• “We all had an experience in there together”: a discursive psychological analysis of collaborative paranormal accounts by paranormal investigation Team members

      Childs, Carrie; Murray, Craig D. (Taylor and Francis, 2013-05-24)
      This is a study of the verbal accounts of paranormal investigators. The focus of analysis is upon the rhetorical organization of event descriptions in ways that establish the factual status of reports in order to highlight the inherent problems associated with current understandings of reports of spontaneous cases. Drawing upon a corpus of interviews conducted with six investigation group members, analysis was conducted using discursive psychology, in particular the rhetorical approach, with an examination of the ways in which accounts were presented and the interactional consequences of describing events in particular ways. Analysis revealed how speakers worked to imply the paranormal status of events while avoiding explicitly labelling experiences as “paranormal.” By focussing upon the production of event descriptions, the construction of intersubjectivity and the importance of the context in which accounts are elicited, the current work has implications for the way in which parapsychologists currently utilize and understand accounts of spontaneous cases.
    • "We've been exploring and adventuring." A investigation into young people's engagement with a semi wild, disused space

      Hallam, Jenny; Gallagher, Laurel; Harvey, Caroline; University of Derby (APA, 2019-10-24)
      This paper uses ethnography to explore young people’s engagement with an intervention run by Feral Spaces which was designed to promote a meaningful connection to a disused space. Over the course of three sessions, each lasting two hours, seven young people aged between 11 and 12 years old took part in a range of den building activities in a semi-wild area which was local to them. The sessions were recorded using audio and video equipment and an inductive thematic analysis informed by a realist framework was used to analyse the naturalistic data collected. The analysis presents four themes - engaging with the environment, developing a sense of awe and wonder, respect and attachment to the space and a sense of belonging which map out the young people’s growing connection to nature evidenced during the intervention. Within each of these themes the young people’s experiences are discussed in relation to theory of biophilia and the pathways to nature model in order to evaluate their relevance for researchers and practitioners who seek to understand children’s connection with nature and promote it. Furthermore, the positive relationships and emotions experienced during the intervention are explored. It is argued that the community-based intervention developed the young people’s understandings of the natural world and their confidence to engage with it in a personally meaningful way. This had positive implications in terms of supporting the young people’s wellbeing.
    • What drives prioritized visual processing? A motivational relevance account

      Maratos, Frances A.; Pessoa, Luiz; University of Derby; University of Maryland (Elsevier, 2019-04-29)
      Emotion is fundamental to our being, and an essential aspect guiding behavior when rapid responding is required. This includes whether we approach or avoid a stimulus, and the accompanying physiological responses. A common tenet is that threat-related content drives stimulus processing and biases visual attention, so that rapid responding can be initiated. In this paper, it will be argued instead that prioritization of threatening stimuli should be encompassed within a motivational relevance framework. To more fully understand what is, or is not, prioritized for visual processing one must, however, additionally consider: (i) stimulus ambiguity and perceptual saliency; (ii) task demands, including both perceptual load and cognitive load; and (iii) endogenous/affective states of the individual. Combined with motivational relevance, this then leads to a multifactorial approach to understanding the drivers of prioritized visual processing. This accords with current recognition that the brain basis allowing for visual prioritization is also multifactorial, including transient, dynamic and overlapping networks. Taken together, the paper provides a reconceptualization of how “emotional” information prioritizes visual processing.
    • What is acceptance, and how could it affect health outcomes for people receiving renal dialysis?

      Stalker, Carol; Elander, James; Mitchell, Kathryn; Taal, Maarten W.; Selby, Nicholas; Stewart, Paul; University of Derby; University of Nottingham (British Psychological Society, 2018-07-20)
      Renal dialysis is a life-saving treatment for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) but is burdensome, invasive and expensive. Patients’ experiences of dialysis and the outcomes of their treatment could potentially be improved by focusing on ‘acceptance’. However, the concept of acceptance has been used in different ways. This article examines ways that acceptance has been conceptualised in research on chronic illness generally and ESRD specifically, and makes proposals for research to understand better what acceptance means for people with ESRD. The aim is to assist the development of acceptance-related measures and interventions to support people with ESRD.
    • When is a face a face? Schematic faces, emotion, attention and the N170

