• Pain and athletes: Contact sport participation and performance in pain

      Sheffield, David; Thornton, C; Jones, M.V.; University of Derby; Northumbria University; Manchester Metropolitan University (Elsevier BV, 2020-03-29)
      This study examined the effect of cold pressor pain on performance in high-contact athletes, low-contact athletes and non-athletes. A three-group between-subjects experimental design was used. Seventy-one participants completed a motor task and a cognitive task of different complexity (easy or hard) both in pain and not in pain. The motor task involved participants throwing a tennis ball at numbered targets in the correct order. In the cognitive task, participants were required to check off the numbers one to twenty-five in the correct order from a grid of randomly ordered numbers. Task difficulty was increased by adding dummy targets (motor task) or extra numbers (cognitive task). Cold pressor pain was rated as less intense by high-contact athletes during both tasks compared to low-contact athletes and non-athletes. High-contact athletes’ performance was not hampered by pain on the motor task, whereas it was in low-contact athletes and non-athletes. However, pain did not hamper performance for any group during the cognitive task. Low-contact and non-athletes did not differ from each other in their pain reports or the degree to which their performance was hampered by pain in either task. This study provides evidence that adaptation to pain through participation in high-contact sports can enhance both pain tolerance generally and motor performance specifically under increases in pain. The mechanisms behind these differences warrant further exploration.
    • Pain coping and acceptance as longitudinal predictors of health-related quality of life among people with haemophilia-related joint pain

      Elander, James; Morris, J.; Robinson, G.; University of Derby (Wiley, 2012-12-14)
      Interventions based on coping and acceptance can be adapted for people with different painful conditions. Evidence about baseline characteristics that predict improved outcomes is informative for matching people to interventions, whereas evidence about changes that predict improved outcomes is informative about the processes that interventions should target. Participants in a low-intensity program to promote self-management of hemophilia-related chronic joint pain (n=101) reported pain intensity, coping, acceptance and quality of life at baseline and 6-month follow-up. Baseline and change measures of pain intensity, coping and acceptance were used to predict follow-up quality of life, taking account of baseline quality of life. Changed (reduced) pain intensity predicted better physical quality of life, independently of age, hemophilia severity, baseline pain intensity and baseline physical quality of life. Lower baseline passive coping and changed (increased) pain acceptance predicted better mental quality of life, independently of age, severity, and baseline mental quality of life. Increased activity engagement but not pain willingness predicted better mental quality of life when pain acceptance was decomposed. Changed (reduced) negative thoughts also predicted better mental quality of life when separate acceptance subscales were used. Active pain coping did not predict physical or mental quality of life. Initially high levels of passive coping may be an obstacle to improving mental quality of life. Acceptance rather than coping may be a more useful behavioral change target, but more research is needed about the meanings and therapeutic implications of different elements of pain acceptance.
    • Pain coping, pain acceptance and analgesic use as predictors of health-related quality of life among women with primary dysmenorrhea

      Kapadi, Romaana; Elander, James; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2019-12-24)
      Primary dysmenorrhea causes menstrual pain that affects women’s quality of life (QoL) and analgesics are only moderately effective. Pain coping and pain acceptance influence QoL among people affected by other chronic pain conditions, so we examined pain coping, pain acceptance and analgesic use as predictors of QoL among women with primary dysmenorrhea. 145 women with primary dysmenorrhea completed an online survey including the Menstrual Symptoms Questionnaire (MSQ), the Coping Strategies Questionnaire (CSQ), the Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire (CPAQ-8), questions about analgesic use, and the Short Form-12 (SF-12), a measure of physical and mental health-related QoL. In multiple regression, pain acceptance predicted better physical and mental QoL, whereas pain coping did not predict mental or physical quality of life. Being married or cohabiting and menstrual pain that was less severe and shorter in duration predicted better physical QoL, and those effects were mediated by pain acceptance. Being older at the onset of painful periods predicted better mental QoL and that effect was also mediated by pain acceptance. More severe menstrual pain and congestive rather than spasmodic dysmenorrhea predicted worse mental QoL but those effects were not mediated by other factors. Analgesic use did not predict physical or mental QoL. The results show the impact that menstrual pain has on women’s quality of life, and suggest that initiatives to increase pain acceptance among women with menstrual pain are worthwhile. More research is needed to understand more fully the factors that influence health-related quality of life among women with menstrual pain.
    • Pain management and symptoms of substance dependence among patients with sickle cell disease

