• A tailored compassion-focused therapy program for sexual minority young adults with depressive symotomatology: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

      Pepping, Christopher A.; Lyons, Anthony; McNair, Ruth; Kirby, James N.; Petrocchi, Nicola; Gilbert, Paul; La Trobe University; University of Melbourne; University of Queensland; John Cabot University; et al. (Biomed Central, 2017-03-01)
      Background: Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) men and women represent one of the highest-risk populations for depressive symptomatology and disorders, with young LGB adults being at greatest risk. To date, there have been no randomized controlled trials (RCT) to specifically target depressive symptoms in young LGB adults. This is despite research highlighting unique predictors of depressive symptomatology in this population. Here we outline a protocol for an RCT that will test the preliminary efficacy of a tailored compassion-focused therapy (CFT) intervention for young LGB adults compared with a self-directed cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) program with no specific tailoring for LGB individuals.
    • Targeted transgene integration overcomes variability of position effects in zebrafish.

      Roberts, Jennifer Anne; Miguel-Escalada, Irene; Slovik, Katherine Joan; Walsh, Kathleen Theodora; Hadzhiev, Yavor; Sanges, Remo; Stupka, Elia; Marsh, Elizabeth Kate; Balciuniene, Jorune; Balciunas, Darius; et al. (2014-01-21)
      Zebrafish transgenesis is increasingly popular owing to the optical transparency and external development of embryos, which provide a scalable vertebrate model for in vivo experimentation. The ability to express transgenes in a tightly controlled spatio-temporal pattern is an important prerequisite for exploitation of zebrafish in a wide range of biomedical applications. However, conventional transgenesis methods are plagued by position effects: the regulatory environment of genomic integration sites leads to variation of expression patterns of transgenes driven by engineered cis-regulatory modules. This limitation represents a bottleneck when studying the precise function of cis-regulatory modules and their subtle variants or when various effector proteins are to be expressed for labelling and manipulation of defined sets of cells. Here, we provide evidence for the efficient elimination of variability of position effects by developing a PhiC31 integrase-based targeting method. To detect targeted integration events, a simple phenotype scoring of colour change in the lens of larvae is used. We compared PhiC31-based integration and Tol2 transgenesis in the analysis of the activity of a novel conserved enhancer from the developmentally regulated neural-specific esrrga gene. Reporter expression was highly variable among independent lines generated with Tol2, whereas all lines generated with PhiC31 into a single integration site displayed nearly identical, enhancer-specific reporter expression in brain nuclei. Moreover, we demonstrate that a modified integrase system can also be used for the detection of enhancer activity in transient transgenesis. These results demonstrate the power of the PhiC31-based transgene integration for the annotation and fine analysis of transcriptional regulatory elements and it promises to be a generally desirable tool for a range of applications, which rely on highly reproducible patterns of transgene activity in zebrafish.
    • Temporal processing of emotional stimuli: The capture and release of attention by angry faces

      Maratos, Frances A.; University of Derby (American Psychological Association, 2011-10)
      Neuroimaging data suggest that emotional information, especially threatening faces, automatically captures attention and receives rapid processing. While this is consistent with the majority of behavioral data, behavioral studies of the attentional blink (AB) additionally reveal that aversive emotional first target (T1) stimuli are associated with prolonged attentional engagement or “dwell” time. One explanation for this difference is that few AB studies have utilized manipulations of facial emotion as the T1. To address this, schematic faces varying in expression (neutral, angry, happy) served as the T1 in the current research. Results revealed that the blink associated with an angry T1 face was, primarily, of greater magnitude than that associated with either a neutral or happy T1 face, and also that initial recovery from this processing bias was faster following angry, compared with happy, T1 faces. The current data therefore provide important information regarding the time-course of attentional capture by angry faces: Angry faces are associated with both the rapid capture and rapid release of attention.
    • The psychosocial impact of food allergy and food hypersensitivity in children, adolescents and their families: a review

      Cummings, Andrew J.; Knibb, Rebecca C.; King, R. M.; Lucas, J. S.; University of Southampton, School of Medicine, Division of Infection, Inflammation and Immunity; University of Derby; Southampton University Hospitals Trust; University of Southampton (2010-02-22)
    • A thematic analysis investigating the factors affecting students’ decision making regarding their eating behaviours.