      Maratos, Frances A.; Garner, Matthew; Karl, Anke; Hogan, Alexandra M.; University of Derby (AIMS Press, 2015-09-11)
      Emotional facial expressions provide important non-verbal cues as to the imminent behavioural intentions of a second party. Hence, within emotion science the processing of faces (emotional or otherwise) has been at the forefront of research. Notably, however, such research has led to a number of debates including the ecological validity of utilising schematic faces in emotion research, and the face-selectively of N170. In order to investigate these issues, we explored the extent to which N170 is modulated by schematic faces, emotional expression and/or selective attention. Eighteen participants completed a three-stimulus oddball paradigm with two scrambled faces as the target and standard stimuli (counter-balanced across participants), and schematic angry, happy and neutral faces as the oddball stimuli. Results revealed that the magnitude of the N170 associated with the target stimulus was: (i) significantly greater than that elicited by the standard stimulus, (ii) comparable with the N170 elicited by the neutral and happy schematic face stimuli, and (iii) significantly reduced compared to the N170 elicited by the angry schematic face stimulus. These findings extend current literature by demonstrating N170 can be modulated by events other than those associated with structural face encoding; i.e. here, the act of labelling a stimulus a ‘target’ to attend to modulated the N170 response. Additionally, the observation that schematic faces demonstrate similar N170 responses to those recorded for real faces and, akin to real faces, angry schematic faces demonstrated heightened N170 responses, suggests caution should be taken before disregarding schematic facial stimuli in emotion processing research per se.
    • When logic and belief collide: Individual differences in reasoning times support a selective processing model

      Stupple, Edward J. N.; Ball, Linden J.; Evans, Jonathan St. B. T.; Kamal-Smith, Emily; University of Derby; Lancaster University; University of Plymouth; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2011-12)
      When the validity of a deductive conclusion conflicts with its believability people often respond in a belief-biased manner. This study used response times to test the selective processing model, which views belief-bias effects as arising from the interplay between superficial heuristic processes and more rigorous analytic processes. Participants were split into three response groups according to their propensity to endorse logically normative conclusions. The low-logic, high belief-bias group demonstrated rapid responding, consistent with heuristic processing. The medium-logic, moderate belief-bias group showed slower responding, consistent with enhanced analytic processing, albeit selectively biased by conclusion believability. The high-logic, low belief-bias group's relatively unbiased responses came at the cost of increased processing times, especially with invalid-believable conclusions. These findings support selective processing claims that distinct heuristic and analytic processing systems underpin reasoning, and indicate that certain individuals differentially engage one system more than the other. A minor amendment is proposed to the current selective processing model to capture the full range of observed effects.
    • Who thrives under pressure? predicting the performance of elite academy cricketers using the cardiovascular indicators of challenge and threat states

      Turner, Martin J.; Jones, Marc V.; Sheffield, David; Slater, Matthew J.; Barker, Jamie B.; Bell, James J.; Staffordshire University, Centre for Sport, Health and Exercise Research; University of Derby, Centre for Psychological Research (2013-08)
      This study assessed whether cardiovascular (CV) reactivity patterns indexing challenge and threat states predicted batting performance in elite male county (N = 12) and national (N = 30) academy cricketers. Participants completed a batting test under pressure, before which CV reactivity was recorded in response to ego-threatening audio instructions. Self-reported self-efficacy, control, achievement goals, and emotions were also assessed. Challenge CV reactivity predicted superior performance in the Batting Test, compared with threat CV reactivity. The relationships between self-report measures and CV reactivity, and self-report measures and performance were inconsistent. A small subsample of participants who exhibited threat CV reactivity, but performed well, reported greater self-efficacy than participants who exhibited threat CV reactivity, but performed poorly. Also a small subsample of participants who exhibited challenge reactivity, but performed poorly, had higher avoidance goals than participants with challenge reactivity who performed well. The mechanisms for the observed relationship between CV reactivity and performance are discussed alongside implications for future research and applied practice.
    • Working out of the ‘toolbox’: an exploratory study with complementary therapists in acute cancer care

      McLaren, Natasha; Mackereth, Peter; Hackman, Eileen; Holland, Fiona G.; University of Derby; The Christie NHS Foundation Trust (Elsevier, 2013-12)
      Aims: The aim of this research was to explore and capture therapists’ experiences of and preparation for working with patients in an acute cancer care setting. Method: Semi structured interviews with therapists (n=18) in an acute cancer hospital in the North West of England. The interviews were transcribed and analysed using thematic coding. Results: Key themes identified included; the need for a ‘tool box’ that goes beyond initial training, building confidence with adapting these new skills in practice, helping patients to become empowered, the need to support carers, research evidence and resources issues, and the role of supervision. Conclusion: This study was limited by being set in a single acute cancer site. Therapists valued having a ‘tool box’ but needed confidence and support to navigate the challenges of clinical practice.
    • Working towards an international consensus on criteria for assessing internet gaming disorder: a critical commentary on Petry et al . (2014)