      Elander, James; Lusher, Joanne; Bevan, David; Telfer, Paul; University of Derby (2003)
      Concerns about dependence on prescribed analgesia may compromise pain management, but there was previously little reliable evidence about substance dependence among patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). We conducted indepth, semi-structured interviews with SCD patients in London, UK, to assess DSM-IV symptoms of substance dependence and abuse. Criteria were applied to differentiate between pain-related symptoms, which corresponded to the DSM-IV symptoms but involved analgesics used to control pain, and non-pain-related symptoms, which involved analgesic use beyond pain management. Pain-related symptoms are informative about how the pattern of recurrent acute pain in SCD may make patients vulnerable to perceptions of drug dependence. Non-pain-related symptoms are informative about more stringently defined dependence on analgesia in SCD. Inter-rater reliability was high, with mean Kappa coefficients of 0.67–0.88. The criteria could be used to assess analgesic dependence in other painful conditions. Pain-related symptoms were more frequent, accounting for 88% of all symptoms reported. When pain-related symptoms were included in the assessment, 31% of the sample met the DSM-IV criteria for substance dependence, compared with only 2% when the assessment was restricted to non-pain-related symptoms. Qualitative analysis of participants’ descriptions of analgesic use showed that active coping attempts (attempts to anticipate pain and avoid hospital admissions) and awareness of dependence were themes in descriptions of both pain-related and non-painrelated symptoms. Seeking a more normal lifestyle and impaired activities were themes associated with pain-related symptoms. Psychological disturbance was a theme associated with non-pain-related symptoms. The implications are for more responsive treatment of pain in SCD and greater awareness of how patients’ pain coping may be perceived as analgesic dependence. Further research could examine ways that pain-related and non-pain-related symptoms of dependence may be associated with other pain coping strategies and with the outcomes of treatment for painful episodes in hospital.
    • Paradoxical invitations: challenges in soliciting more information from child witnesses

      Childs, Carrie; Walsh, Dave; University of Derby (Taylor & Francis, 2018-11-15)
      This article analyses how police officers conducting interviews with children reporting their being victim of alleged sexual offenses ask witness if they would like to add to what has been said or whether they have any questions. Interviewing guidelines recommend that this be done during interview closure. The data set comprises twenty-seven videotaped interviews. Data are in British English. Using Conversation Analysis, we show that the understanding of interview closure as an appropriate place in which to request for the initiation of a new topic is paradoxical. We also outline practices for soliciting additional information throughout the course of the interview.
    • Paranoid beliefs and self-criticism in students.

      Mills, Alison; Gilbert, Paul; Bellew, Rebecca; McEwan, Kirsten; Gale, Corinne; University of Derby; Kingsway Hospital (Wiley, 2007-09)
      Paranoid beliefs are associated with negative and malevolent views of others. This study, however, explored hostile and compassionate self‐to‐self relating in regard to paranoid beliefs. A total of 131 students were given a series of scales measuring paranoid ideation, forms and functions of self‐criticism, self‐reassurance, self‐compassion and depression. Test scores were subjected to correlation and hierarchical regression analyses to explore the relative contribution of study variables to paranoid beliefs. In this population, paranoid beliefs were associated with forms and functions of self‐criticism, especially self‐hating and self‐persecution. Paranoid beliefs were negatively correlated with self‐kindness and abilities to be self‐reassuring. These variables were also associated with depression (as were paranoid beliefs). A hierarchical regression found that self‐hatred remained a predictor of paranoid ideation even after controlling for depression and self‐reassurance. Paranoid beliefs seem to be associated with a critical and even hating experience of self. These inner experiences of self may be profitable targets for therapeutic interventions. 
    • Parent-child mathematics affect as predictors of children's mathematics achievement