      Large, Katie; Montague, Jane; University of Derby (British Psychological Society, 2015)
    • A theory of challenge and threat states in athletes: a revised conceptualization

      Meijen, Carla; Turner, Martin; Jones, Marc V; Sheffield, David; McCarthy, Paul; St Mary’s University, Twickenham, London; Manchester Metropolitan University; University of Derby; Glasgow Caledonian University (Frontiers, 2020-02-06)
      The Theory of Challenge and Threat States in Athletes (TCTSA) provides a psychophysiological framework for how athletes anticipate motivated performance situations. The purpose of this review is to discuss how research has addressed the 15 predictions made by the TCTSA, to evaluate the mechanisms underpinning the TCTSA in light of the research that has emerged in the last ten years, and to inform a revised TCTSA (TCTSA-R). There was support for many of the 15 predictions in the TCTSA, with two main areas for reflection identified; to understand the physiology of challenge and to re-evaluate the concept of resource appraisals. This re-evaluation informs the TCTSA-R which elucidates the physiological changes, predispositions, and cognitive appraisals that mark challenge and threat states. First, the relative strength of the sympathetic nervous system response is outlined as a determinant of challenge and threat patterns of reactivity and we suggest that oxytocin and neuropeptide Y are also key indicators of an adaptive approach to motivated performance situations and can facilitate a challenge state. Second, although predispositions were acknowledged within the TCTSA, how these may influence challenge and threat states was not specified. In the TCTSA-R it is proposed that one’s propensity to appraise stressors as a challenge that most strongly dictates acute cognitive appraisals. Third, in the TCTSA-R a more parsimonious integration of Lazarusian ideas of cognitive appraisal and challenge and threat is proposed. Given that an athlete can make both challenge and threat primary appraisals and can have both high or low resources compared to perceived demands, a 2x2 bifurcation theory of challenge and threat is proposed. This reflects polychotomy of four parts; high challenge, low challenge, low threat, and high threat. For example, in low threat, an athlete can evince a threat state but still perform well so long as they perceive high resources. Consequently, we propose suggestions for research concerning measurement tools and a reconsideration of resources to include social support. Finally, applied recommendations are made based on adjusting demands and enhancing resources.
    • Three good things in nature: Noticing nearby nature brings sustained increases in connection with nature.

      Richardson, Miles; Sheffield, David; University of Derby (Taylor & Francis, 2017-01-12)
      Connecting people more fully with nature is emerging as a societal issue owing to the state of nature, links to pro-environmental behaviour and benefits to wellbeing. Simple, low-cost, interventions that deliver sustained increases in nature connectedness would be valuable. Participants (n=50) noted three good things in nature each day for five days and a control group noted three factual things (n=42). The intervention group showed sustained and significant increases in nature connectedness compared to the control group. Increases in nature connectedness were associated with psychological health improvement in the intervention group. Noting the good things in nature each day can deliver sustained increases in peoples’ connection with nature.; Connecting people more fully with nature is emerging as a societal issue owing to the state of nature, links to pro-environmental behaviour and benefits to wellbeing. Simple, low-cost interventions that deliver sustained increases in nature connectedness would be valuable. Participants (n = 50) noted three good things in nature each day for five days and a control group noted three factual things (n = 42). The intervention group showed sustained and significant increases in nature connectedness compared to the control group. Increases in nature connectedness were associated with psychological health improvement in the intervention group. Noting the good things in nature each day can deliver sustained increases in people’s connection with nature.
    • Three insights gained – Delivering doctoral supervision training

      Lipka, Sigrid; University of Derby (2017-02-15)
      The student-supervisor relationship is one of the most important factors impacting on doctoral student satisfaction and successful completion rates (see e.g., Hodsdon & Buckley 2011; Kulej & Park 2008). Given the complex nature of this relationship and the range of functions it serves, key questions are whether and how doctoral supervisors can be taught to build successful supervisory relationships. This talk focusses on a research supervision training programme for new doctoral supervisors that has been designed by myself and colleagues. It is delivered in three, 3-hour long sessions spread over three months. The training covers key challenges of the supervisory relationship, i.e., identifying a good research applicant, research ethics, managing supervisory relationships, progress monitoring and effective feedback, preparing for the thesis write up/viva and student career management. The training aims to build i) practical skills required to deal with these challenges and ii) knowledge and critical evaluation of local and national regulations and requirements as well as pedagogical literature relating to these challenges. Three insights gained from running the training over a period of more than five years will be discussed. It is concluded that delivering doctoral supervision training does work, in line with e.g., McCulloch & Loeser (2016). It is recommended that employers facilitate ongoing supervisory training and opportunities for reflecting on supervisory practice. It is suggested that further research is needed on two fronts: i) to define the behaviours and knowledge that a doctoral supervisor needs in order to build a trusting supervisory relationship and ii) to establish valid methods for evaluating the changes that supervisory trainings create.
    • Thresholds of size: An interpretative phenomenological analysis of childhood messages around food, body, health and weight.

