• Obsessive passion: a dependency associated with injury-related risky behaviour in dancers.

      Akehurst, Sally; Oliver, Emily J.; University of Derby; Aberystwyth University (Routledge, 2013-09-09)
      Grounded in self-determination theory, obsessive passion for an activity has been associated with increased risky behaviour and rigid persistence, both symptomatic of dependence. However, it is unknown whether obsessive passion may predict the development of dependence, and furthermore, theoretically important relationships between basic need satisfaction, passion, exercise dependence and subsequent risky behaviour have not been fully explored. A sample of 100 professional dancers (50fs; 50ms; Mage = 20.88; SD = 2.69) completed self-ratings of risk-related behaviours (doctor visits; following treatment, and warming up), passion for dance and dance dependence. Findings supported the maladaptive nature of obsessive passion in relation to risky behaviour and as predicted dance dependence mediated this relationship. Interestingly, need satisfaction was positively related to both obsessive passion and harmonious passion. Results are discussed in the light of self-determination theory and dysfunctions of obsessive passion, suggesting that professional dancers are at risk of employing maladaptive behaviours if high in obsessive passion, which may be detectable via symptoms of dance dependence.
    • Older people's experiences of their kitchens: 2000 to 2010

      Sims, Ruth; Maguire, Martin C.; Nicolle, Colette; Marshall, Russell; Lawton, Clare; Peace, Sheila; Percival, John (2013-07-12)
      Purpose – This paper aims to present the quantitative results based on a comparison and evaluation of older people's experiences, needs and wants from their current kitchens, combining and comparing the results obtained from two studies conducted in 2000 and 2010 to see what progress has been made. Design/methodology/approach – A study in 2010 investigated the life-long and contemporary experiences of kitchens of 48 people aged over 60 years of age. The research included detailed questionnaire interviews asking people about their experiences of living in their current kitchen. A previous study, conducted in 2000, asked many of the same questions of 22 people in the same age group. Findings – By combining and comparing the two sets of data it seems that only limited progress has been made in terms of kitchen design meeting the needs of older people between 2000 and 2010. Research limitations/implications – Owing to the small sizes of the samples it is not possible to compare the figures statistically or present them as fully representative of the British older population but while the two samples are limited both had similar characteristics of age and gender, so differences do show potential trends over time. Practical implications – The research refers to guidance and a computer based design tool and identifies a number of practical implications for design. Social implications – As people age their abilities and needs can change and their kitchen may no longer be as accessible or appropriate to their needs. Originality/value – This paper adds to the relevant guidance for designers, developers and managers of buildings where the continued personal use of a kitchen is important for continuing independence of older people.
    • Older people's experiences of their kitchens: dishes and wishes.

      Sims, Ruth; Marshall, Russell; Maguire, Martin C.; Nicolle, Colette; Lawton, Clare; Pearce, S.; Percival, John; Loughborough University (2011)
      A new study is investigating the life-long and contemporary experiences of kitchens of 48 people over 60 years of age. The research includes detailed questionnaire interviews asking people about their experiences of living in their current kitchen. This paper presents the initial quantitative results of peoples’ experiences, needs and wants from their current kitchens. This includes problems experienced with activities of daily life in the current kitchen, changes that have been made or are planned to be made to the current kitchen to increase usability in older age, coping strategies and examples of design that have been found to be really useful to older people.
    • One thousand good things in Nature: aspects of nearby Nature associated with improved connection to Nature

      Richardson, Miles; Hallam, Jenny; Lumber, Ryan; University of Derby (2015-10-01)
      As our interactions with nature occur increasingly within urban landscapes, there is a need to consider how ‘mundane nature’ can be valued as a route for people to connect to nature. The content of a three good things in nature intervention, written by 65 participants each day for five days is analysed. Content analysis produced themes related to sensations, temporal change, active wildlife, beauty, weather, colour, good feelings and specific aspects of nature. The themes describe the everyday good things in nature, providing direction for those seeking to frame engaging conservation messages, plan urban spaces and connect people with nearby nature.
    • Opening doors to nature: Bringing calm and raising aspirations of vulnerable young people through nature-based intervention

