• “I think I’ll just go and eat worms”: the effect of bullying on self-esteem,. Body image, and eating disordered behaviour

      Blake, C. E.; Haynes, Caroline Anne; University of Derby (British Psychological Society, 1999)
      The link between low self-esteem and eating disorders; and body image and eating disorders, has been well established. In addition, Button, Sonuga-Barke, Davies and Thompson, (1996) suggested that problems at school may also contribute to the development of eating disorders. In the present study the effects of bully on self-esteem , body image and eating disordered behaviour were investigate in a cohort of fifty eight college students aged between sixteen and twenty. Participants completed questionnaire measures of social and global self-esteem, body image distortion, bullying and prevalence of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Analysis revealed a significant effect for bullying on self-esteem and body image when controlling for gender, and on eating disordered behaviour in females but not in males (P<.01). Individuals who were bulletined had significantly lower self-esteem and significantly higher body image distortion and eating disordered scores than individual who were not bullied. The study highlights the importance of bullying as a possible aetiological factor in the developing of eating disordered behaviour.
    • "I'm 100% for it! I'm a convert!": Women's experiences of a yoga programme during treatment for gynaecological cancer; an interpretative phenomenological analysis.

      Archer, Stephanie; Phillips, Elly; Montague, Jane; Bali, Anish; Sowter, Heidi M.; University of Derby; Royal Derby Hospital, Derby (Elsevier, 2015-02)
      To explore patients' experiences of taking part in a yoga intervention while undergoing treatment for gynaecological cancer.
    • 'I'm not X, I just want Y': formulating 'wants' in interaction

      Childs, Carrie; Loughborough University (2012-04-30)
      This article provides a conversation analytic description of a two-part structure, ‘I don’t want X, I want/just want Y’. Drawing on a corpus of recordings of family mealtimes and television documentary data, I show how speakers use the structure in two recurrent environments. First, speakers may use the structure to reject a proposal regarding their actions made by an interlocutor. Second, speakers may deliver the structure following a co-interactant’s formulation of their actions or motivations. Both uses decrease the likelihood of challenge in third-turn position. When responding to multi-unit turns speakers routinely deal with the last item first. The value of ‘I want Y’ is to formulate an alternative sense of agency which undermines the preceding turn and shifts the trajectory of the ongoing sequence. The article contributes to work in discursive psychology as I show how speakers may formulate their ‘wants’ in the service of sequentially unfolding social interaction.
    • Identification and characterisation of NANOG+/ OCT-4<sup>high</sup>/SOX2+ doxorubicin-resistant stem-like cells from transformed trophoblastic cell lines

      Balahmar, Reham M.; Boocock, David J.; Coveney, Clare; Ray, Sankalita; Vadakekolathu, Jayakumar; Regad, Tarik; Ali, Selman; Sivasubramaniam, Shiva; Nottingham Trent University (Impact Journals, 2018-01-11)
      Treatment of gestational trophoblastic diseases (GTD) involves surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Although, these therapeutic approaches are highly successful, drug resistance and toxicity remain a concern for high risk patients. This Chemoresistance has also been observed in the presence of cancer stem cells that are thought to be responsible for cases of cancer recurrence. In this study, we report the presence of previously unknown populations of trophoblastic stem-like cells (SLCs) that are resistant to the chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin. We demonstrate that these populations express the stem cell markers NANOG and Sox2 and higher levels of OCT-4 (NANOG+/OCT-4high/SOX2+). Although chemoresistant, we show that the invasive capacity of these trophoblastic SLCs is significantly inhibited by doxorubicin treatment. To better characterise these populations, we also identified cellular pathways that are involved in SLCs-chemoresistance to doxorubicin. In summary, we provide evidence of the presence of NANOG+/OCT-4+/SOX2+ trophoblastic SLCs that are capable to contribute to the susceptibility to GTD and that may be involved in Chemoresistance associated with drug resistance and recurrence in high risk GTDs’ patients. We propose that targeting these populations could be therapeutically exploited for clinical benefit.
    • Identification of angry faces in the attentional blink

      Maratos, Frances A.; Mogg, Karin; Bradley, Brendan P. (2008)
    • Identification of novel candidate biomarkers of epithelial ovarian cancer by profiling the Secretomes of three-dimensional genetic models of ovarian carcinogenesis.