      Sari, Mehmet Hari; Hunt, Thomas; Nevsehir Haci Bektas Veli University; University of Derby (Final International University, 2020-06-30)
      The current study investigated the relationship between children’s and parents’ self-reported maths affect and children’s maths achievement. Participants comprised 186 child-parent dyads in Turkey. Findings showed that maths affect in children and their parents was unrelated. However, maths affect was a significant predictor of children’s maths achievement. Importantly, this varied by grade. In grade three, child maths affect significantly predicted maths achievement, whereas parent maths affect was unrelated to achievement. Conversely, in grade four, the opposite pattern emerged; parent maths affect significantly predicted children’s maths achievement, whereas child maths affect was unrelated to achievement. Furthermore, children’s maths achievement significantly varied according to parents’ level of education, whereby children whose parents were educated to undergraduate level considerably outperformed those whose parents were educated only to primary level. Parents with a lower educational status also reported significantly more difficulty in supporting their child’s maths learning. These findings point towards the importance of parent maths affect, their level of education, and perceived difficulty in supporting children, as predictors of children’s maths achievement. This is only the case in grade four, as maths becomes more challenging and there is a greater emphasis on competitive assessment. As such, the home numeracy environment and family maths tension should be addressed in preparation for children moving into grade four.
    • Parental confidence in managing food allergy: development and validation of the food allergy self-efficacy scale for parents (FASE-P)

      Knibb, Rebecca C.; Barnes, Christopher; Stalker, Carol; Aston University; University of Derby; University of Derby; Psychology; School of Life and Health Sciences; Aston University; Birmingham UK; Psychology; College of Life and Natural Sciences; University of Derby; Derby UK; Psychology; College of Life and Natural Sciences; University of Derby; Derby UK (Wiley, 2015-07-28)
      Background: Food allergy is often a life-long condition that requires constant vigilance in order to prevent accidental exposure and avoid potentially life-threatening symptoms. Parents’ confidence in managing their child’s food allergy may relate to the poor quality of life anxiety and worry reported by parents of food allergic children. Objective: The aim of the current study was to develop and validate the first scale to measure parental confidence (self-efficacy) in managing food allergy in their child. Methods: The Food Allergy Self-Efficacy Scale for Parents (FASE-P) was developed through interviews with 53 parents, consultation of the literature and experts in the area. The FASE-P was then completed by 434 parents of food allergic children from a general population sample in addition to the General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES), the Food Allergy Quality of Life Parental Burden Scale (FAQL-PB), the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ12) and the Food Allergy Impact Measure (FAIM). A total of 250 parents completed the re-test of the FASE-P. Results: Factor and reliability analysis resulted in a 21 item scale with 5 sub-scales. The overall scale and sub-scales has good to excellent internal consistency (α’s of 0.63-0.89) and the scale is stable over time. There were low to moderate significant correlations with the GSES, FAIM and GHQ12 and strong correlations with the FAQL-PB, with better parental confidence relating to better general self-efficacy, better quality of life and better mental health in the parent. Poorer self-efficacy was related to egg and milk allergy; self-efficacy was not related to severity of allergy. Conclusions and clinical relevance: The FASE-P is a reliable and valid scale for use with parents from a general population. Its application within clinical settings could aid provision of advice and improve targeted interventions by identifying areas where parents have less confidence in managing their child’s food allergy.
    • Parental self-efficacy in managing food allergy and mental health predicts food allergy related quality of life

      Knibb, Rebecca C.; Barnes, Christopher; Stalker, Carol; Aston University; University of Derby; University of Derby; Psychology, School of Life and Health Sciences; Aston University; Birmingham U.K; Psychology, College of Life and Natural Sciences; University of Derby; Derby U.K; Psychology, College of Life and Natural Sciences; University of Derby; Derby U.K (2016-03-28)
      Food allergy has been shown to have a significant impact on quality of life (QoL) and can be difficult to manage in order to avoid potentially life threatening reactions. Parental self-efficacy (confidence) in managing food allergy for their child might explain variations in QoL. This study aimed to examine whether self-efficacy in parents of food allergic children was a good predictor of QoL of the family. Methods: Parents of children with clinically diagnosed food allergy completed the Food Allergy Self-Efficacy Scale for Parents (FASE-P), the Food Allergy Quality of Life Parental Burden Scale (FAQL-PB), the GHQ-12 (to measure mental health) and the Food Allergy Independent Measure (FAIM), which measures perceived likelihood of a severe allergic reaction. Results: A total of 434 parents took part. Greater parental QoL was significantly related to greater self-efficacy for food allergy management, better mental health, lower perceived likelihood of a severe reaction, older age in parent and child and fewer number of allergies (all p<0.05). Food allergy self-efficacy explained more of the variance in QoL than any other variable and self-efficacy related to management of social activities and precaution and prevention of an allergic reaction appeared to be the most important aspects. Conclusions: Parental self-efficacy in management of a child’s food allergy is important and is associated with better parental QoL. It would be useful to measure self-efficacy at visits to allergy clinic in order to focus support; interventions to improve self-efficacy in parents of food allergic children should be explored.
    • “A peculiar time in my life”: making sense of illness and recovery with gynaecological cancer