      Holland, Fiona G.; Peterson, Karin; Archer, Stephanie; University of Derby; University of North Carolina Asheville; Imperial College London (Open Journal Systems, 2018-05-04)
      This study explores the lived experiences of non-dieting, middle-aged Western women classified as ‘overweight’ or ‘obese’ on BMI charts. Qualitative research that has focused on non-weight loss experiences with this population has been rare. This study aims to allow their experiences to be heard within the mainstream health literature. Four women from aged 40-55 were interviewed about their early messages and experiences around food, body, health and weight. An interpretative phenomenological analysis was conducted. Three themes were identified: 1) family culture and body norms 2) thresholds of size and 3) action and outcome. Participants identified a range of influences upon their early body appraisal, with parents, extended family, peers and community members contributing to their understanding of what constituted as an acceptable size. The impact upon their sense of identity and emotional wellbeing is discussed. This study contributes to the role of the modelling and messages around size and value given by important others and the psychological ramifications these can have over time.
    • Transport planning guidelines for vulnerable road user safety in emerging economies.

      Quigley, Claire; Sims, Ruth; Hill, Julian; Tripodi, Antonino; Persia, Luca; Pietrantonio, Hugo; Kharat, Mahendra; Loughborough University (2012)
      With the rapid expanse of motorised traffic in countries such as Brazil and India, the safety of vulnerable road users (VRUs) needs to be a key component in any transportation development. It should be considered what can be learnt from European transport planning experiences. This review identifies current good practice in Europe and considers how VRU safety is considered in the process. Based on this review, recommendations are given for:Stakeholder participation; •The development of a step by step planning process; •The implementation of VRU principles into the process. •An assessment of the feasibility and implications for safety of applying European practice to Emerging Economies is also given. Keywords Transport planning; European best practice; Vulnerable Road User Safety; Emerging Economies; India; Brazil
    • ‘Trying to bring attention to your body when you’re not sure where it is’: An interpretative phenomenological analysis of drivers and barriers to mindfulness for people with spinal cord injury

      Hearn, Jasmine Heath; Finlay, Katherine Anne; Sheffield, David; University of Derby; Manchester Metropolitan University; The University of Buckingham (Wiley, 2020-08-04)
      Work is beginning to explore the impact of mindfulness in managing the physical and psychological health of people with spinal cord injury (SCI). However, no previous work has sought to understand what drives people with such conditions to try mindfulness, and what barriers are experienced in accessing mindfulness. An exploratory, qualitative, interview design, utilizing interpretative phe- nomenological analysis. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 people with SCI who had experience of mindfulness since sustaining their injury. Verbatim transcripts were analysed using IPA to understand the lived experience of mindfulness post-SCI. Analysis suggested that managing physical and mental health, and viewing mindfulness as proactive and protective were key drivers for exploring mindfulness. However, multiple barriers to accessing opportunities and developing capability impeded engagement. These included the focus on areas of the body that participants had reduced sensation in, physical environments that could not be navigated in a wheelchair, social stigma surrounding the use of mindfulness, and a sense of obligation and risk of failure implied by perceived requirements for engagement. The results demonstrate the need for specific interventions to accom- modate the reduced sensory and physical function experienced by people with neurological conditions and to enhance sense of control and autonomy. In addition, recommendations include minimizing the stigma surrounding mindfulness, and the potentially demotivating impact of the perception of ‘failing’ to engage.
    • Turning assault into a “harmless prank”— teenage perspectives on happy slapping

      Palasinski, Marek; University of Derby (Sage, 2013-05-01)
      The article describes the ways in which 41 adolescents from three large English cities discussed the phenomenon of happy slapping, which is typically defined as recording a physical assault on an unsuspecting victim on a cameraenabled phone for Internet upload. Using discourse analysis, the construal of motivations for its creation and watching is explored, elaborating on social, cultural, and legal implications. The identified repertoires (creation of comedy, denial of grievous bodily harm, accomplice-witness ambiguity, and reflection of postmodern culture) caution against attributing happy slapping just to boredom, as the mainstream British press does and puts spotlight on other factors, like seeking originality and keeping “pranks” under control. Concluding with the apparent similarities between the discursive worlds inhabited by unconvicted adolescents and convicted offenders, this study provides a theoretical platform for further research on the subtle and intriguing overlap.
    • A two-gene balance regulates Salmonella typhimurium tolerance in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