      Lawrenson, Kate; Mhawech-Fauceglia, Paulette; Worthington, Jenny; Spindler, Tassja J.; O'Brien, Darragh; Lee, Janet M.; Spain, Georgia; Sharifian, Maryam; Wang, Guisong; Darcy, Kathleen M.; et al. (Wiley, 2014-09-09)
      Epithelial ovarian cancer is still considered the most lethal gynecological malignancy and improved early detection of ovarian cancer is crucial to improving patient prognoses. To address this need, we tested whether candidate EOC biomarkers can be identified using three-dimensional in vitro models. We quantified changes in the abundance of secreted proteins in a 3D genetic model of early-stage EOC, generated by expressing CMYC and KRAS(G12V) in TERT-immortalized normal ovarian epithelial cells. Cellular proteins were labeled in live cells using stable isotopic amino acid analogues, and secreted proteins identified and quantified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. 37 and 55 proteins were differentially expressed by CMYC and CMYC+KRAS(G12V) expressing cells respectively (P<0.05; >2-fold). We evaluated expression of the top candidate biomarkers in ˜210 primary EOCs: CHI3L1 and FKBP4 are both expressed by >96% of primary EOCs, and FASN and API5 are expressed by 86% and 75% of cases. High expression of CHI3L1 and FKBP4 was associated with worse patient survival (P=0.042 and P=0.002 respectively). Expression of LGALS3BP was positively associated with recurrence (P=0.0001) and suboptimal debulking (P=0.018) suggesting that these proteins may be novel prognostic biomarkers. Furthermore, within early stage tumours (I/II), high expression of API5, CHI3L1 and FASN was associated with high tumour grade (P=3x10(-4) , P=0.016, P=0.010, respectively). We show in vitro cell biology models of early-stage cancer development can be used to identify novel candidate biomarkers for disease, and report the identification of proteins that represent novel potential candidate diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for this highly lethal disease. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    • Identifying the task characteristics that predict children's construction task performance

      Richardson, Miles; Jones, Gary; Croker, Steve; Brown, Stephen L. (2011)
      Construction tasks can be linked to achievement in maths and science and form part of school curricula. However, there is little foundation for their use in teaching as there are no apparent methods for assessing difficulty. This empirical research identifies four construction task characteristics that impact on cognition and influence construction task difficulty in children aged 7-8 and 10-11. Further a regression model from previous research with adults predicted children’s construction task performance in the present study. The research provides a method to quantify, predict and control the complexity of construction tasks for future research and to inform teaching.
    • Identifying the task variables that influence perceived object assembly complexity

      Richardson, Miles; Jones, Gary; Torrance, Mark; University of Derby; Staffordshire University (Taylor and Francis, 2004)
    • Identifying the task variables that predict object assembly difficulty.

      Richardson, Miles; Jones, Gary; Torrance, Mark; University of Derby (2006)
      We investigated the physical attributes of an object that influence the difficulty of its assembly. Identifying attributes that contribute to assembly difficulty will provide a method for predicting assembly complexity.
    • The impact of a school-based gardening intervention on intentions and behaviour related to fruit and vegetable consumption in children

      Duncan, Michael J.; Eyre, Emma; Bryant, Elizabeth; Clarke, Neil; Birch, Samantha; Staples, Vicki; Sheffield, David; University of Derby; Coventry University (Sage Publications, 2015-06-01)
      A total of 77 children (34 boys, 43 girls, mean age ± standard deviation = 9 ± 1 years) participated in this study; 46 children (intervention) undertook a 12-week school gardening programme and 31 children acted as controls. Measures of the Theory of Planned Behaviour and fruit and vegetable consumption were taken pre- and post-intervention. Repeated measures analysis of variance and hierarchical regression analysis indicated that the intervention group increased daily consumption of fruits and vegetables and increased intentions, attitudes, norms, and perceived behavioural control related to fruit and vegetable consumption. Attitudes, norms and perceived behavioural control significantly predicted changes in fruit and vegetable consumption.
    • The Impact of Children’s Connection to Nature: A Report for the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB)

      Richardson, Miles; Sheffield, David; Harvey, Caroline; Petronzi, Dominic; University of Derby (RSPB, 2016-02-16)
      Connecting with nature should be part of every child’s life as it has the potential to aid nature’s revival while benefiting the child. To embed nature connection within our social norms, there is a need to be able to understand the benefits and set targets for levels of nature connection. This report presents findings on the impact of connection to nature from a survey of 775 children, using the child as the unit of analysis, rather than aggregated data. The results demonstrated that children who were more connected to nature had significantly higher English attainment, although this wasn’t repeated for Mathematics. Further, the 1.5 Connection to Nature Index (CNI) level was found to be a significant threshold across other measures, with those children with a CNI of 1.5 or above having significantly higher health, life satisfaction, pro-environmental behaviours and pro-nature behaviours. The analysis found strong correlations between CNI and pro-nature behaviours and pro-environmental behavior. A positive correlation was also evident between CNI and days spent outdoors and days spent in nature over the past week, suggesting that the more time spent in nature is associated with child’s connection to nature. Finally, weak correlations were found between connection to nature, health and life satisfaction. When more refined attainment results for English were explored, (n = 512) further weak correlations were found between English attainment and attendance, English and life satisfaction, and between English attainment and connection to nature. There are a multitude of factors associated with a child’s English attainment, so, although the correlations are weak, it is noteworthy that connection to nature is as important to children’s achievement in English as life satisfaction and attendance at school.
    • Impact of chronic somatoform and osteoarthritis pain on conscious and preconscious cognitive processing

