• Kitchen living in later life: Exploring ergonomic problems, coping strategies and design solutions

      Maguire, Martin C.; Peace, Sheila; Nicolle, Colette; Marshall, Russell; Sims, Ruth; Percival, John; Lawton, Clare; Loughborough University (2014-04-30)
      The kitchen is an important area in the home serving many purposes both functional and social. It is central to enabling people to stay within their own homes in their later life. As part of a detailed study of ‘past’ and ‘present’ kitchen living, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 48 older people about their current kitchen and how well it met their needs. It was found that personal problems with reaching, bending, dexterity and sight were more likely to be experienced with increasing age while for specific tasks, ironing and cleaning created the most difficulty. The paper reports on coping strategies and simple innovations made by the participants to address the problems they experienced. A challenge for kitchen designers, manufacturers and installers is to think in terms of kitchens that are more flexible and adaptable to people’s changing needs.
    • Linking physical activity & health evaluation to policy: lessons from UK evaluations

      Pringle, Andy; McKenna, J; Zwolinsky, S; Leeds Beckett University (Routledge, 2017-12-18)
      Evaluation is an important component of contemporary physical activity (PA) interventions. In this chapter, we provide a series of peer-review case studies that we have been involved. We comment on a number of issues and debates on the role of evaluation in PA policy and interventions. The case studies selected originated in local and or national policy. To identify these cases, we applied two key criteria set elsewhere (Pringle, Hargreaves Lozano et al., 2014): (I) Credibility: Cases represent real world illustrations of the place of evaluation in a policy context. (II). Impact: Cases identify their effects. The case studies provide applied, insightful, contextual and practical examples of partnership evaluations in both PA intervention and policy. Emerging from these case studies are a number of lessons for how evaluation is performed. We share this learning so it may shape future evaluation practice in physical activity and public health.
    • Living like crazy

      Gilbert, Paul; University of Derby (Annwyn House, 2017-02)
    • Loading of trained inspiratory muscles speeds lactate recovery kinetics.

      Brown, Peter I.; Sharpe, Graham R.; Johnson, Michael A.; University of Derby, Department of Sport and Exercise (2010-06)
      The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of inspiratory threshold loading (ITL) and inspiratory muscle training (IMT) on blood lactate concentration ([lac(-)]B) and acid-base balance after maximal incremental cycling.
    • Long-term treatment with acylated analogues of apelin-13 amide ameliorates diabetes and improves lipid profile of high-fat fed mice.

      Oharte, FPM; Parthsarathy, Vadivel; Hogg, C; Flatt, P; Ulster University (PLoS, 2018-08-29)
      Previous studies have shown that modified apelin analogues exhibited enzyme resistance in plasma and improved circulating half-life compared to apelin-13. This study investigated the antidiabetic effects of chronic administration of stable long acting fatty acid modified apelin analogues, namely, (Lys8GluPAL)apelin-13 amide and pGlu(Lys8GluPAL)apelin-13 amide, in high-fat fed obese-diabetic mice. Male NIH Swiss mice (groups n = 8) were maintained either on a high-fat diet (45% fat) from 8 to 28 weeks old, or control mice were fed a normal diet (10% fat). When diet induced obesity-diabetes was established after high-fat feeding, mice were injected i.p. once daily with apelin analogues, liraglutide (25 nmol/kg) or saline (controls). Administration of (Lys8GluPAL)apelin-13 amide and pGlu(Lys8GluPAL)apelin-13 amide for 28 days significantly reduced food intake and decreased body weight. Non-fasting glucose was reduced (p<0.01 to p<0.001) and plasma insulin concentrations increased (p<0.01 to p<0.001). This was accompanied by enhanced insulin responses (p<0.01 to p<0.001) and significant reductions in glucose excursion after oral (p<0.01) or i.p. (p<0.01) glucose challenges and feeding. Apelin analogues also significantly improved HbA1c (p<0.01), enhanced insulin sensitivity (p<0.01), reduced triglycerides (p<0.001), increased HDL-cholesterol (p<0.01) and decreased LDL-cholesterol (p<0.01), compared to high-fat fed saline treated control mice. Cholesterol levels were decreased (p<0.01) by pGlu(Lys8GluPAL)apelin-13 amide and both apelin treated groups showed improved bone mineral content, reduced fat deposits and increased plasma GLP-1. Daily treatment with liraglutide mirrored many of these changes (not on bone or adipose tissue), but unlike apelin analogues increased plasma amylase. Consumption of O2, production of CO2, respiratory exchange ratio and energy expenditure were improved by apelin analogues. These results indicate that long-term treatment with acylated analogues (Lys8GluPAL)apelin-13 amide and particularly pGlu(Lys8GluPAL)apelin-13 amide resulted in similar or enhanced therapeutic responses to liraglutide in high-fat fed mice. Fatty acid derived apelin analogues represent a new and exciting development in the treatment of obesity-diabetes.
    • A longitudinal exploration of pain tolerance and participation in contact sports

