• Exposure to contact sports results in maintained performance during experimental pain

      Thornton, C; Sheffield, D; Baird, A; Northumbria University; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2020-06-26)
      During pain, motor performance tends to decline. However, athletes who engage in contact sports are able to maintain performance despite the inherent pain that accompanies participation. This may be the result of being challenged rather than threatened by pain; adaptive coping strategies; habituation to pain; or finding pain less bothersome. This study aimed to measure performance of a novel motor task both in pain and not in pain within experienced contact athletes (n = 40), novice contact athletes (n = 40) and non-contact athletes (n = 40). Challenge and threat perceptions were manipulated during the pain condition and measures of pain tolerance, perception, coping styles and bothersomeness were taken. Results indicated that contact athletes, regardless of experience, were able to maintain their performance during painful stimulation. Non-contact athletes, conversely, performed significantly worse during pain stimulation. In addition, contact athletes tended to be more challenged and the non-contact athletes more threatened within the pain condition. Experienced contact athletes demonstrated higher levels of pain tolerance and direct coping, and reported lower levels of pain bothersomeness and intensity than the other groups. The results suggest that even relatively brief exposure to contact sports may be enough to help maintain performance in pain. Being in a challenged state appears to be an important factor during performance in pain. Moreover, pain tolerance, intensity and bothersomeness may differentiate novice and experienced athletes.PerspectiveExposure to voluntary pain and challenge states are associated with adaptive responses to pain. Motor task performance may be maintained in individuals with more experience of sports-related pain.
    • Facial expressions depicting compassionate and critical emotions: the development and validation of a new emotional face stimulus set

      McEwan, Kirsten; Gilbert, Paul; Dandeneau, Stephane; Lipka, Sigrid; Maratos, Frances A.; Paterson, Kevin B.; Baldwin, Mark; University of Derby (2014-02-19)
      Attachment with altruistic others requires the ability to appropriately process affiliative and kind facial cues. Yet there is no stimulus set available to investigate such processes. Here, we developed a stimulus set depicting compassionate and critical facial expressions, and validated its effectiveness using well-established visual-probe methodology. In Study 1, 62 participants rated photographs of actors displaying compassionate/kind and critical faces on strength of emotion type. This produced a new stimulus set based on N = 31 actors, whose facial expressions were reliably distinguished as compassionate, critical and neutral. In Study 2, 70 participants completed a visual-probe task measuring attentional orientation to critical and compassionate/kind faces. This revealed that participants lower in self-criticism demonstrated enhanced attention to compassionate/kind faces whereas those higher in self-criticism showed no bias. To sum, the new stimulus set produced interpretable findings using visual-probe methodology and is the first to include higher order, complex positive affect displays.
    • Factor and reliability analysis of a brief scale to measure motivation to change lifestyle for dementia risk reduction in the UK: the MOCHAD-10.

      Oliveira, Deborah; Aubeeluck, Aimee; Stupple, Ed; Kim, Sarang; Orrell, Martin; University of Derby; Federal University of Sao Paulo; University of Nottingham; Australian National University; University of Tasmania (BMC (Springer Nature), 2019-05-02)
      Background: Modifying lifestyle risk factors for dementia is a public health priority. Motivation for change is integral to the modification of health-related risk behaviours. This study investigates the psychometric properties of the previously validated tool entitled ‘Motivation to Change Lifestyle and Health Behaviours for Dementia Risk Reduction Scale’ (MCLHB-DRR) for use in the UK. Methods: A sample of 3,948 individuals aged 50 and over completed the 27-item MCLHB-DRR online. The psychometric properties of the scale were explored via Exploratory Principal Axis Factoring (PAF) with Oblimin rotation. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was used to confirm the factor structure using chi-square (χ2), the goodness-of-fit index (GFI), the comparative fit index (CFI), the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) and Root Mean Square Residual (RMR) as fit indices to evaluate the model fit. Internal consistency (Cronbach α) was measured for the final scale version. Results: Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) resulted in a parsimonious 10-item, two-factor structure (5 items each, factor loadings > 0.3) that explained 52.83% of total variance. Based on the Pattern Matrix, Factor 1 was labelled “Positive Cues to Action” and Factor 2 was labelled “Negative Cues to Action”. After addressing some errors in covariances, CFA showed a good fit where all fit indices were larger than 0.90 (GFI = 0.968, CFI = 0.938) and smaller than 0.08 (RMSEA = 0.072, RMR = 0.041). The standardized coefficients of Factor 1 and Factor 2 ranged from 0.30 to 0.73 and were all statistically significant (p < 0.001). The final scale showed moderate to high reliability scores (Factor 1 α = 0.809; Factor 2 α = 0.701; Overall α = 0.785). Conclusions: The new MOCHAD-10 (Motivation to Change Behaviour for Dementia Risk Reduction Scale) is a short, reliable and robust two-factor, 10-item clinical tool for use in preventative health care and research to evaluate motivation to change lifestyle for dementia risk reduction.
    • Factors affecting hospital staff judgments about sickle cell disease pain

