• Understanding the causes of problematic pain management in sickle cell disease: evidence that pseudoaddiction plays a more important role than genuine analgesic dependence

      Elander, James; Lusher, Joanne; Bevan, David; Telfer, Paul; Burton, Bernice; University of Derby (2004)
      Treatment of painful episodes in sickle cell disease (SCD) is sometimes complicated by disputes between patients and staff and patient behaviors that raise concerns about analgesic misuse. Those concern-raising behaviors could indicate either drug seeking caused by analgesic dependence or pseudoaddiction caused by undertreatment of pain. To make a systematic assessment of concern-raising behaviors and examine their associations with other factors, including DSM-IV symptoms of substance dependence, individual, in-depth interviews with SCD patients were conducted to apply pre-established criteria for concernraising behaviors. These included disputes with staff, tampering with analgesic delivery systems, passing prescribed analgesics from one person to another, being suspected or accused of analgesic misuse, self-discharging from hospital, obtaining analgesic prescriptions from multiple sources, using illicit drugs, and injecting analgesics. Assessments were also made of pain-related symptoms of substance dependence (where behaviors resemble substance dependence but reflect attempts to manage pain, increasing the risk of pseudoaddiction), non-pain-related symptoms of substance dependence (where substance dependence reflects analgesic use beyond pain management), and pain coping strategies (using the Pain Coping Strategies Questionnaire). Inter-rater reliability for the assessment of concern-raising behaviors was high, with Kappa coefficients of 0.63 to 1.0. The most frequent concern-raising behaviors were disputes with staff about pain or analgesics. The least frequent were tampering with analgesic delivery systems and passing analgesics between patients in hospital. The odds of concern-raising behaviors in hospital were raised eightfold by less use of ignoring pain as a coping strategy, and more than doubled by each additional pain-related symptom of substance dependence. Non-painrelated symptoms of substance dependence had no independent effect on concern-raising behaviors. Concern-raising behaviors were more closely associated with pain behaviors that make patients vulnerable to misperceptions of substance dependence than they were with genuine substance dependence. The results show how pseudoaddiction can adversely influence hospital pain management, and suggest that more emphasis should be placed on patients’ pain and analgesic needs when responding to concern-raising behaviors in hospital.
    • The use of an e-learning module on return to work advice for physiotherapists - A prospective cohort study.

      Chance-Larsen, Fiona; Chance-Larsen, Kenneth; Divanoglou, Anestis; Baird, Andrew; Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust; University of Central Lancashire; University of Iceland; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2018-06-20)
      Nonspecific low back pain (LBP) can progress to chronic disability and prolonged absence from work. Despite clinical and professional guidelines, physiotherapists often fail to address return to work outcomes. The aim of this exploratory study was to determine whether an e-learning resource tailored to physiotherapy practice could affect physiotherapists’ attitudes and beliefs regarding return to work advice for their patients. Design: A prospective interventional cohort study (pilot). Methods: Participants were recruited via the Chartered Society of Physiotherapy website. Responses on a clinical vignette, the Health Care Providers’ Pain and Impairment Scale (HC-Pairs), and the Behavioral Constructs Questionnaire (BCQ) were collected online at baseline (Q1) and 2-months post-intervention (Q2). Fifty-four physiotherapists completed Q1 and the response rate for Q2 was 44/54 (81%). Changes in the degree of agreement with guidelines indicated that the intervention made an impact on respondents (kappa 0.345; p = 0.003). HC-Pairs and BCQ results showed a nonstatistically significant trend toward the target behavior. There is a need for interventions to improve adherence with advice for return to work following nonspecific LBP. An e-learning tool for physiotherapists on advising patients regarding return to work has potential to positively affect self-reported clinical behavior.
    • Using Hadrian for eliciting virtual user feedback in 'Design For All'