      Hallam, Jenny; Richardson, Miles; Richardson, Elizabeth; Ferguson, Fiona; University of Derby (American Psychological Association, 2019-07-08)
      This qualitative study explores the experiences of YMCA residents who participated in a nature-based intervention designed to support wellbeing run by Derbyshire Wildlife Trust and YMCA Derbyshire. The intervention ran over 9 weeks and involved taking groups of residents off site for a range of outdoor activities from allotment gardening to nature conservation in various outdoor environments.  After the intervention took place semi-structured interviews, which explored the personal journeys of 8 residents who had participated in the intervention, were conducted. An IPA analysis of the interviews identified three superordinate themes: building social relationships, developing skills and developing feelings of self-worth and managing emotions through nature. It is argued that the intervention enabled the residents to feel part of a supportive community which enabled a positive shift in identity. Furthermore, the programme helped residents manage their emotions, supporting their mental health and promoting a general sense of wellbeing. This is especially important, given that members of the intervention have a history of mental health issues and often come from a background of higher socio-economic deprivation, where opportunities for social cohesion and nature connectedness are scarce. 
    • Optimising mobility outcome measures in Huntington's disease.

      Busse, Monica; Quinn, Lori; Khalil, Hanan; McEwan, Kirsten; Cardiff University; Jordan University of Science and Technology (IOS Press, 2014)
      Abstract. Background: Many of the performance-based mobility measures that are currently used in Huntington’s disease (HD) were developed for assessment in other neurological conditions such as stroke. Objective: We aimed to assess the individual item-response of commonly used performance-based mobility measures, with a view to optimizing the scales for specific application in Huntington’s Disease (HD). Method: Data from a larger multicentre, observational study were used. Seventy-five people with HD (11 pre-manifest & 64 manifest) were assessed on the Six-Minute Walk Test, 10-Meter Walk Test, Timed “Up & Go” Test (TUG), Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Physical Performance Test (PPT), Four Square Step Test, and Tinetti Mobility Test (TMT). The Unified Huntington’s Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS) Total Motor Score, Functional Assessment Scale and Total Functional Capacity scores were recorded, alongside cognitive measures. Standard regression analysis was used to assess predictive validity. Individual item responses were investigated using a sequence of approaches to allow for gradual removal of items and the subsequent creation of shortened versions. Psychometric properties (reliability and discriminant ability) of the shortened scales were assessed. Results: TUG ( 0.46, CI 0.20-3.47), BBS ( −0.35, CI−2.10-0.14), and TMT ( −0.45, CI−3.14-0.64) were good disease specific mobility measures. PPT was the best measure of functional performance ( 0.42, CI 0.00-0.43 for TFC & 0.57 CI 0.15-0.81 for FAS). Shortened versions of BBS and TMT were developed based on item analysis. The resultant BBS and TMT shortened scales were reliable for use in manifest HD. ROC analysis showed that shortened scales were able to discriminate between manifest and pre-manifest disease states. Discussion:OurdatasuggeststhatthePPTisappropriateasageneralmeasureoffunctioninindividualswithHD,andwehave identified shortened versions of the BBS and TMT that measure the unique gait and balance impairments in HD. These scales, alongside the TUG, may therefore be important measures to consider in future clinical trials.
    • The origins and nature of compassion focused therapy