      Elander, James; Marczewska, Malgorzata; Amos, Roger; Thomas, Aldine; Tangayi, Sekayi; University of Derby (2006)
      Judgments about people with pain are influenced by contextual factors that can lead to stigmatization of patients who present in certain ways. Misplaced staff perceptions of addiction may contribute to this, because certain pain behaviors superficially resemble symptoms of analgesic addiction. We used a vignette study to examine hospital staff judgments about patients with genuine symptoms of analgesic addiction and those with pain behaviors that merely resemble those symptoms. Nurses and doctors at hospitals in London, UK, judged the level of pain, the likelihood of addiction, and the analgesic needs of fictitious sickle cell disease patients. The patient descriptions included systematic variations to test the effects of genuine addiction, pain behaviors resembling addiction, and disputes with staff, which all significantly increased estimates of addiction likelihood and significantly decreased estimates of analgesic needs. Participants differentiated genuine addiction from pain behaviors resembling addiction when making judgments about addiction likelihood but not when making judgments about analgesic needs. The treatment by staff of certain pain behaviors as symptoms of analgesic addiction is therefore a likely contributory cause of inadequate or problematic hospital pain management. The findings also show what a complex task it is for hospital staff to make sensitive judgments that incorporate multiple aspects of patients and their pain. There are implications for staff training, patient education, and further research.
    • Fears of compassion and happiness in relation to alexithymia, mindfulness, and self-criticism.

      Gilbert, Paul; McEwan, Kirsten; Gibbons, L.; Duarte, Joana; Matos, Marcela; Kingsway Hospital, Derby; University of Coimbra (British Psychological Society, 2011-11-08)
      Background. Thereisincreasingresearchtosuggestthatfearsof,andresistancesto, affiliativeandpositiveemotionsarelinkedtoself-criticismandarangeofpsychopathologies.Itisunclearhowthesefearsandresistancesarelinkedtoeachotherandhowthese inturnarelinkedtopsychologicalprocesses,suchasabilitiestobemindfulandrecognize and describe emotions. Objectives. Thisresearchexplorestherelationshipbetweenfearsofcompassionand happinessingeneral,withcapacitiesforemotionalprocessing(alexithymia),capacitiesfor mindfulness, and empathic abilities. Toadvance this research, a new scale was developed to measure general fears of positive feelings – the Fear of Happiness Scale. Results. The results showed that fears of compassion for self, from others and in particular fear of happiness, were highly linked to different aspects of alexithymia, mindfulness, empathy, self-criticism and depression, anxiety and stress. Especially noteworthy was the very high correlation between fear of happiness and depression (r =.70). Conclusion. While the development of positive emotions, especially those linked to affiliation and connectedness are increasingly seen as important therapeutic targets, little research has focused on the blocks and fears to positive emotions. This study used newly developed fears of positive affect scales (e.g., compassion and happiness) to explore these aspects and found they were significantly linked to psychopathology variables self-criticism and difficulties such as alexithymia.
    • Fears of compassion in a depressed population: Implication for psychotherapy