      Thornton, Claire; Sheffield, David; Baird, Andrew; Northumbria University; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2017-03-22)
      Background/aims Athletes who choose to engage in contact sports do so with the knowledge that participation will bring pain in the form of contact with others, injury, and from exertion. Whilst athletes who play contact sports have been shown to have higher pain tolerance than those who do not, it is unclear whether this is a result of habituation over time, or as a result of individual differences at the outset. The aim was to compare pain responses over an athletic season in athletes who participated in contact sport and those who disengaged from it. Methods One hundred and two new contact athletes completed measures of cold and ischaemic pain tolerance, perceived pain intensity, pain bothersomeness, pain coping styles and attendance at the start, middle (4 months) and end (8 months) of their season. The athletes were drawn from martial arts, rugby and American football. Cluster analysis placed 47 athletes into a participating category and 55 into a non-participating cluster. Results Participating athletes had higher ischaemic pain tolerance at the start (r = 0.27, p = 0.05), middle (r = 0.41, p < 0.0001) and end of the season (r = 0.57, p < 0.0001) compared to non-participating athletes. In addition participating athletes were more tolerant to cold pain at the end of the season (r = 0.39, p < 0.0001), compared to non-participating athletes. Participating athletes also exhibited higher direct coping, catastrophized less about injury pain and also found contact pain to be less bothersome physically and psychologically compared to non-participating athletes. Participating athletes were more tolerant of ischaemic pain at the end of the season compared to the start (r = 0.28, p = 0.04). Conversely non-participating athletes became significantly less tolerant to both pain stimuli by the end of the season (cold pressor; r = 0.54, p < 0.0001; ischaemia; r = 0.43, p = 0.006). Pain intensity as measured by a visual analogue scale did not change over the season for both groups. Conclusions Those who cease participation in contact sports become less pain tolerant of experimental pain, possibly a result of catastrophizing. The results suggest that athletes who commit to contact sports find pain less bothersome over time, possibly as a result of experience and learning to cope with pain. Athletes who continue to participate in contact sports have a higher pain tolerance, report less bothersomeness and have higher direct coping than those who drop out. In addition, tolerance to ischaemic pain increased over the season for participating athletes. Implications Having a low pain tolerance should not prevent athletes from taking part in contact sports, as pain becomes less bothersome in athletes who adhere to such activities. Participating in contact sports may result in maintained cold pain tolerance, increased ischaemic pain tolerance, reduced catastrophizing and better coping skills. Coaches can therefore work with athletes to develop pain coping strategies to aid adherence to contact sports.
    • M11 A randomised controlled feasibility trial of a physical activity behaviour change intervention compared to social interaction in huntington’s disease.