      Marsh, Elizabeth K; van den Berg, Maaike C W; May, Robin C; University of Birmingham (Public Library of Science, 2011-03-02)
      Lysozymes are antimicrobial enzymes that perform a critical role in resisting infection in a wide-range of eukaryotes. However, using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a model host we now demonstrate that deletion of the protist type lysozyme LYS-7 renders animals susceptible to killing by the fatal fungal human pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans, but, remarkably, enhances tolerance to the enteric bacteria Salmonella Typhimurium. This trade-off in immunological susceptibility in C. elegans is further mediated by the reciprocal activity of lys-7 and the tyrosine kinase abl-1. Together this implies a greater complexity in C. elegans innate immune function than previously thought.
    • Understanding the causes of problematic pain management in sickle cell disease: evidence that pseudoaddiction plays a more important role than genuine analgesic dependence

      Elander, James; Lusher, Joanne; Bevan, David; Telfer, Paul; Burton, Bernice; University of Derby (2004)
      Treatment of painful episodes in sickle cell disease (SCD) is sometimes complicated by disputes between patients and staff and patient behaviors that raise concerns about analgesic misuse. Those concern-raising behaviors could indicate either drug seeking caused by analgesic dependence or pseudoaddiction caused by undertreatment of pain. To make a systematic assessment of concern-raising behaviors and examine their associations with other factors, including DSM-IV symptoms of substance dependence, individual, in-depth interviews with SCD patients were conducted to apply pre-established criteria for concernraising behaviors. These included disputes with staff, tampering with analgesic delivery systems, passing prescribed analgesics from one person to another, being suspected or accused of analgesic misuse, self-discharging from hospital, obtaining analgesic prescriptions from multiple sources, using illicit drugs, and injecting analgesics. Assessments were also made of pain-related symptoms of substance dependence (where behaviors resemble substance dependence but reflect attempts to manage pain, increasing the risk of pseudoaddiction), non-pain-related symptoms of substance dependence (where substance dependence reflects analgesic use beyond pain management), and pain coping strategies (using the Pain Coping Strategies Questionnaire). Inter-rater reliability for the assessment of concern-raising behaviors was high, with Kappa coefficients of 0.63 to 1.0. The most frequent concern-raising behaviors were disputes with staff about pain or analgesics. The least frequent were tampering with analgesic delivery systems and passing analgesics between patients in hospital. The odds of concern-raising behaviors in hospital were raised eightfold by less use of ignoring pain as a coping strategy, and more than doubled by each additional pain-related symptom of substance dependence. Non-painrelated symptoms of substance dependence had no independent effect on concern-raising behaviors. Concern-raising behaviors were more closely associated with pain behaviors that make patients vulnerable to misperceptions of substance dependence than they were with genuine substance dependence. The results show how pseudoaddiction can adversely influence hospital pain management, and suggest that more emphasis should be placed on patients’ pain and analgesic needs when responding to concern-raising behaviors in hospital.
    • The use of an e-learning module on return to work advice for physiotherapists - A prospective cohort study.

      Chance-Larsen, Fiona; Chance-Larsen, Kenneth; Divanoglou, Anestis; Baird, Andrew; Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust; University of Central Lancashire; University of Iceland; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2018-06-20)
      Nonspecific low back pain (LBP) can progress to chronic disability and prolonged absence from work. Despite clinical and professional guidelines, physiotherapists often fail to address return to work outcomes. The aim of this exploratory study was to determine whether an e-learning resource tailored to physiotherapy practice could affect physiotherapists’ attitudes and beliefs regarding return to work advice for their patients. Design: A prospective interventional cohort study (pilot). Methods: Participants were recruited via the Chartered Society of Physiotherapy website. Responses on a clinical vignette, the Health Care Providers’ Pain and Impairment Scale (HC-Pairs), and the Behavioral Constructs Questionnaire (BCQ) were collected online at baseline (Q1) and 2-months post-intervention (Q2). Fifty-four physiotherapists completed Q1 and the response rate for Q2 was 44/54 (81%). Changes in the degree of agreement with guidelines indicated that the intervention made an impact on respondents (kappa 0.345; p = 0.003). HC-Pairs and BCQ results showed a nonstatistically significant trend toward the target behavior. There is a need for interventions to improve adherence with advice for return to work following nonspecific LBP. An e-learning tool for physiotherapists on advising patients regarding return to work has potential to positively affect self-reported clinical behavior.
    • Using Hadrian for eliciting virtual user feedback in 'Design For All'