      Marshall, Russell; Porter, J. Mark; Case, Keith; Sims, Ruth; Gyi, Diane E.; Loughborough University (2004)
      Design for All' is an approach to product, environment or service design that aims to maximise the usability of a particular design. However, a key concept of this approach is not to tailor designs to the user in a bespoke fashion, but rather to provide a single solution that accommodates the needs of all users including those who are older or disabled. In order to support the designer / design team in ‘Design for All’ a computer aided design and analysis tool has been developed. The tool, known as HADRIAN, has been developed to address two critical factors. The first factor is the provision of accurate and applicable data on the target users including a broad spectrum of size, shape, age and ability. The second factor is an efficient and effective means of utilising the data for ergonomics evaluations during the concept stages of design. HADRIAN’s database and task analysis tool work in combination with the existing human modelling system SAMMIE. The system as a whole allows assessment of a design against the population in the database providing a means to elicit some of the feedback that might be gained by real user trials at a stage in the design process when physical mock-ups and user group selection would be prohibitively time consuming and expensive.
    • Using journal alerts to support your continuing professional development

      Bryson, David; University of Derby (Taylor & Francis, 2020-04-06)
      There are many ways to keep up to date with research that affect your role and personal development. You can regularly use PubMed or Scholar to find recent papers using keyword search, you can rely on others to do the work for you with literature reviews, share the job with Journal clubs or using Journal alerts you can have the papers and research you want delivered to your inbox.
    • Using the theoretical domains framework to improve access to cervical screening for women with intellectual disabilities

      Whitelegg, Victoria; Elander, James; University of Derby (British Psychological Society, 2020-07-03)
      Regular attendance for screening can prevent most cervical cancers, but women with learning disabilities are potentially at greater risk of developing and dying from cervical cancer because current screening processes and practices create inequitable barriers, restricting their access to screening. In response, an objective of Public Health England’s 2018 ‘Screening Inequalities Strategy’ was to reduce inequalities through ‘evidence-based contributions’ to policy and best practice (Public Health England, 2018b). Health psychologists could contribute to this objective by facilitating collaborative work with cervical screening practitioners using the Theoretical Domains Framework. This enables health psychology evidence and theory, combined with the perceptions and experiences of screening practitioners, to identify relevant barriers and enablers to access, and this information can inform interventions and policy changes to make cervical screening programmes more open and effective for women with learning disabilities.
    • Using webinars to support your continuing professional development

      Bryson, David; University of Derby (Taylor & Francis, 2020-10-08)
      The transition from face to face to online learning in response to COVD-19 has massively increased the availability of webinars and other online learning experiences whether virtual meetings with colleagues or even the conversion of conferences into a webinar series. This transformation is especially advantageous for organisations whose members are so widespread geographically that regional meetings can be difficult to attend.
    • Validação da escala percepção de autoeficácia daparentalidade materna em amostra brasileira

      Adamson-Macedo, Elvidina N.; Tristao, Rosana; Neiva , Elaine; Barnes, Christopher; University of Derby; University of Oxford; Universidade de Brasília; University of Wolverhampton (Revista Brasileira de Crescimento e Desenvolvimento Humano, 2015-10-25)
      Self-efficacy matches the belief that a person has that she is able to produce theresults she wants to achieve. The beliefs of self-efficacy that parents have about the baby emerge asa powerful predictor of positive parenting. Objective: this study aimed to evaluate the maternalself-efficacy behavior in hospitalized mothers and validate an instrument for measuring this conceptdeveloped and validated in England by Barnes and Adamson-Macedo, in 2007. Method: this cross-sectional exploratory study convenience cohort comprised 87 mothers of newborn babies, 26premature and 61 full-term infants. The scale Perceived Maternal Parenting Self-Efficacy (PMP S-E),which consists of 20 items that represent four subscales was tested for reliability and validity. Results:the internal consistency of the scale PAEPM reached a value of .86, the internal consistency andreliability estimates for each of the subscales also reached acceptable values. Exploratory FactorAnalysis (EFA) confirmed the validity of the construct and the scores of self-efficacy were normallydistributed for both subgroups and total sample. Conclusions: PMP S-E scale proved to be an easyapplication tool and psychometrically robust, reliable and valid for use with mothers of hospitalizednew-borns both premature as the term clinically stable. It is a reliable method of identifying mothersof babies who need more support from the hospital staff.
    • Validation of the English version of the scale for psychosocial factors in food allergy and the relationship with mental health, quality of life, and self-efficacy