      Gilbert, Paul; University of Derby; Mental Health Research Unit; Asbourne Centre; Kingsway Hospital; Derby UK (Wiley, 2014-02-21)
      Compassion focused therapy (CFT) is rooted in an evolutionary, functional analysis of basic social motivational systems (e.g., to live in groups, form hierarchies and ranks, seek out sexual, partners help and share with alliances, and care for kin) and different functional emotional systems (e.g., to respond to threats, seek out resources, and for states of contentment/safeness). In addition, about 2 million years ago, (pre-)humans began to evolve a range of cognitive competencies for reasoning, reflection, anticipating, imagining, mentalizing, and creating a socially contextualized sense of self. These new competencies can cause major difficulties in the organization of (older) motivation and emotional systems. CFT suggests that our evolved brain is therefore potentially problematic because of its basic ‘design,’ being easily triggered into destructive behaviours and mental health problems (called ‘tricky brain’). However, mammals and especially humans have also evolved motives and emotions for affiliative, caring and altruistic behaviour that can organize our brain in such a way as to significantly offset our destructive potentials. CFT therefore highlights the importance of developing people's capacity to (mindfully) access, tolerate, and direct affiliative motives and emotions, for themselves and others, and cultivate inner compassion as a way for organizing our human ‘tricky brain’ in prosocial and mentally healthy ways.
    • The origins of disordered eating and childhood food neophobia: Applying an anxiety perspective.

      Maratos, Frances A.; Sharpe, Emma; University of Derby (Woodhead Publishing, 2018-01-04)
      A plethora of research now demonstrates that processes of visual attention towards certain stimuli (particularly threat) influences vulnerability to, and the maintenance of, anxiety disorders. Here parallels can be drawn with food neophobia and the eating disorder literature. As such, the application of knowledge from anxiety research may prove useful in increasing our understanding of food neophobia (and disordered eating more generally). In this chapter, we first present a review of the main components of attentional bias, before demonstrating that similar processes of visual attention (i.e. facilitated engagement, delayed disengagement and/or avoidance) are apparent within both adult and child (disordered) eating. These biases, as with anxiety disorders, could potentially exacerbate the specific eating condition. We also briefly review evidence concerning the effectiveness of attentional training in treating anxiety disorders, and suggest that such therapies may be applicable in the treatment of disordered eating/childhood food neophobia. Thus, we hope our work inspires further investigation of the usefulness of an anxiety-disordered approach when considering future research in this area.
    • The Other as Shamer Scale – 2: Development and validation of a short version of a measure of external shame

      Matos, Marcela; Pinto-Gouveia, José; Gilbert, Paul; Duarte, Cristiana; Figueiredo, Cláudia; University of Coimbra; Kingsway Hospital; University of Aveiro (Elsevier, 2015-02)
      External shame arises from the perception of negative judgements about the self in the mind of others and is currently measured by Other As Shamer Scale (OAS). This scale has been used in numerous studies. This study sought to develop a valid and reliable shorter form of the scale, called OAS2, in an adult sample of 690 participants, using experts’ item ratings and Confirmatory Factor Analysis. The OAS2 consisted of 8 items, which replicated the unidimensional structure of the OAS (Matos et al., 2011) and revealed a good fit. The OAS2 had good internal consistency (.82), similar to the longer version. The OAS2 has good concurrent and divergent validity, being highly correlated with the OAS (r = .91). The OAS and OAS2 have very similar significant correlations with measures of internal shame, psychopathology and anger, with no significant difference between them. Our results, suggest that the OAS2 is an economic, valid and reliable measure of external shame.
    • Pain and athletes: Contact sport participation and performance in pain