      Gilbert, Paul; McEwan, Kirsten; Catarino, Francisca; Baião, Rita; University of Derby (OMICS International, 2014-05-13)
      Background: While psychological therapies for depression have advanced in the last 20 years, still many people respond only partially and remain vulnerable to relapse. Insight into the limitations of our psychological therapies might be obtained from recent research that has revealed, in nonclinical populations, that some people can be fearful of positive emotions especially affiliative and compassion-focused ones. Aims: This study explores the fears of compassion in a clinical population and their associations with selfcriticism, self-compassion and depression, anxiety and stress. Method: 53 depressed patients completed a series of self-report scales. Results: Fears of compassion, particularly for oneself and from others, were strongly linked to self-criticism, depression, anxiety and stress, and negatively associated with self-compassion and self-reassurance. Conclusions: Since compassion and the affiliative emotions associated with compassion play a fundamental role in emotion regulation, individuals who are blocked or fearful of accessing these emotions are likely to be struggle with emotional regulation and the psychotherapeutic process. Research on the fears of compassion and affiliative emotions suggests these are important therapeutic targets.
    • Fears of compassion: development of three self-report measures.

      Gilbert, Paul; McEwan, Kirsten; Matos, Marcela; Rivis, Amanda; Kingsway Hospital; University of Coimbra; University of Nottingham (British Psychological Society, 2011-04-13)
      Objectives. There is increasing evidence that helping people develop compassion for themselves and others has powerful impacts on negative affect and promotes positive affect. However, clinical observations suggest that some individuals, particularly those high in self-criticism, can find self-compassion and receiving compassion difficult and can befearfulofit.Thisstudythereforedevelopedmeasuresoffearof:compassionforothers, compassion from others, and compassion for self. We also explored the relationship of these fears with established compassion for self and compassion for others measures, self-criticism, attachment styles, and depression, anxiety, and stress. Method. Students (N = 222) and therapists (N = 53) completed measures of fears of compassion, self-compassion, compassion for others, self-criticism, adult attachment, and psychopathology. Results. Fear of compassion for self was linked to fear of compassion from others, and both were associated with self-coldness, self-criticism, insecure attachment, and depression, anxiety, and stress. In a multiple regression, self-criticism was the only significant predictor of depression. Conclusion. This study suggests the importance of exploring how and why some people may actively resist engaging in compassionate experiences or behaviours and be fearful of affiliative emotions in general. This has important implications for therapeutic interventions and the therapeutic relationship because affiliative emotions are major regulators of threat-based emotions.
    • Fears of happiness and compassion in relationship with depression, alexithymia, and attachment security in a depressed sample.

      Gilbert, Paul; McEwan, Kirsten; Catarino, Francisca; Baião, Rita; Palmeira, Lara; University of Derby; University of Coimbra; Mental Health Research Unit; Derbyshire Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust; Derby UK; Mental Health Research Unit; Derbyshire Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust; Derby UK; Mental Health Research Unit; Derbyshire Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust; Derby UK; et al. (Wiley, 2013-11-27)
      Objectives In a non-clinical population, fears of compassion and fear of happiness have both been found to be highly correlated with alexithymia and depression. This study sought to explore these processes and their links with adult attachment and social safeness and pleasure in a depressed group. Method A total of 52 participants suffering from moderate to severe depression completed measures of fears of happiness, compassion from others and for self, in addition to measures of alexithymia, attachment, social safeness, and depression, anxiety, and stress. Results Fears of compassion and happiness were highly correlated with alexithymia, adult attachment, and depression, anxiety, and stress. Fear of happiness was found to be the best predictor of depression, anxiety, and stress, whereas fear of compassion from others was the best predictor of adult attachment. A path analysis showed that fears of positive emotion fully mediate the link between alexithymia and depression. This clinical sample had higher mean scores in fears of positive emotions, alexithymia, and depression, anxiety, and stress than a previously studied student sample. Conclusions This study adds to the evidence that fears of positive emotions are important features of mental health difficulties. Unaddressed, these fears can block positive emotions and may lead to emotional avoidance of positive affect thus contributing as blocks to successful therapy. Therapies for depression may therefore profitably assess and desensitize the fear of positive emotions. Practitioner points Many therapies focus on reducing negative affect and increasing positive affect. However, clinicians should be aware that positive emotions can be feared: in this clinical sample, depression is strongly associated with fear of happiness and fears of compassion. If clients fear happiness and compassion, they may resist or have difficulties in engaging in activities which evoke positive affect. If not addressed these fears may become blocks to therapy. Fears of different types of positive affect may require different interventions.
    • Fears of negative emotions in relation to fears of happiness, compassion, alexithymia and psychopathology in a depressed population: A preliminary study