      Phillips, Eleanor; Montague, Jane; Archer, Stephanie; University of Derby; Imperial College London; Psychology, University of Derby, Derby, UK; Psychology, University of Derby, Derby, UK; NIHR Imperial Patient Safety Translational Research Centre, Imperial College London, St Mary’s Hospital, London, UK (Taylor and Francis, 2017-08-31)
      Purpose: Worldwide there are nearly 1.1 million new cases of gynaecological cancer annually. In England, uterine, ovarian and cervical cancers comprize the third most common type of new cancer in women. Research with gynaecological cancer patients within 6 months of diagnosis is rare, as is data collection that is roughly contemporaneous with treatment. Our aim was to explore the experiences of women who were, at study entry, within 6 weeks of surgery or were undergoing chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Methods: An interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) of data from 16 women in five focus groups was conducted in the UK, exploring women’s experiences of being diagnosed with and treated for gynaecological cancer. Results: Participants conceptualized their experiences temporally, from the shock of diagnosis, through their cancer treatment, to thinking about recovery. They tried to make sense of diagnosis, even with treatment being complete. In the context of the Self-Regulation Model, these women were struggling to interpret a changing and multi-faceted illness identity, and attempting to return to pre-illness levels of health. Conclusions: This study adds to this under-studied time period in cancer survivorship. The results suggest that survivors’ goals may change from returning to pre-illness status to reformulating goals as survival time increases.
    • Pellino-1 regulates immune responses to Haemophilus influenzae in models of inflammatory lung disease.

      Hughes, Bethany; Burton, Charlotte; Reese, Abigail; Jabeen, Maisha; Wright, Carl; Khoshaein, Nika; Marsh, Elizabeth; Peachell, Peter; Sun, Shao-Cong; Dockrell, David; et al. (Frontiers Media, 2019-07-31)
      Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a frequent cause of lower respiratory tract infection in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Pellino proteins are a family of E3 ubiquitin ligases that are critical regulators of TLR signalling and inflammation. The aim of this study was to identify a role for Pellino-1 in airway defence against NTHi in the context of COPD. Pellino-1 is rapidly upregulated by LPS and NTHi in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) isolated from individuals with COPD and healthy control subjects, in a TLR4 dependent manner. C57BL/6 Peli1-/- and wild-type (WT) mice were subjected to acute (single LPS challenge) or chronic (repeated LPS and elastase challenge) airway inflammation followed by NTHi infection. Both WT and Peli1-/- mice develop airway inflammation in acute and chronic airway inflammation models. Peli1-/- animals recruit significantly more neutrophils to the airway following NTHi infection which is associated with an increase in the neutrophil chemokine, KC, in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid as well as enhanced clearance of NTHi from the lung. These data suggest that therapeutic inhibition of Pellino-1 may augment immune responses in the airway and enhance bacterial clearance in individuals with COPD.
    • Pellino-1 regulates the responses of the airway to viral infection

      Marsh, Elizabeth K; Prestwich, Elizabeth C; Marriott, Helen M; Williams, Lynne; Hart, Amber R; Muir, Claire F; Parker, Lisa C; Jonker, Marnix R; Heijink, Irene H; Timens, Wim; et al. (Frontiers, 2020-08-31)
      Exposure to respiratory pathogens is a leading cause of exacerbations of airway diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Pellino-1 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase known to regulate virally-induced inflammation. We wished to determine the role of Pellino-1 in the host response to respiratory viruses in health and disease. Pellino-1 expression was examined in bronchial sections from patients with GOLD stage 2 COPD and healthy controls. Primary bronchial epithelial cells (PBECs), in which Pellino-1 expression had been knocked down, were extracellularly challenged with the TLR3 agonist poly(I:C). C57BL/6 Peli1-/- mice and wild type littermates were subjected to intranasal infection with clinically-relevant respiratory viruses; rhinovirus (RV1B) and influenza A. We find that Pellino-1 is expressed in the airways of normal subjects and those with COPD, and that Pellino-1 regulates TLR3 signalling and responses to airways viruses. In particular we observed that knockout of Pellino‐1 in the murine lung resulted in increased production of proinflammatory cytokines IL‐6 and TNFα upon viral infection, accompanied by enhanced recruitment of immune cells to the airways, without any change in viral replication. Pellino-1 therefore regulates inflammatory airway responses without altering replication of respiratory viruses.
    • Perceived maternal parenting self-efficacy (PMP S-E) tool: development and validation with mothers of hospitalized preterm neonates.