      Sheffield, David; Thornton, C; Jones, M.V.; University of Derby; Northumbria University; Manchester Metropolitan University (Elsevier BV, 2020-03-29)
      This study examined the effect of cold pressor pain on performance in high-contact athletes, low-contact athletes and non-athletes. A three-group between-subjects experimental design was used. Seventy-one participants completed a motor task and a cognitive task of different complexity (easy or hard) both in pain and not in pain. The motor task involved participants throwing a tennis ball at numbered targets in the correct order. In the cognitive task, participants were required to check off the numbers one to twenty-five in the correct order from a grid of randomly ordered numbers. Task difficulty was increased by adding dummy targets (motor task) or extra numbers (cognitive task). Cold pressor pain was rated as less intense by high-contact athletes during both tasks compared to low-contact athletes and non-athletes. High-contact athletes’ performance was not hampered by pain on the motor task, whereas it was in low-contact athletes and non-athletes. However, pain did not hamper performance for any group during the cognitive task. Low-contact and non-athletes did not differ from each other in their pain reports or the degree to which their performance was hampered by pain in either task. This study provides evidence that adaptation to pain through participation in high-contact sports can enhance both pain tolerance generally and motor performance specifically under increases in pain. The mechanisms behind these differences warrant further exploration.
    • Pain coping and acceptance as longitudinal predictors of health-related quality of life among people with haemophilia-related joint pain

      Elander, James; Morris, J.; Robinson, G.; University of Derby (Wiley, 2012-12-14)
      Interventions based on coping and acceptance can be adapted for people with different painful conditions. Evidence about baseline characteristics that predict improved outcomes is informative for matching people to interventions, whereas evidence about changes that predict improved outcomes is informative about the processes that interventions should target. Participants in a low-intensity program to promote self-management of hemophilia-related chronic joint pain (n=101) reported pain intensity, coping, acceptance and quality of life at baseline and 6-month follow-up. Baseline and change measures of pain intensity, coping and acceptance were used to predict follow-up quality of life, taking account of baseline quality of life. Changed (reduced) pain intensity predicted better physical quality of life, independently of age, hemophilia severity, baseline pain intensity and baseline physical quality of life. Lower baseline passive coping and changed (increased) pain acceptance predicted better mental quality of life, independently of age, severity, and baseline mental quality of life. Increased activity engagement but not pain willingness predicted better mental quality of life when pain acceptance was decomposed. Changed (reduced) negative thoughts also predicted better mental quality of life when separate acceptance subscales were used. Active pain coping did not predict physical or mental quality of life. Initially high levels of passive coping may be an obstacle to improving mental quality of life. Acceptance rather than coping may be a more useful behavioral change target, but more research is needed about the meanings and therapeutic implications of different elements of pain acceptance.
    • Pain coping, pain acceptance and analgesic use as predictors of health-related quality of life among women with primary dysmenorrhea

      Kapadi, Romaana; Elander, James; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2019-12-24)
      Primary dysmenorrhea causes menstrual pain that affects women’s quality of life (QoL) and analgesics are only moderately effective. Pain coping and pain acceptance influence QoL among people affected by other chronic pain conditions, so we examined pain coping, pain acceptance and analgesic use as predictors of QoL among women with primary dysmenorrhea. 145 women with primary dysmenorrhea completed an online survey including the Menstrual Symptoms Questionnaire (MSQ), the Coping Strategies Questionnaire (CSQ), the Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire (CPAQ-8), questions about analgesic use, and the Short Form-12 (SF-12), a measure of physical and mental health-related QoL. In multiple regression, pain acceptance predicted better physical and mental QoL, whereas pain coping did not predict mental or physical quality of life. Being married or cohabiting and menstrual pain that was less severe and shorter in duration predicted better physical QoL, and those effects were mediated by pain acceptance. Being older at the onset of painful periods predicted better mental QoL and that effect was also mediated by pain acceptance. More severe menstrual pain and congestive rather than spasmodic dysmenorrhea predicted worse mental QoL but those effects were not mediated by other factors. Analgesic use did not predict physical or mental QoL. The results show the impact that menstrual pain has on women’s quality of life, and suggest that initiatives to increase pain acceptance among women with menstrual pain are worthwhile. More research is needed to understand more fully the factors that influence health-related quality of life among women with menstrual pain.
    • Pain management and symptoms of substance dependence among patients with sickle cell disease