      Gilbert, Paul; McEwan, Kirsten; Catarino, Francisca; Baião, Rita; University of Derby; University of Coimbra (OMICS International, 2014-05-13)
      Abstract Objectives: While fears of negative or aversive emotions are linked to experiential avoidance and psychopathology, recent studies have also focused on the relation between psychopathology and fear of positive emotions. This study explores 1. which negative emotions of anger, anxiety and sadness on most feared and avoided and 2. the links between fears and avoidance of negative emotions, with fears of positive and affiliative emotions, alexithymia, and self-reported depression anxiety and stress. Method: A new scale was developed to measure fears of three negative emotions anxiety anger and sadness. 52 participants suffering from moderate to severe depression completed this measure, along with fear of happiness, fears of compassion, alexithymia and psychopathology. Results: Interestingly fears of negative emotions were not correlated with each other; in other words one can be frightened of one negative emotion but not another. The correlation between the fear of an emotion and the avoidance of that emotion was different for the three negative emotions, with fear of anger being the most strongly linked to its avoidance. Fear of sadness was the only feared ‘negative’ emotion associated with depression. Fear of sadness and fear of anger, but not anxiety also linked to fears of positive emotions and alexithymia. Conclusions: Fears of (so called) negative emotions vary in terms of the degree to which people are fearful of them and avoid them. Importantly it was sadness, a neglected emotion in the studies of emotion avoidance, which accounted for the higher proportion of variance for depression and alexithymia.
    • Feeling safe and content: A specific affect regulation system? Relationship to depression, anxiety, stress, and self-criticism.

      Gilbert, Paul; McEwan, Kirsten; Mitra, Ranjana; Franks, Leigh; Richter, Anne; Rockliff, Helen; University of Derby; Kingsway Hospital (Taylor and Francis, 2008-06-17)
      Recent work in the neuroscience of positive affect has suggested that there may be two different types of positive affect. One is linked to a drive/seeking system (and may be dopaminergic mediated) and the other is a soothing-contentment system (and may be opiate/oxytocin mediated). This study sought to develop a self-report scale that could tap these positive affects in regard to characteristic feelings individuals may have. Results from 203 students suggested three (rather than two) underlying factors: activated positive affect, relaxed positive affect, and safe/content positive affect. It was the safe/content positive affect that had the highest negative correlations with depression, anxiety and stress, self-criticism, and insecure attachment. Hence, greater clarity on the different types and functions of positive affect may demystify the relationship between positive emotions and well-being.
    • Figural effects in a syllogistic evaluation paradigm

      Stupple, Edward J. N.; Ball, Linden J.; University of Derby (Hogrefe, 2007-01)
      Robust biases have been found in syllogistic reasoning that relate to the figure of premises and to the directionality of terms in given conclusions. Mental models theorists (e.g., Johnson-Laird & Byrne, 1991) have explained figural bias by assuming that reasoners can more readily form integrated models of premises when their middle terms are contiguous than when they are not. Biases associated with the direction of conclusion terms have been interpreted as reflecting a natural mode of reading off conclusions from models according to a “first-in, first-out principle.” We report an experiment investigating the impact of systematic figural and conclusion-direction manipulations on the processing effort directed at syllogistic components, as indexed through a novel inspection-time method. The study yielded reliable support for mental-models predictions concerning the nature and locus of figural and directionality effects in syllogistic reasoning. We argue that other accounts of syllogistic reasoning seem less able to accommodate the full breadth of inspection-time findings observed.
    • The flows of compassion in adolescents as measured by the compassionate engagement and action scales