      Barnes, Christopher; Adamson-Macedo, Elvidina N.; University of Wolverhampton, Division of Psychology. (2007-12)
      This paper is a report of a study to develop and test the psychometric properties of the Perceived Maternal Parenting Self-Efficacy tool.
    • Perceptions of the paranormal.

      Baker, Ian S.; University of Derby (Pan European Networks, 2012-12-05)
      Dr Ian Baker, Parapsychologist and Chartered psychologist explains how apparently paranormal phenomena can be scientifically investigated in an effort to expand the human understanding of the world.
    • Performance under stress: an eye-tracking investigation of the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT).

      Simonovic, Boban; Stupple, Edward J. N.; Gale, Maggie; Sheffield, David; University of Derby (Frontiers Media, 2018-09-28)
      Stress pervades everyday life and impedes risky decision making. The following experiment is the first to examine effects of stress on risky decision making in the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), while measuring inspection time and conscious awareness of deck contingencies. This was original as it allowed a fine grained rigorous analysis of the way that stress impedes awareness of, and attention to maladaptive financial choices. The extended Cognitive Reflection Task (CRT) further afforded examination of the impact of impaired reflective thinking on risky decision making. Stressed participants were slower to avoid the disadvantageous decks and performed worse overall. They inspected disadvantageous decks for longer than the control condition and were slower in developing awareness of their poor deck quality compared to the control condition. Conversely, in the control condition greater inspection times for advantageous decks were observed earlier in the task, and better awareness of the deck contingencies was shown as early as the second block of trials than the stress condition. Path analysis suggested that stress reduced IGT performance by impeding reflective thinking and conscious awareness. Explicit cognitive processes, moreover, were important during the preliminary phase of IGT performance—a finding that has significant implications for the use of the IGT as a clinical diagnostic tool. It was concluded that stress impedes reflective thinking, attentional disengagement from poorer decks, and the development of conscious knowledge about choice quality that interferes with performance on the IGT. These data demonstrate that stress impairs risky decision making performance, by impeding attention to, and awareness of task characteristics in risky decision making.
    • The personal experience of online learning: an interpretative phenomenological analysis

      Symeonides, Roberta; Childs, Carrie; University of Derby (2015-06-19)
      Student interaction is critical to online social cohesion and collaborative learning. However, online learners need to adjust to the computer mediated communication (CMC) medium of the online environment. This study explores online learners’ experiences of asynchronous text-based CMC using an interpretative phenomenological analysis of interviews with six online students. The analysis revealed that the constraints of written communication and lack of human interaction causes difficulties in adjusting and coping with the online learning environment. Four major themes were identified: the inability to express one’s self fully; difficulties establishing relationships; comparing one’s self to others and the written word as an ineffective learning medium. The study’s findings highlight a need for better student and tutor collaboration to facilitate a safe and interactive environment. Effective academic and social support can enhance online learning, improve student satisfaction and encourage students to persist with their learning.
    • Physical activity self-management and coaching compared to social interaction in huntington disease: results from the ENGAGE-HD randomized, controlled, pilot feasibility trial.