      Elander, James; Lusher, Joanne; Bevan, David; Telfer, Paul; University of Derby (2003)
      Concerns about dependence on prescribed analgesia may compromise pain management, but there was previously little reliable evidence about substance dependence among patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). We conducted indepth, semi-structured interviews with SCD patients in London, UK, to assess DSM-IV symptoms of substance dependence and abuse. Criteria were applied to differentiate between pain-related symptoms, which corresponded to the DSM-IV symptoms but involved analgesics used to control pain, and non-pain-related symptoms, which involved analgesic use beyond pain management. Pain-related symptoms are informative about how the pattern of recurrent acute pain in SCD may make patients vulnerable to perceptions of drug dependence. Non-pain-related symptoms are informative about more stringently defined dependence on analgesia in SCD. Inter-rater reliability was high, with mean Kappa coefficients of 0.67–0.88. The criteria could be used to assess analgesic dependence in other painful conditions. Pain-related symptoms were more frequent, accounting for 88% of all symptoms reported. When pain-related symptoms were included in the assessment, 31% of the sample met the DSM-IV criteria for substance dependence, compared with only 2% when the assessment was restricted to non-pain-related symptoms. Qualitative analysis of participants’ descriptions of analgesic use showed that active coping attempts (attempts to anticipate pain and avoid hospital admissions) and awareness of dependence were themes in descriptions of both pain-related and non-painrelated symptoms. Seeking a more normal lifestyle and impaired activities were themes associated with pain-related symptoms. Psychological disturbance was a theme associated with non-pain-related symptoms. The implications are for more responsive treatment of pain in SCD and greater awareness of how patients’ pain coping may be perceived as analgesic dependence. Further research could examine ways that pain-related and non-pain-related symptoms of dependence may be associated with other pain coping strategies and with the outcomes of treatment for painful episodes in hospital.
    • Paradoxical invitations: challenges in soliciting more information from child witnesses

      Childs, Carrie; Walsh, Dave; University of Derby (Taylor & Francis, 2018-11-15)
      This article analyses how police officers conducting interviews with children reporting their being victim of alleged sexual offenses ask witness if they would like to add to what has been said or whether they have any questions. Interviewing guidelines recommend that this be done during interview closure. The data set comprises twenty-seven videotaped interviews. Data are in British English. Using Conversation Analysis, we show that the understanding of interview closure as an appropriate place in which to request for the initiation of a new topic is paradoxical. We also outline practices for soliciting additional information throughout the course of the interview.
    • Paranoid beliefs and self-criticism in students.

      Mills, Alison; Gilbert, Paul; Bellew, Rebecca; McEwan, Kirsten; Gale, Corinne; University of Derby; Kingsway Hospital (Wiley, 2007-09)
      Paranoid beliefs are associated with negative and malevolent views of others. This study, however, explored hostile and compassionate self‐to‐self relating in regard to paranoid beliefs. A total of 131 students were given a series of scales measuring paranoid ideation, forms and functions of self‐criticism, self‐reassurance, self‐compassion and depression. Test scores were subjected to correlation and hierarchical regression analyses to explore the relative contribution of study variables to paranoid beliefs. In this population, paranoid beliefs were associated with forms and functions of self‐criticism, especially self‐hating and self‐persecution. Paranoid beliefs were negatively correlated with self‐kindness and abilities to be self‐reassuring. These variables were also associated with depression (as were paranoid beliefs). A hierarchical regression found that self‐hatred remained a predictor of paranoid ideation even after controlling for depression and self‐reassurance. Paranoid beliefs seem to be associated with a critical and even hating experience of self. These inner experiences of self may be profitable targets for therapeutic interventions. 
    • Parent-child mathematics affect as predictors of children's mathematics achievement