      Cunha, Marina; Galhardo, Ana; Gilbert, Paul; Rodrigues, Cátia; Matos, Marcela; University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal; University of Derby (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2021-07-23)
      The development of self-report instruments assessing the different facets of compassion adapted for different age groups is crucial for research and clinical practice. This study examined the factor structure and psychometric properties of the adaptation to adolescents of the Compassionate Engagement and Action Scales (CEAS-A) in a sample of 674 Portuguese adolescents. Confirmatory factor analyses showed that the factor structure of the CEAS-A was similar to the one found in the adults’ version, with higher-order factor models encompassing two first/s-order factors in each scale (Engagement and Actions). The CEAS-A revealed good construct validity, reliability, and temporal stability. Gender differences were found in Self-compassion and Compassion for Other scales. Path analysis results indicated that self-criticism had a direct negative impact on adolescents’ life satisfaction, whereas the impact of self-reassurance on life satisfaction was partially mediated by self-compassion and compassion from others. The CEAS-A is the first self-report instrument that allows for the assessment of the three different flows of compassion in adolescents and may be an important and useful tool for research and clinical practice.
    • “Football is pure enjoyment”: An exploration of the behaviour change processes which facilitate engagement in football for people with mental health problems

      Hargreaves, Jackie; Pringle, Andy; Leeds Beckett University (Elsevier BV, 2019-03-08)
      Physical activity is known to be beneficial for people with mental health problems, although engagement is low. Football, provided by professional football club community trusts could aid engagement in physical activity, however little is known about the behaviour change processes which engage individuals in this type of PA. One factor which is often overlooked is affect and exploring this could help identify the behaviour change processes, which engage individuals in a professional football club-led mental health intervention. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of individuals attending football provided by a professional club community trust to further our understanding of the behaviour change processes involved in facilitating engagement in this provision. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with twelve men who played football provided by a professional football club trust. A range of mental health problems were reported and the participants were aged between 19 and 46. Template analysis was conducted, implementing some of the concepts from the Affective – Reflective Theory (ART). The results highlighted that both affective and reflective processes of ART were evident in engaging individuals in football. Pleasurable experiences were enabled through the physical and social characteristics of football. Self-control strategies emerged which help to action engagement. The professional football club trust provided coaching knowledge and skills, team organisation and resources and feelings of belonging and responsibility. Application of ART to the understanding of football experiences has provided a novel exploration of the processes involved in engaging individuals in football. This has important implications for intervention design; the focus should be on providing pleasurable experiences and fostering appropriate self-control strategies.
    • Forms of self-criticising/attacking & self-reassuring scale: Psychometric properties and normative study

      Baião, Rita; Gilbert, Paul; McEwan, Kirsten; Carvalho, Sérgio; University of Coimbra; University of Derby; CINEICC - Cognitive and Behavioural Centre for Research and Intervention; University of Coimbra; Portugal; Mental Health Research Unit; Kinsgway Hospital; Derby UK; Institute of Translation, Innovation, Methodology & Engagement; Cardiff University School of Medicine; Cardiff UK; CINEICC - Cognitive and Behavioural Centre for Research and Intervention; University of Coimbra; Portugal (Wiley, 2014-12-10)
      Abstract Background The Forms of Self-Criticising/Attacking & Self-Reassuring Scale (FSCRS, Gilbert, Clarke, Hempel, Miles, & Irons, 2004, Br. J. Clin. Psychology, 43, 31) is a self-report instrument that measures self-criticism and self-reassurance. It has shown good reliability and has been used in several different studies and in a range of different populations. The aim of this study was to explore its psychometric proprieties in a large clinical and non-clinical sample, to establish its reliability. In addition, to our knowledge, this is the first study to provide normative data to FSCRS. Differences in population scores will also be addressed. Method Data were collated from 12 different studies, resulting in 887 non-clinical participants and 167 mixed diagnosis patients who completed the FSCRS. Results A confirmatory factor analysis shows that both in non-clinical and clinical samples, the three-factor model of FSCRS is a well-adjusted measure for assessing the two forms of self-criticism and a form of self-reassurance. Normative data for the scale are presented. Comparing the two populations, the non-clinical was more self-reassuring and less self-critical than the clinical one. Comparing genders, in the non-clinical population men were more self-reassuring and less self-critical than women. No significant gender differences were found in the clinical population. Conclusions Taken together, results corroborate previous findings about the link between self-criticism and clinical population, which stresses the need to both assess and address it in therapy. Results also confirm that FSCRS is a robust and reliable instrument, which now can aid clinicians and researchers to have a better understanding of the results, taking into account the norms presented.
    • Formulations