      Busse, Monica; Quinn, Lori; Drew, Cheney; Kelson, Mark; Trubey, Rob; McEwan, Kirsten; Jones, Carys; Townson, Julia; Dawes, Helen; Tudor-Edwards, Rhiannon; et al. (Oxford Academic, 2017-03-24)
      Abstract Background: Self-management and self-efficacy for physical activity is not routinely considered in neurologic rehabilitation. Objective: We assessed feasibility and outcomes of a 14 week physical activity self-management and coaching intervention compared with social contact in Huntington's disease (HD) to inform the design of a future full-scale trial. Design: Assessor blind, multi-site, randomized pilot feasibility trial. Setting: Participants were recruited and assessed at baseline, 16 weeks following randomisation, and then again at 26 weeks in HD specialist clinics with intervention delivery by trained coaches in the participants’ homes. Patients and Intervention: People with HD were allocated to the ENGAGE-HD physical activity coaching intervention or a social interaction intervention. Measurements: Eligibility, recruitment, retention and intervention adherence were determined at 16 weeks. Other outcomes of interest included measures of functional, home and community mobility, self-efficacy, physical activity and disease-specific measures of motor and cognition. Fidelity and costs for both the physical activity and social comparator interventions were established. Results: Forty % (n=46) of eligible patients were enrolled and 22 randomised to the physical intervention and 24 to social intervention. Retention rates in the physical intervention and social intervention were 77% and 92% respectively. Minimum adherence criteria were achieved by 82% of participants in the physical intervention and 100% in the social intervention. There was no indication of between group treatment effects on function, however increases in self-efficacy for exercise and self-reported levels of physical activity in the physical intervention lends support to our pre-defined intervention logic model. Limitations: The use of self-report measures may have introduced bias. Conclusions: An HD physical activity self-management and coaching intervention is feasible and worthy of further investigation.
    • The physiological and emotional effects of touch: Assessing a hand-massage intervention with high self-critics

      Maratos, Frances A.; Duarte, Joana; Barnes, Christopher; McEwan, Kirsten; Sheffield, David; Gilbert, Paul; University of Derby; University of Coimbra (Elsevier, 2017-01-25)
      Research demonstrates that highly self-critical individuals can respond negatively to the initial introduction of a range of therapeutic interventions. Yet touch as a form of therapeutic intervention in self-critical individuals has received limited prior investigation, despite documentation of its beneficial effects for well-being. Using the Forms of Self-Criticism/Self-Reassuring Scale, 15 high- and 14 low- self-critical individuals (from a sample of 139 females) were recruited to assess how self-criticism impacts upon a single instance of focused touch. All participants took part in a hand massage- and haptic control- intervention. Salivary cortisol and alpha amylase, as well as questionnaire measures of emotional responding were taken before and after the interventions. Following hand massage, analyses revealed cortisol decreased significantly across all participants; and that significant changes in emotional responding reflected well-being improvements across all participants. Supplementary analyses further revealed decreased alpha amylase responding to hand massage as compared to a compassion-focused intervention in the same (highly self-critical) individuals. Taken together, the physiological and emotional data indicate high self-critical individuals responded in a comparable manner to low self-critical individuals to a single instance of hand massage. This highlights that focused touch may be beneficial when first engaging highly self-critical individuals with specific interventions.
    • A pilot exploration of heart rate variability and salivary cortisol responses to compassion-focused imagery.

      Rockliff, Helen; Gilbert, Paul; McEwan, Kirsten; Lightman, Stafford; Glover, David; University of Derby; Kingsway Hospital; University of Bristol; Manchester Royal Infirmary (Giovanni Fioriti Editore, 2008-06)
      This study measured heart-rate variability and cortisol to explore whether Compassion-Focused Imagery (CFI) could stimulate a soothing affect system. We also explored individual differences (self-reported self-criticism, attachment style and psychopathology) to CFI. Participants were given a relaxation, compassion-focused and control imagery task. While some individuals showed an increase in heart rate variability during CFI, others had a decrease. There was some indication that this was related to peoples self-reports of self-criticism, and attachment style. Those with an increase in heart rate variability also showed a significant cortisol decrease. Hence, CFI can stimulate a soothing affect system and attenuate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in some individuals but those who are more self-critical, with an insecure attachment style may require therapeutic interventions to benefit from CFI.
    • A pilot feasibility study exploring the practising of compassionate imagery exercises in a nonclinical population

      McEwan, Kirsten; Gilbert, Paul; University of Derby; School of Medicine; Cardiff University; UK; Mental Health Research Unit; Kingsway Hospital; Derby UK (Wiley, 2015-10-10)
      This study assessed the acceptability of practising compassionate imagery as an online task without clinician support. Participants completed questionnaires at baseline, after, and 6 months of follow-up. Participants engaged safely and successfully with the tasks. There were significant improvements in questionnaire scores which were largely maintained over 6 months.