      Marshall, Russell; Porter, J. Mark; Case, Keith; Sims, Ruth; Gyi, Diane E.; Loughborough University (2004)
      Design for All' is an approach to product, environment or service design that aims to maximise the usability of a particular design. However, a key concept of this approach is not to tailor designs to the user in a bespoke fashion, but rather to provide a single solution that accommodates the needs of all users including those who are older or disabled. In order to support the designer / design team in ‘Design for All’ a computer aided design and analysis tool has been developed. The tool, known as HADRIAN, has been developed to address two critical factors. The first factor is the provision of accurate and applicable data on the target users including a broad spectrum of size, shape, age and ability. The second factor is an efficient and effective means of utilising the data for ergonomics evaluations during the concept stages of design. HADRIAN’s database and task analysis tool work in combination with the existing human modelling system SAMMIE. The system as a whole allows assessment of a design against the population in the database providing a means to elicit some of the feedback that might be gained by real user trials at a stage in the design process when physical mock-ups and user group selection would be prohibitively time consuming and expensive.
    • Using journal alerts to support your continuing professional development

      Bryson, David; University of Derby (Taylor & Francis, 2020-04-06)
      There are many ways to keep up to date with research that affect your role and personal development. You can regularly use PubMed or Scholar to find recent papers using keyword search, you can rely on others to do the work for you with literature reviews, share the job with Journal clubs or using Journal alerts you can have the papers and research you want delivered to your inbox.
    • Using patient feedback to adapt intervention materials based on acceptance and commitment therapy for people receiving renal dialysis

      Elander, James; Kapadi, Romaana; Coyne, Emma; Taal, Maarten W.; Selby, Nicholas M.; Stalker, Carol; Mitchell, Kathryn; University of Derby (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2021-11-15)
      Theory-based intervention materials must be carefully adapted to meet the needs of users with specific physical conditions. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) has been adapted successfully for cancer, chronic pain, diabetes, irritable bowel syndrome, multiple sclerosis, and a range of other conditions, but not so far for people receiving renal haemodialysis. This paper presents findings from a study to adapt ACT-based intervention materials specifically for renal dialysis. Draft written materials consisting of four stories depicting fictitious individuals who used ACT-related techniques to help overcome different challenges and difficulties related to dialysis were adapted using a systematic patient consultation process. The participants were 18 people aged 19 to 80 years, with chronic kidney disease and receiving renal dialysis. Individual, semi-structured interviews were conducted to elicit participants’ views about how the content of the draft materials should be adapted to make them more realistic and relevant for people receiving renal dialysis and about how the materials should be presented and delivered to people receiving renal dialysis. The interview transcripts were analysed using a qualitative adaptation of the Delphi method in which themes are used as a framework for translating feedback into proposals for modifications. The analysis of patient feedback supported the use of patient stories but suggested they should be presented by video and narrated by real dialysis patients. They also indicated specific adaptations to make the stories more credible and realistic. Participant feedback was translated into proposals for change that were considered along with clinical, ethical and theoretical factors. The outcome was a design for a video-based intervention that separated the stories about individuals from the explanations of the specific ACT techniques and provided greater structure, with material organised into smaller chunks. This intervention is adapted specifically for people receiving renal dialysis while retaining the distinctive theoretical principles of ACT. The study shows the value of consulting patients in the development of intervention materials and illustrates a process for integrating patient feedback with theoretical, clinical and practical considerations in intervention design.
    • Using the theoretical domains framework to improve access to cervical screening for women with intellectual disabilities

      Whitelegg, Victoria; Elander, James; University of Derby (British Psychological Society, 2020-07-03)
      Regular attendance for screening can prevent most cervical cancers, but women with learning disabilities are potentially at greater risk of developing and dying from cervical cancer because current screening processes and practices create inequitable barriers, restricting their access to screening. In response, an objective of Public Health England’s 2018 ‘Screening Inequalities Strategy’ was to reduce inequalities through ‘evidence-based contributions’ to policy and best practice (Public Health England, 2018b). Health psychologists could contribute to this objective by facilitating collaborative work with cervical screening practitioners using the Theoretical Domains Framework. This enables health psychology evidence and theory, combined with the perceptions and experiences of screening practitioners, to identify relevant barriers and enablers to access, and this information can inform interventions and policy changes to make cervical screening programmes more open and effective for women with learning disabilities.