      Childs, Carrie; University of Derby; University of Derby; UK (2015-04-21)
      Formulation is the interactional practice of referring to objects, persons, activities, or previous conversation. This article presents a brief history of formulation in the field of language and social interaction and outlines current knowledge of the practices of formulation. The article also describes three different senses of formulation that appear in the literature on conversation analysis and the relationship of these to each other.
    • From reading minds to social interaction: respecifying Theory of Mind

      Childs, Carrie; Loughborough University (2013-08)
      The aim of this paper is to show some of the limitations of the Theory of Mind approach to interaction compared to a conversation analytic alternative. In the former, mental state terms are examined as words that signify internal referents. This study examines children’s uses of ‘I want’ in situ. The data are taken from a corpus of family mealtimes. ‘I want’ constructions are shown to be interactionally occasioned. The analysis suggests that (a) a referential view of language does not adequately account for how mental state terms are used in talk, (b) the dominant methodology for examining children’s understanding of ‘desires’ is based on several problematic assumptions. It is concluded that participation in interaction is a social matter, a consideration that is obscured by Theory of Mind and its favoured methods.
    • Further evidence of reliability and validity of the Huntington’s disease quality of life battery for carers: Italian and French translations

      Aubeeluck, Aimee; Dorey, Julie; Squitieri, Ferdinando; Clay, Emilie; Stupple, Edward J. N.; De Nicola, Annunziata; Buchanan, Heather; Martino, Tiziana; Toumi, Mondher; University of Derby (2012-07-21)
      Background Existing research suggests that family caregivers of persons with Huntington’s disease (HD) face a distinct series of problems, linked to the complex nature of the disease. Aubeeluck and Buchanan (Clin Genet, 71(5):434–445, 2007) developed and validated a disease-specific measure used to explore caregivers quality of life and assess the efficacy of therapeutic interventions. This current study builds on this research through the validation of French and Italian translations of the Huntington’s disease quality of life battery for carers (HDQoL-C). Method A total of 301 family carers completed the HDQoL-C. Participants were recruited through the “Euro-HDB” study which is measuring the burden in HD across Europe and the USA. Results Factor analysis demonstrated good internal consistency, reliability and congruent validity. Carers who cared for patients with less clinically severe symptoms reported significantly better QoL than carers of patients with more clinically severe symptoms. Discussion Findings indicate the HDQoL-C is multi-lingual, multi-cultural and easily applicable in other languages.
    • Galvanic vestibular stimulation produces sensations of rotation consistent with activation of semicircular canal afferents

      Reynolds, Raymond Francis; Osler, Callum J.; University of Birmingham, School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, College of Life and Environmental Sciences (Frontiers, 2012)
    • The good things children notice in nature: An extended framework for reconnecting children with nature

      Harvey, Caroline; Hallam, Jenny; Richardson, Miles; Wells, Rachel; University of Derby (Elsevier BV, 2019-12-23)
      This research identifies themes emerging from a children’s writing task, where they wrote about good things they noticed in nature over a five day period. Eighty four children aged nine to eleven participated, resulting in 847 written statements. Content analysis using an emergent coding approach identified ten themes, with “Active Animals” being the most frequently occurring theme. Combining the themes with Author (2017a, b, c) pathways to nature connection provides an extended framework to inform children’s activity programmes, design of school grounds and urban spaces, aiming to connect children with nature. Future research could extend the framework into a practitioner’s tool kit.
    • Graphic imagery is not sufficient for increased attention to cigarette warnings: the role of text captions

      Brown, Kyle G.; Reidy, John G.; Weighall, Anna R.; Arden, Madelynne A. (2013-05-30)