      Knibb, Rebecca C.; Cortes, Aaron; Barnes, Christopher; Stalker, Carol; Aston University; University of Derby; Universidad de Chile Clinical Hospital (2016-08-21)
      Background. The Scale for Psychosocial Factors in Food Allergy (SPS-FA) is based on the biopsychosocial model of health and was developed and validated in Chile to measure the interaction between psychological variables and allergy symptoms in the child. We sought to validate this scale in an English speaking population and explore its relationship with parental quality of life, self-efficacy, and mental health. Methods. Parents (𝑛 = 434) from the general population in the UK, who had a child with a clinical diagnosis of food allergy, completed the SPS-FA and validated scales on food allergy specific parental quality of life (QoL), parental self-efficacy, and general mental health. Findings. The SPS-FA had good internal consistency (alphas = .61–.86). Higher scores on the SPS-FA significantly correlated with poorer parental QoL, self-efficacy, and mental health. All predictors explained 57% of the variance in SPS-FA scores with QoL as the biggest predictor (𝛽 = .52). Discussion. The SPS-FA is a valid scale for use in the UK and provides a holistic view of the impact of food allergy on the family. In conjunction with health-related QoL measures, it can be used by health care practitioners to target care for patients and evaluate psychological interventions for improvement of food allergy management.
    • Validation of the HADRIAN system using an ATM evaluation case study

      Summerskill, Steve; Marshall, Russell; Case, Keith; Gyi, Diane E.; Sims, Ruth; Davis, Peter; Day, Philip N.; Rohan, C.; Birnie, S.; Loughborough University (2010)
      The HADRIAN human modelling system is under development as part of the EPSRC funded AUNT-SUE project. The HADRIAN system aims to foster a 'design for all' ethos by allowing ergonomists and designers to see the effects of different kinds of disability on the physical capabilities of elderly and people with disabilities. This system is based upon the long established SAMMIE system, and uses data collected from 102 people, 79 of whom are registered as disabled, or have age related mobility issues. The HADRIAN system allows three dimensional CAD data of new products to be imported, with a subsequent automated analysis using all of the 102 sample members. The following paper describes the process and results gathered from a validation study using an ATM design as a case study. The results indicated that fine tuning of the behavioural data built into HADRIAN would improve the accuracy of an automated product analysis.
    • Validation of the HADRIAN system using an ATM evaluation case study

      Summerskill, Steve; Marshall, Russell; Case, Keith; Gyi, Diane E.; Sims, Ruth; Davis, Peter; Loughborough University (2009)
      The HADRIAN human modelling system is under development as part of the EPSRC funded AUNT-SUE project. The HADRIAN system aims to foster a ‘design for all’ ethos by allowing ergonomists and designers to see the effects of different kinds of disability on the physical capabilities of elderly and disabled people. This system is based upon the long established SAMMIE system, and uses data collected from 102 people, 79 of whom are registered as disabled, or have age related mobility issues. The HADRIAN system allows three dimensional CAD data of new products to be imported, with a subsequent automated analysis using all of the 102 sample members. The following paper describes the process and results gathered from a validation study using an ATM design as a case study. The results indicated that fine tuning of the behavioural data built into HADRIAN would improve the accuracy of an automated product analysis.
    • Virtual fitting trails using SAMMIE and HADRIAN

      Marshall, Russell; Porter, J. Mark; Case, Keith; Sims, Ruth; Gyi, Diane E.; Loughborough University (2003)
      Fitting trials are a common technique employed in ergonomics evaluation. Fitting trials employ a panel of users carefully selected to be representative of the population at which the product, or environment, has been targeted. The panel are then used to evaluate the design against a set of criteria in order to determine a level of suitability of the design. Whilst traditionally this process has taken place with real people and full size mock-ups, increasingly the process is becoming computer supported and makes use of CAD models and human manikins in a ‘virtual’ fitting trial. The use of these technologies can clearly play a key role in supporting user-centred design, however, there are a number of shortcomings in the current technology, data, and infrastructure used for computer aided ergonomics evaluations in design. This paper will introduce HADRIAN, a computer aided ergonomics analysis tool developed at Loughborough University. HADRIAN works together with the existing system SAMMIE. The paper will focus on the novel aspects of the systems demonstrating how, together they may be employed to not only make virtual fitting trails more efficacious but also encourage empathy with the end user.
    • Virtual task analysis in 'design for all'.