      Busse, Monica; Quinn, Lori; Drew, Cheney; Kelson, Mark; Trubey, Rob; McEwan, Kirsten; Jones, Carys; Townson, Julia; Dawes, Helen; Tudor-Edwards, Rhiannon; et al. (BMJ Publishing Group Ltd., 2016-09-13)
      Background Regular physical activity has health benefits for people with Huntington’s disease (HD), however consistent engagement is challenging. We report the results of a single blind, multi-site, randomised controlled feasibility trial of a physical activity intervention in HD. Methods Participants were randomly assigned to physical activity or social contact control interventions. The primary outcome was feasibility. Short-term benefit was assessed with the Physical Performance Test (PPT), a measure of functional ability. A range of exploratory outcomes including home and community mobility (Life Space), self-efficacy (Lorig), physical activity (International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ)), as well as disease-specific measures of motor and cognitive function were evaluated. Intervention fidelity and delivery costs were established. The trial was registered (ISRCTN 65378754 (13/03/2014)). Results We recruited 46 people with HD; 22 were randomised to the physical intervention (n = 16 analysed); 24 to social contact (n = 22 analysed). Retention, fidelity and adherence met pre-determined criteria. IPAQ scores in the physical intervention group were 142% higher (1.42; 95% CI: [−22%%, 653%]); and self-efficacy for exercise (1.6; 95% CI: [0.6, 2.7]) was also higher. Life Space scores were 12 points different between groups; 95% CI: [−2, 27]. Cognitive function was better in the physical intervention group with 2·9 more correct responses (95% CI: [0.01, 5.9]) on the Symbol Digit Modality test. There were no differences in other exploratory outcome measures and in particular no between-group differences in the PPT (treatment effect: 0.3, 95% CI: [−2.1, 2.7]). Mean (SD) physical intervention per session cost was £56.97 (£34.72). Conclusion A physical activity coaching intervention is feasible, can improve self-efficacy, physical activity behaviours and cognitive function in people with HD and represents excellent value for money in a devastating disease.
    • Managing multiple goals during fertility treatment: An interpretative phenomenological analysis

      Phillips, Elly; Elander, James; Montague, Jane; University of Derby (Sage, 2013-02-15)
      This study investigated how men and women made sense of multiple goals during fertility treatment. Both members of three heterosexual couples participated in two or three semi-structured interviews over 6 months, producing 14 accounts, which were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. The goal of biological parenthood dominates assumptions in infertility research, but its importance varied between participants, who balanced that goal with retaining emotional well-being, avoiding financial difficulties and maintaining their relationship. These themes are discussed in the context of the self-regulation model, which allows fertility treatment experiences to be conceptualised more broadly than do other models.
    • Manipulating cardiovascular indices of challenge and threat using resource appraisals.

      Turner, Martin J.; Jones, Marc V.; Sheffield, David; Barker, Jamie B.; Coffee, Peter; Staffordshire University; University of Derby; University of Stirling (Elsevier, 2014-07-15)
      Challenge and threat reflect two distinct psychophysiological approaches to motivated performance situations. Challenge is related to superior performance in a range of tasks compared to threat, thus methods to promote challenge are valuable. In this paper we manipulate challenge and threat cardiovascular reactivity using only resource appraisals, without altering perceived task demands between challenge and threat conditions. Study 1 used a competitive throwing task and Study 2 used a physically demanding climbing task. In both studies challenge task instructions led to challenge cardiovascular reactivity and threat task instructions led to threat cardiovascular reactivity. In Study 1, participants who received challenge instructions performed better than participants who received threat instructions. In Study 2, attendance at the climbing task did not differ across groups. The findings have implications for stress management in terms of focusing on manipulating appraisals of upcoming tasks by promoting self-efficacy and perceived control and focusing on approach goals. Future research could more reliably assess the influence of similar task instructions on performance.
    • Mapping the components of the telephone conference: an analysis of tutorial talk at a distance learning institution

      Horton-Salway, M.; Montague, Jane; Wiggins, S.; Seymour-Smith, S.; Open University; University of Derby; University of Strathclyde; Nottingham Trent University (2012-05-24)
    • Matching bias in syllogistic reasoning: Evidence for a dual-process account from response times and confidence ratings