      Sari, Mehmet Hari; Hunt, Thomas; Nevsehir Haci Bektas Veli University; University of Derby (Final International University, 2020-06-30)
      The current study investigated the relationship between children’s and parents’ self-reported maths affect and children’s maths achievement. Participants comprised 186 child-parent dyads in Turkey. Findings showed that maths affect in children and their parents was unrelated. However, maths affect was a significant predictor of children’s maths achievement. Importantly, this varied by grade. In grade three, child maths affect significantly predicted maths achievement, whereas parent maths affect was unrelated to achievement. Conversely, in grade four, the opposite pattern emerged; parent maths affect significantly predicted children’s maths achievement, whereas child maths affect was unrelated to achievement. Furthermore, children’s maths achievement significantly varied according to parents’ level of education, whereby children whose parents were educated to undergraduate level considerably outperformed those whose parents were educated only to primary level. Parents with a lower educational status also reported significantly more difficulty in supporting their child’s maths learning. These findings point towards the importance of parent maths affect, their level of education, and perceived difficulty in supporting children, as predictors of children’s maths achievement. This is only the case in grade four, as maths becomes more challenging and there is a greater emphasis on competitive assessment. As such, the home numeracy environment and family maths tension should be addressed in preparation for children moving into grade four.
    • Parental confidence in managing food allergy: development and validation of the food allergy self-efficacy scale for parents (FASE-P)

      Knibb, Rebecca C.; Barnes, Christopher; Stalker, Carol; Aston University; University of Derby; University of Derby; Psychology; School of Life and Health Sciences; Aston University; Birmingham UK; Psychology; College of Life and Natural Sciences; University of Derby; Derby UK; Psychology; College of Life and Natural Sciences; University of Derby; Derby UK (Wiley, 2015-07-28)
      Background: Food allergy is often a life-long condition that requires constant vigilance in order to prevent accidental exposure and avoid potentially life-threatening symptoms. Parents’ confidence in managing their child’s food allergy may relate to the poor quality of life anxiety and worry reported by parents of food allergic children. Objective: The aim of the current study was to develop and validate the first scale to measure parental confidence (self-efficacy) in managing food allergy in their child. Methods: The Food Allergy Self-Efficacy Scale for Parents (FASE-P) was developed through interviews with 53 parents, consultation of the literature and experts in the area. The FASE-P was then completed by 434 parents of food allergic children from a general population sample in addition to the General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES), the Food Allergy Quality of Life Parental Burden Scale (FAQL-PB), the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ12) and the Food Allergy Impact Measure (FAIM). A total of 250 parents completed the re-test of the FASE-P. Results: Factor and reliability analysis resulted in a 21 item scale with 5 sub-scales. The overall scale and sub-scales has good to excellent internal consistency (α’s of 0.63-0.89) and the scale is stable over time. There were low to moderate significant correlations with the GSES, FAIM and GHQ12 and strong correlations with the FAQL-PB, with better parental confidence relating to better general self-efficacy, better quality of life and better mental health in the parent. Poorer self-efficacy was related to egg and milk allergy; self-efficacy was not related to severity of allergy. Conclusions and clinical relevance: The FASE-P is a reliable and valid scale for use with parents from a general population. Its application within clinical settings could aid provision of advice and improve targeted interventions by identifying areas where parents have less confidence in managing their child’s food allergy.
    • Parental self-efficacy in managing food allergy and mental health predicts food allergy related quality of life