      Marshall, Russell; Case, Keith; Porter, J. Mark; Gyi, Diane E.; Sims, Ruth; Loughborough University (2003)
      Design for All’ or ‘Inclusive Design’ is an approach to product, environment or service design that aims to maximise the applicability of a particular design. However, the concept is not to tailor designs in a bespoke fashion, but rather to provide a single solution that accommodates the needs of all users including those who are older or disabled. In order to educate and support the designer in their endeavours to ‘Design for All’ a computer aided design and analysis tool has been developed. The tool, known as HADRIAN, has been developed to meet two key areas of deficiency in existing approaches. HADRIAN provides improved data for the designer with a sample database of 100 individuals across a broad spectrum of ages and abilities. HADRIAN also provides a means of using this data for ergonomics evaluations through a task analysis tool. Working in combination with the existing human modelling system SAMMIE the system allows the designer to assess their designs against the population in the database to determine the percentage who are effectively ‘designed out’.
    • Virtual task simulation for inclusive design.

      Marshall, Russell; Case, Keith; Summerskill, Steve; Sims, Ruth; Gyi, Diane E.; Davis, Peter; Loughborough University (2009)
      Human modelling tools provide a means to perform virtual task evaluations upon designs within the computer environment. The ability to evaluate the accommodation of a design early on in the design process before physical prototypes can be built has many advantages. These advantages are particularly relevant in supporting people in attempting to design products that are inclusive and accessible. HADRIAN is a new tool developed to provide accessible, and applicable data on people with a broad range of size, age, and ability together with a means of optimising virtual task evaluations. This paper describes the use of HADRIAN in performing a task evaluation, focusing on the underlying methodology that aims to achieve a virtual simulation that mimics a real world user trial.
    • Visual processing speeds in children

      Maratos, Frances A.; Croker, Steve; University of Derby (Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2011-03)
      The aim of this study was to investigate visual processing speeds in children. A rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task with schematic faces as stimuli was given to ninety-nine 6–10-year-old children as well as a short form of the WISC-III. Participants were asked to determine whether a happy face stimulus was embedded in a stream of distracter stimuli. Presentation time was gradually reduced from 500 ms per stimulus to 100 ms per stimulus, in 50 ms steps. The data revealed that (i) RSVP speed increases with age, (ii) children aged 8 years and over can discriminate stimuli presented every 100 ms—the speed typically used with RSVP procedures in adult and adolescent populations, and (iii) RSVP speed is significantly correlated with digit span and object assembly. In consequence, the RSVP paradigm presented here is appropriate for use in further investigations of processes of temporal attention within this cohort.
    • The vulnerability of rules in complex work environments: dynamism and uncertainty pose problems for cognition

      Clewley, Richard; Stupple, Edward J. N.; University of Derby (2015-01-15)
      Many complex work environments rely heavily on cognitive operators using rules. Operators sometimes fail to implement rules, with catastrophic human, social and economic costs. Rule-based error is widely reported, yet the mechanisms of rule vulnerability have received less attention. This paper examines rule vulnerability in the complex setting of airline transport operations. We examined ‘the stable approach criteria rule’, which acts as a system defence during the approach to land. The study experimentally tested whether system state complexity influenced rule failure. The results showed increased uncertainty and dynamism led to increased likelihood of rule failure. There was also an interaction effect, indicating complexity from different sources can combine to further constrain rule-based response. We discuss the results in relation to recent aircraft accidents and suggest that ‘rule-based error’ could be progressed to embrace rule vulnerability, fragility and failure. This better reflects the influence that system behaviour and cognitive variety have on rule-based response. Practitioner Summary: In this study, we examined mechanisms of rule vulnerability in the complex setting of airline transport operations. The results suggest work scenarios featuring high uncertainty and dynamism constrain rule-based response, leading to rules becoming vulnerable, fragile or failing completely. This has significant implications for rule-intensive, safety critical work environments.
    • “We all had an experience in there together”: a discursive psychological analysis of collaborative paranormal accounts by paranormal investigation Team members