      Stupple, Edward J. N.; Ball, Linden J.; Ellis, Daniel; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2013-02)
      We examined matching bias in syllogistic reasoning by analysing response times, confidence ratings, and individual differences. Roberts’ (2005) “negations paradigm” was used to generate conflict between the surface features of problems and the logical status of conclusions. The experiment replicated matching bias effects in conclusion evaluation (Stupple & Waterhouse, 2009), revealing increased processing times for matching/logic “conflict problems”. Results paralleled chronometric evidence from the belief bias paradigm indicating that logic/belief conflict problems take longer to process than non-conflict problems (Stupple, Ball, Evans, & Kamal-Smith, 2011). Individuals’ response times for conflict problems also showed patterns of association with the degree of overall normative responding. Acceptance rates, response times, metacognitive confidence judgements, and individual differences all converged in supporting dual-process theory. This is noteworthy because dual-process predictions about heuristic/analytic conflict in syllogistic reasoning generalised from the belief bias paradigm to a situation where matching features of conclusions, rather than beliefs, were set in opposition to logic.
    • Math anxiety, intrusive thoughts and performance: Exploring the relationship between mathematics anxiety and performance: The role of intrusive thoughts

      Hunt, Thomas E.; Clark-Carter, David; Sheffield, David; University of Derby (2014-08-21)
      The current study examined the relationship between math anxiety and arithmetic performance by focusing on intrusive thoughts experienced during problem solving. Participants (N = 122) performed two-digit addition problems on a verification task. Math anxiety significantly predicted response time and error rate. Further, the extent to which intrusive thoughts impeded calculation mediated the relationship between math anxiety and per cent of errors on problems involving a carry operation. Moreover, results indicated that participants experienced a range of intrusive thoughts and these were related to significantly higher levels of math anxiety. The findings lend support to a deficient inhibition account of the math anxiety-to-performance relationship and highlight the importance of considering intrusive thoughts in future work.
    • A measure of nature connectedness for children and adults: Validation, performance, and insights

      Richardson, Miles; Hunt, Anne; Hinds, Joe; Bragg, Rachel; Fido, Dean; Petronzi, Dominic; Barbett, Lea; Clitherow, Theodore; White, Matthew; University of Derby; et al. (MDPI AG, 2019-06-12)
      With benefits to both human well-being and pro-nature conservation behaviors, nature connectedness is emerging as an important psychological construct for a sustainable future. The growing research and applied and policy-related interests require a straightforward measure of nature connectedness that is suitable for both children and adult populations. To establish the reliability of the new Nature Connection Index (NCI) three factor analyses were conducted. One was based on a large Monitor of Engagement with the Natural Environment (MENE) dataset for adults (n = 3568) with a replication from data sets collected online (n = 553), and a third used MENE data from children (n = 351). To validate the NCI as a measure for nature connectedness an online comparison study (n = 153) included the NCI alongside other established measures. The results showed that the NCI was a reliable and valid scale that offers a short, simple alternative to other measures of nature connectedness, particularly for populations including both children and adults, measured face to face or online. The utility of the NCI is also supported, with variations associated with various pro-environmental and pro-conservation behaviors observed, and importantly the NCI also revealed changes in nature connectedness across the lifespan.
    • Measurement of external shame: An inside view

      Balsamo, Michela; Macchia, Antonella; Carlucci, Leonardo; Picconi, Laura; Tommasi, Marco; Gilbert, Paul; Saggino, Aristide; University of Chieti-Pescara; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2014-08-26)
      The aims of this study were to investigate the construct validity of the Other as Shamer scale (OAS) using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and to examine the psychometric properties of its Italian version in a sample of 687 nonclinical individuals. The CFA results indicated that the hypothesized hierarchical model (with 1 higher order factor and 3 first-order factors) was the best fitting solution. Cronbach's alpha indexes, as well as test–retest stability, provided satisfactory results. Correlations of the OAS total score and its subscales with the Beck Depression Inventory–II (rs = .30–.48) and the Teate Depression Inventory (rs = .32–.45) were both substantial and significant (p < .01). Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to indicate sensitivity and specificity of the OAS and its subscales when determining those nonclinical subjects who met clinical thresholds for depression symptoms. A series of cutoff scores for the OAS scale and its subscales was developed, with sensitivity values between .70 and .62, and specificity values between .71 and .62, indicating good to fair discrimination between the 2 groups (depressed vs. nondepressed). The theoretical and practical implications of these results were discussed.
    • Measuring actions for nature—development and validation of a pro-nature conservation behaviour scale