      Griffiths, Mark D.; van Rooij, Antonius J.; Kardefelt-Winther, Daniel; Starcevic, Vladan; Király, Orsolya; Pallesen, Ståle; Müller, Kai; Dreier, Michael; Carras, Michelle; Prause, Nicole; et al. (2016-01)
      This commentary paper critically discusses the recent debate paper by Petry et al. (2014) that argued there was now an international consensus for assessing Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD). Our collective opinions vary considerably regarding many different aspects of online gaming. However, we contend that the paper by Petry and colleagues does not provide a true and representative international community of researchers in this area. This paper critically discusses and provides commentary on (i) the representativeness of the international group that wrote the ‘consensus’ paper, and (ii) each of the IGD criteria. The paper also includes a brief discussion on initiatives that could be taken to move the field towards consensus. It is hoped that this paper will foster debate in the IGD field and lead to improved theory, better methodologically designed studies, and more robust empirical evidence as regards problematic gaming and its psychosocial consequences and impact.
    • Worlds within worlds: a strategy for using interpretative phenomenological analysis with focus groups

      Phillips, Eleanor; Montague, Jane; Archer, Stephanie; University of Derby; Imperial College London (Taylor and Francis, 2016-06-29)
      There is increasing interest in applying interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) to focus group data and in developing appropriate strategies for doing so. These strategies should exploit the unique features of focus groups, which provide a rich canvas of experiences not seen in individual interviews, while remaining true to the personal, phenomenological perspective of IPA. We present a four-stage approach with specific group focused analytical strategies: looking for “groupness,” clustering reoccurring group interactions, identifying interactional relationships, and incorporating group elements into an analysis. These stages are illustrated with worked examples developed while working with data from focus groups of women with gynaecological cancer discussing a yoga intervention, and explain how these can enrich our understanding of participants’ lived experiences. This approach demonstrates a suggested framework for developing IPA themes from focus group data by analysing and interpreting the group setting. We discuss links to psychological concepts, potential applications and limitations. This empirically based methodology is presented as a practical guide for other researchers grappling with this type of data.
    • Young white British men and knife-carrying in public

      Palasinski, Marek; Riggs, Damien; University of Derby (Springer, 2012-07-06)
      Whilst quantitative research to date gives us some indication of the prevalence at which knife-carrying occurs among young British men, there have been few explanations for why it occurs, and for what the relationship might be between broader social issues of control and power and the behaviours of young men themselves. Drawing on interviews with 16 young white British men, the present paper explores the ways in which the sample accounted for knife-carrying. Two interpretative repertoires were identified: (1) attributions of blame to authorities for a lack of protection and a subsequent justification of knife-carrying, and (2) discussions of masculinity in relation to knife-carrying. The findings suggest that what is required are policy and practice responses that take into account the symbolic functions of knives for young white men, and which recognise the dilemmatic bind that such men are caught in when they attempt to negotiate competing demands of protection and control.
    • Younger women’s experiences of deciding against delayed breast reconstruction post-mastectomy following breast cancer: An interpretative phenomenological analysis

      Holland, Fiona G.; Archer, Stephanie; Montague, Jane; University of Derby (Sage Publications, 2014-12-16)
      Most women do not reconstruct their breast(s) post-mastectomy. The experiences of younger women who maintain this decision, although important to understand, are largely absent in the research literature. This interview-based study uses interpretative phenomenological analysis to explore the experiences of six women, diagnosed with primary breast cancer in their 30s/40s, who decided against delayed reconstruction. Findings reported here focus on one superordinate theme (decision-making) from a larger analysis, illustrating that the women’s drive to survive clearly influenced their initial decision-making process. Their tenacity in maintaining their decision is highlighted, despite non-reconstruction sometimes being presented negatively by medical teams. Patient-centred support recommendations are made.
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      Case, Keith; Marshall, Russell; Hogberg, Dan; Summerskill, Steve; Gyi, Diane E.; Sims, Ruth; Loughborough University (Springer Verlag, 2009)
      Anthropometric data are often described in terms of percentiles and too often digital human models are synthesised from such data using a single percentile value for all body dimensions. The poor correlation between body dimensions means that products may be evaluated against models of humans that do not exist. Alternative digital approaches try to minimise this difficulty using pre-defined families of manikins to represent human diversity, whereas in the real world carefully selected real people take part in ‘fitting trials’. HADRIAN is a digital human modeling system which uses discrete data sets for individuals rather than statistical populations. A task description language is used to execute the evaluative capabilities of the underlying SAMMIE human modelling system as though a ‘real’ fitting trial was being conducted. The approach is described with a focus on the elderly and disabled and their potential exclusion from public transport systems.