      Knibb, Rebecca C.; Barnes, Christopher; Stalker, Carol; Aston University; University of Derby; University of Derby; Psychology, School of Life and Health Sciences; Aston University; Birmingham U.K; Psychology, College of Life and Natural Sciences; University of Derby; Derby U.K; Psychology, College of Life and Natural Sciences; University of Derby; Derby U.K (2016-03-28)
      Food allergy has been shown to have a significant impact on quality of life (QoL) and can be difficult to manage in order to avoid potentially life threatening reactions. Parental self-efficacy (confidence) in managing food allergy for their child might explain variations in QoL. This study aimed to examine whether self-efficacy in parents of food allergic children was a good predictor of QoL of the family. Methods: Parents of children with clinically diagnosed food allergy completed the Food Allergy Self-Efficacy Scale for Parents (FASE-P), the Food Allergy Quality of Life Parental Burden Scale (FAQL-PB), the GHQ-12 (to measure mental health) and the Food Allergy Independent Measure (FAIM), which measures perceived likelihood of a severe allergic reaction. Results: A total of 434 parents took part. Greater parental QoL was significantly related to greater self-efficacy for food allergy management, better mental health, lower perceived likelihood of a severe reaction, older age in parent and child and fewer number of allergies (all p<0.05). Food allergy self-efficacy explained more of the variance in QoL than any other variable and self-efficacy related to management of social activities and precaution and prevention of an allergic reaction appeared to be the most important aspects. Conclusions: Parental self-efficacy in management of a child’s food allergy is important and is associated with better parental QoL. It would be useful to measure self-efficacy at visits to allergy clinic in order to focus support; interventions to improve self-efficacy in parents of food allergic children should be explored.
    • “A peculiar time in my life”: making sense of illness and recovery with gynaecological cancer

      Phillips, Eleanor; Montague, Jane; Archer, Stephanie; University of Derby; Imperial College London; Psychology, University of Derby, Derby, UK; Psychology, University of Derby, Derby, UK; NIHR Imperial Patient Safety Translational Research Centre, Imperial College London, St Mary’s Hospital, London, UK (Taylor and Francis, 2017-08-31)
      Purpose: Worldwide there are nearly 1.1 million new cases of gynaecological cancer annually. In England, uterine, ovarian and cervical cancers comprize the third most common type of new cancer in women. Research with gynaecological cancer patients within 6 months of diagnosis is rare, as is data collection that is roughly contemporaneous with treatment. Our aim was to explore the experiences of women who were, at study entry, within 6 weeks of surgery or were undergoing chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Methods: An interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) of data from 16 women in five focus groups was conducted in the UK, exploring women’s experiences of being diagnosed with and treated for gynaecological cancer. Results: Participants conceptualized their experiences temporally, from the shock of diagnosis, through their cancer treatment, to thinking about recovery. They tried to make sense of diagnosis, even with treatment being complete. In the context of the Self-Regulation Model, these women were struggling to interpret a changing and multi-faceted illness identity, and attempting to return to pre-illness levels of health. Conclusions: This study adds to this under-studied time period in cancer survivorship. The results suggest that survivors’ goals may change from returning to pre-illness status to reformulating goals as survival time increases.
    • Pellino-1 regulates immune responses to Haemophilus influenzae in models of inflammatory lung disease.

      Hughes, Bethany; Burton, Charlotte; Reese, Abigail; Jabeen, Maisha; Wright, Carl; Khoshaein, Nika; Marsh, Elizabeth; Peachell, Peter; Sun, Shao-Cong; Dockrell, David; et al. (Frontiers Media, 2019-07-31)
      Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a frequent cause of lower respiratory tract infection in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Pellino proteins are a family of E3 ubiquitin ligases that are critical regulators of TLR signalling and inflammation. The aim of this study was to identify a role for Pellino-1 in airway defence against NTHi in the context of COPD. Pellino-1 is rapidly upregulated by LPS and NTHi in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) isolated from individuals with COPD and healthy control subjects, in a TLR4 dependent manner. C57BL/6 Peli1-/- and wild-type (WT) mice were subjected to acute (single LPS challenge) or chronic (repeated LPS and elastase challenge) airway inflammation followed by NTHi infection. Both WT and Peli1-/- mice develop airway inflammation in acute and chronic airway inflammation models. Peli1-/- animals recruit significantly more neutrophils to the airway following NTHi infection which is associated with an increase in the neutrophil chemokine, KC, in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid as well as enhanced clearance of NTHi from the lung. These data suggest that therapeutic inhibition of Pellino-1 may augment immune responses in the airway and enhance bacterial clearance in individuals with COPD.