; Sims, Ruth; Loughborough University (2011)
      Taking a more inclusive and accessible approach to the design of products, services and systems is supported with a proven business model. Due to the increasing age of global populations and the prevalence of people with a disability, there is a significant market to be addressed through more inclusive design. Taking an inclusive approach can then act as a driver for more sustainable product development ensuring that products meet the needs of the broadest range of users possible and are sufficiently flexible to meet the changing demands of users as they age. This paper reports on research done in order to address shortcomings in the tools available to designers looking to take an inclusive approach and the availability of data to support such tools. In particular the paper introduces a digital human modelling tool called HADRIAN designed to allow the evaluation of designs within a CAD environment that consider the abilities of a very broad range of users. However, design is one element within the realisation of products. This paper explores also explores the use of HADRIAN beyond its initial design-led remit, into the implications for the manufacture of these inclusive products as part of a broader view of sustainable manufacturing practice.
    • Supporting older and disabled people’s needs in product, environment and service design

      Sims, Ruth; Marshall, Russell; Summerskill, Steve; Gyi, Diane E.; Case, Keith; Loughborough University (2012)
      For the last decade research by the Loughborough Design School in the UK has lead a computer-based tool called HADRIAN has been developed to encourage empathy between design professionals, policy makers, commissioning clients and potential end-users, including people who are older or who may have some form of impairment. The tool provides a means to evaluate the accessibility and inclusiveness of a design by simulating the abilities of older and disabled people and performing virtual user trials where potential barriers introduced by the proposed design can be identified and rectified before the design is implemented in the real world. This paper presents and discusses three validation trials conducted to evaluate the simulation capabilities of HADRIAN compared to real people interacting with the same tasks. Trials included two laboratory-based tasks and one field trial at a railways station.
    • Transport planning guidelines for vulnerable road user safety in emerging economies.

      Quigley, Claire; Sims, Ruth; Hill, Julian; Tripodi, Antonino; Persia, Luca; Pietrantonio, Hugo; Kharat, Mahendra; Loughborough University (2012)
      With the rapid expanse of motorised traffic in countries such as Brazil and India, the safety of vulnerable road users (VRUs) needs to be a key component in any transportation development. It should be considered what can be learnt from European transport planning experiences. This review identifies current good practice in Europe and considers how VRU safety is considered in the process. Based on this review, recommendations are given for:Stakeholder participation; •The development of a step by step planning process; •The implementation of VRU principles into the process. •An assessment of the feasibility and implications for safety of applying European practice to Emerging Economies is also given. Keywords Transport planning; European best practice; Vulnerable Road User Safety; Emerging Economies; India; Brazil
    • Using Hadrian for eliciting virtual user feedback in 'Design For All'

      Marshall, Russell; Porter, J. Mark; Case, Keith; Sims, Ruth; Gyi, Diane E.; Loughborough University (2004)
      Design for All' is an approach to product, environment or service design that aims to maximise the usability of a particular design. However, a key concept of this approach is not to tailor designs to the user in a bespoke fashion, but rather to provide a single solution that accommodates the needs of all users including those who are older or disabled. In order to support the designer / design team in ‘Design for All’ a computer aided design and analysis tool has been developed. The tool, known as HADRIAN, has been developed to address two critical factors. The first factor is the provision of accurate and applicable data on the target users including a broad spectrum of size, shape, age and ability. The second factor is an efficient and effective means of utilising the data for ergonomics evaluations during the concept stages of design. HADRIAN’s database and task analysis tool work in combination with the existing human modelling system SAMMIE. The system as a whole allows assessment of a design against the population in the database providing a means to elicit some of the feedback that might be gained by real user trials at a stage in the design process when physical mock-ups and user group selection would be prohibitively time consuming and expensive.
    • Validation of the HADRIAN system using an ATM evaluation case study

      Summerskill, Steve; Marshall, Russell; Case, Keith; Gyi, Diane E.; Sims, Ruth; Davis, Peter; Day, Philip N.; Rohan, C.; Birnie, S.; Loughborough University (2010)
      The HADRIAN human modelling system is under development as part of the EPSRC funded AUNT-SUE project. The HADRIAN system aims to foster a 'design for all' ethos by allowing ergonomists and designers to see the effects of different kinds of disability on the physical capabilities of elderly and people with disabilities. This system is based upon the long established SAMMIE system, and uses data collected from 102 people, 79 of whom are registered as disabled, or have age related mobility issues. The HADRIAN system allows three dimensional CAD data of new products to be imported, with a subsequent automated analysis using all of the 102 sample members. The following paper describes the process and results gathered from a validation study using an ATM design as a case study. The results indicated that fine tuning of the behavioural data built into HADRIAN would improve the accuracy of an automated product analysis.
    • Validation of the HADRIAN system using an ATM evaluation case study

      Summerskill, Steve; Marshall, Russell; Case, Keith; Gyi, Diane E.; Sims, Ruth; Davis, Peter; Loughborough University (2009)
      The HADRIAN human modelling system is under development as part of the EPSRC funded AUNT-SUE project. The HADRIAN system aims to foster a ‘design for all’ ethos by allowing ergonomists and designers to see the effects of different kinds of disability on the physical capabilities of elderly and disabled people. This system is based upon the long established SAMMIE system, and uses data collected from 102 people, 79 of whom are registered as disabled, or have age related mobility issues. The HADRIAN system allows three dimensional CAD data of new products to be imported, with a subsequent automated analysis using all of the 102 sample members. The following paper describes the process and results gathered from a validation study using an ATM design as a case study. The results indicated that fine tuning of the behavioural data built into HADRIAN would improve the accuracy of an automated product analysis.