      Barbett, Lea; Stupple, Edward; Sweet, Michael; Schofield, Malcolm; Richardson, Miles; University of Derby (MDPI, 2020-06-15)
      Scientists have classed the ongoing decline in biodiversity—caused by humans—as a mass extinction. To mitigate the consequences of this extinction, immediate action is of the utmost importance. However, effective ways of promoting pro-nature conservation behaviours to preserve and enhance biodiversity require better understanding and measurement. Thus, a reliable and valid measurement tool is needed. While there are measurement tools for general pro-environmental behaviours, as of yet, no measure of behaviours that specifically promote biodiversity exists. Here, we present such a tool: the Pro-Nature Conservation Behaviour Scale (ProCoBS), a psychometrically validated questionnaire scale measuring active behaviours that specifically support the conservation of biodiversity. An item pool developed through consultation with wildlife and biodiversity experts was subjected to psychometric scale development analyses. Data from 300 participants were used to develop the 18-item ProCoBS long form, as well as an 8-item short form. A latent variable model with four factors (Individual Engagement, Social Engagement, Planting, and Wildlife) was identified. In a second study, a subset of 250 of the original participants answered the questionnaire again, in addition to related psychological constructs. The data were used to assess test–retest reliability and construct validity. Results showed that the scale and its short form were reliable (full scale: α = 0.893, short form: α = 0.825) and valid. In a third study, a representative sample of 1298 adults in the UK completed the short form. Confirmatory Factor Analysis demonstrated a good fit for all factors, indicating that the ProCoBS is a psychometrically robust measure. The ProCoBS provides the definitive, much needed tool for measuring conservation behaviours. This will enhance research and impact practical work in the conservation domain for a sustainable future. A cross-cultural examination of the scale is still needed. View Full-Text
    • Measuring competitive self-focus perspective taking, submissive compassion and compassion goals.

      Gilbert, Paul; Catarino, Francisca; Sousa, Joana; Ceresatto, Laura; Moore, Rosalind; Basran, Jaskaran; University of Derby; University of Sheffield; University of Coimbra (Biomed Central, 2017-05-25)
      Research in the last 20 years has provided good evidence that developing compassion-focused motives for self and others has a range of benefits. However, people can behave in prosocial ways for different reasons, not all of which are genuinely care focused. This paper reports research comparing submissive compassion (being helpful to be liked) to “genuine” compassion in relation to domains of empathy and perspective taking. We developed a new short (5 item) self-report scale (the competitive perspective taking scale) to explore how people might use perspective taking for self-focused reasons. We investigated its association with validated empathy and compassion measures.
    • Mechanisms of interpersonal sway synchrony and stability

      Reynolds, Raymond Francis; Osler, Callum J.; University of Birmingham; University of Derby (The Royal Society, 2014-10-22)
      Here we explain the neural and mechanical mechanisms responsible for synchronizing sway and improving postural control during physical contact with another standing person. Postural control processes were modelled using an inverted pendulum under continuous feedback control. Interpersonal interactions were simulated either by coupling the sensory feedback loops or by physically coupling the pendulums with a damped spring. These simulations precisely recreated the timing and magnitude of sway interactions observed empirically. Effects of firmly grasping another person's shoulder were explained entirely by the mechanical linkage. This contrasted with light touch and/or visual contact, which were explained by a sensory weighting phenomenon; each person's estimate of upright was based on a weighted combination of veridical sensory feedback combined with a small contribution from their partner. Under these circumstances, the model predicted reductions in sway even without the need to distinguish between self and partner motion. Our findings explain the seemingly paradoxical observation that touching a swaying person can improve postural control.
    • Melting temperature measurement and mesoscopic evaluation of single, double and triple DNA mismatches