      Childs, Carrie; Murray, Craig D. (Taylor and Francis, 2013-05-24)
      This is a study of the verbal accounts of paranormal investigators. The focus of analysis is upon the rhetorical organization of event descriptions in ways that establish the factual status of reports in order to highlight the inherent problems associated with current understandings of reports of spontaneous cases. Drawing upon a corpus of interviews conducted with six investigation group members, analysis was conducted using discursive psychology, in particular the rhetorical approach, with an examination of the ways in which accounts were presented and the interactional consequences of describing events in particular ways. Analysis revealed how speakers worked to imply the paranormal status of events while avoiding explicitly labelling experiences as “paranormal.” By focussing upon the production of event descriptions, the construction of intersubjectivity and the importance of the context in which accounts are elicited, the current work has implications for the way in which parapsychologists currently utilize and understand accounts of spontaneous cases.
    • "We've been exploring and adventuring." A investigation into young people's engagement with a semi wild, disused space

      Hallam, Jenny; Gallagher, Laurel; Harvey, Caroline; University of Derby (APA, 2019-10-24)
      This paper uses ethnography to explore young people’s engagement with an intervention run by Feral Spaces which was designed to promote a meaningful connection to a disused space. Over the course of three sessions, each lasting two hours, seven young people aged between 11 and 12 years old took part in a range of den building activities in a semi-wild area which was local to them. The sessions were recorded using audio and video equipment and an inductive thematic analysis informed by a realist framework was used to analyse the naturalistic data collected. The analysis presents four themes - engaging with the environment, developing a sense of awe and wonder, respect and attachment to the space and a sense of belonging which map out the young people’s growing connection to nature evidenced during the intervention. Within each of these themes the young people’s experiences are discussed in relation to theory of biophilia and the pathways to nature model in order to evaluate their relevance for researchers and practitioners who seek to understand children’s connection with nature and promote it. Furthermore, the positive relationships and emotions experienced during the intervention are explored. It is argued that the community-based intervention developed the young people’s understandings of the natural world and their confidence to engage with it in a personally meaningful way. This had positive implications in terms of supporting the young people’s wellbeing.
    • What drives prioritized visual processing? A motivational relevance account

      Maratos, Frances A.; Pessoa, Luiz; University of Derby; University of Maryland (Elsevier, 2019-04-29)
      Emotion is fundamental to our being, and an essential aspect guiding behavior when rapid responding is required. This includes whether we approach or avoid a stimulus, and the accompanying physiological responses. A common tenet is that threat-related content drives stimulus processing and biases visual attention, so that rapid responding can be initiated. In this paper, it will be argued instead that prioritization of threatening stimuli should be encompassed within a motivational relevance framework. To more fully understand what is, or is not, prioritized for visual processing one must, however, additionally consider: (i) stimulus ambiguity and perceptual saliency; (ii) task demands, including both perceptual load and cognitive load; and (iii) endogenous/affective states of the individual. Combined with motivational relevance, this then leads to a multifactorial approach to understanding the drivers of prioritized visual processing. This accords with current recognition that the brain basis allowing for visual prioritization is also multifactorial, including transient, dynamic and overlapping networks. Taken together, the paper provides a reconceptualization of how “emotional” information prioritizes visual processing.
    • What is acceptance, and how could it affect health outcomes for people receiving renal dialysis?

      Stalker, Carol; Elander, James; Mitchell, Kathryn; Taal, Maarten W.; Selby, Nicholas; Stewart, Paul; University of Derby; University of Nottingham (British Psychological Society, 2018-07-20)
      Renal dialysis is a life-saving treatment for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) but is burdensome, invasive and expensive. Patients’ experiences of dialysis and the outcomes of their treatment could potentially be improved by focusing on ‘acceptance’. However, the concept of acceptance has been used in different ways. This article examines ways that acceptance has been conceptualised in research on chronic illness generally and ESRD specifically, and makes proposals for research to understand better what acceptance means for people with ESRD. The aim is to assist the development of acceptance-related measures and interventions to support people with ESRD.