      Olivieira, Luciana; Long, Adam; Brown, Tom; Fox, Keith; Webber, Gerald; Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brazil; University of Southampton; University of Oxford (Royal Society of Chemistry, 2020-07-23)
      Unlike the canonical base pairs AT and GC, the molecular properties of mismatches such as hydrogen bonding and stacking interactions are strongly dependent on the identity of the neighbouring base pairs. As a result, due to the sheer number of possible combinations of mismatches and flanking base pairs, only a fraction of these have been studied in varying experiments or theoretical models. Here, we report on the melting temperature measurement and mesoscopic analysis of contiguous DNA mismatches in nearest-neighbours and next-nearest neighbour contexts. A total of 4032 different mismatch combinations, including single, double and triple mismatches were covered. These were compared with 64 sequences containing all combinations of canonical base pairs in the same location under the same conditions. For a substantial number of single mismatch configurations, 15%, the measured melting temperatures were higher than the least stable AT base pair. The mesoscopic calculation, using the Peyrard–Bishop model, was performed on the set of 4096 sequences, and resulted in estimates of on-site and nearest-neighbour interactions that can be correlated to hydrogen bonding and base stacking. Our results confirm many of the known properties of mismatches, including the peculiar sheared stacking of tandem GA mismatches. More intriguingly, it also reveals that a number of mismatches present strong hydrogen bonding when flanked on both sites by other mismatches. To highlight the applicability of our results, we discuss a number of practical situations such as enzyme binding affinities, thymine DNA glycosylase repair activity, and trinucleotide repeat expansions.
    • Mental models or probabilistic reasoning or both: Reviewing the evidence for and implications of dual-strategy models of deductive reasoning

      Beeson, Natasha; Stupple, Edward J N; Schofield, Malcolm; Staples, Paul; University of Derby (University of Rijeka, 2019-04-30)
      The present paper presents an overview of contemporary reasoning research to examine the evidence for and implications of the Dual Strategy Model of Reasoning. The Dual Strategy Model of Reasoning proposes that there are two types of reasoning strategy applied in deductive reasoning – counterexample and statistical. The paper considers Mental Models Theory and The Probability Heuristics Model as candidate specifications for these respective strategies and hypotheses are proposed on this basis. The Dual Strategy Model is further considered in the context of Dual Process theory, the Dual Source Model and Meta-reasoning and implications of the synergy between these proposals are considered. We finally consider the Dual Strategy Model in the context of individual differences, and normative considerations before proposing novel hypotheses and further avenues of research which we argue require exploration in this context.
    • Mental representations of the supernatural: A cluster analysis of religiosity, spirituality and paranormal belief

      Schofield, Malcolm B.; Baker, Ian S.; Staples, Paul; Sheffield, David; University of Derby (2016-06-25)
      The aim of the study was to establish a new typology of belief in the supernatural; categorising people, based on their levels of religiosity, spirituality and paranormal belief. Examining how the various beliefs are defined was a further objective. The reasons for people having different levels of these beliefs were discussed, highlighting ‘Metaphysical Chauvinism’ as a possible explanation. Previous research that used variousmethods to measure religiosity, spirituality and paranormal belief were discussed. Participants (n = 307) completed an online survey consisting of the revised Religious Life Inventory (rRLI), the Intrinsic Spirituality Scale (ISS) and the revised Paranormal Belief Scale (rPBS). Two cluster analyses were performed: one on the three main scales and a secondary analysis on the ISS, the subscales of the rRLI and the rPBS. The results revealed a four cluster solution for each analysis. For the main analysis the clusters were ‘believers’, ‘paranormal believers’, ‘sceptics’ and ‘religious believers’. Metaphysical Chauvinism was supported; however, it was acknowledged that there still appears to be a lack of consensus when defining supernatural beliefs. It is proposed that the cluster analysis approach is more effective than a simple scale when trying establish how a person believes.