      Dohrenbusch, Ralf; Buchanan, Heather; Lipka, Sigrid; Ott, Ralf (2013-06-21)
      The study investigates the impact of chronic pain (CP) on conscious and preconscious cognitive processes and on guessing behavior, and examines the mediating effect of a depressive state. Twenty-eight patients with CP due to hip osteoarthritis, 32 patients with a somatoform disorder including pain symptoms, and 31 participants who did not have CP were examined within the framework of a modified Process-Dissociation-Procedure. Neutral, health threatening and general threatening stimuli were presented acoustically in a lexical decision task. Parameters of conscious processing, preconscious processing, and of chance were estimated by a multinomial modelling procedure. CP-patients with osteoarthritis showed the lowest level of conscious processing and the highest level of guessing behavior. Patients with somatoform pain tended to react preconsciously to health threatening stimuli but overall showed a profile similar to that of controls who did not have CP. The impact of the threatening quality of stimuli on different levels of cognitive processing was weak. Depression did not mediate between the experience of pain and estimates of conscious and preconscious processing. Perspective: The impact of CP on preconscious and conscious cognitive processing depends on types and causes of pain. The experience of CP caused by inflammation or physical damage tends to reduce the probability of conscious processing and to provoke memory biases. CP in the context of a somatoform disorder seems to have less impact on cognitive functions.
    • Impact of peanut allergy on quality of life, stress and anxiety in the family

      King, R. M.; Knibb, Rebecca C.; Hourihane, J. O’ B. (2012-05-28)
    • The impact of self-criticism and self-reassurance on weight-related affect and well-being in participants of a commercial weight management programme.

      Duarte, Cristiana; Stubbs, James; Pinto-Gouveia, José; Matos, Marcela; Gale, Corinne; Morris, Liam; Gilbert, Paul; University of Coimbra; University of Leeds; Slimming World; et al. (Karger, 2017-04-04)
      Objective: Certain psychological and emotional factors can undermine attempts at weight management. Previously we have found that shame and self-criticism were significantly associated with disinhibition and perceived hunger in 2,236 participants of a weight management programme. This effect was fully mediated through weight-related negative affect. The present study examined the impact of self-criticism and self-reassurance on well-being and whether it was mediated by weight-related affect in the same population. Methods: Participants completed an online survey of measures of self-criticism and self-reassurance, and negative and positive affect associated with weight and well-being. Results: Path analysis suggested that self-criticism was significantly associated with decreased well-being, both directly and indirectly, mediated by increased negative and decreased positive weight-related affect. Self-reassurance had a stronger association with increased well-being by predicting lower negative and increased positive weight-related affect. All effects were significant at p < 0.001. Conclusion: Self-criticism and self-reassurance were related to well-being in participants attempting to manage their weight, both directly and through their impact on weight-related affect. The positive association between self-reassurance and well-being was stronger than the negative association between self-criticism and well-being. Supporting the development of self-reassuring competencies in weight management programmes may improve weight-related affect and well-being.
    • The impact of shame, self-criticism and social rank on eating behaviours in overweight and obese women participating in a weight management programme

      Duarte, Cristiana; Matos, Marcela; Stubbs, James; Gale, Corinne; Morris, Liam; Gouveia, Jose Pinto; Gilbert, Paul; University of Coimbra; University of Derby; Slimming World; et al. (Public Library of Science (PLOS), 2017-01-20)
      Recent research has suggested that obesity is a stigmatised condition. Concerns with personal inferiority (social rank), shame and self-criticism may impact on weight management behaviours. The current study examined associations between social comparison (shame, self-criticism), negative affect and eating behaviours in women attending a community based weight management programme focused on behaviour change. 2,236 participants of the programme completed an online survey using measures of shame, self-criticism, social comparison, and weight-related affect, which were adapted to specifically address eating behaviour, weight and body shape perceptions. Correlation analyses showed that shame, self-criticism and social comparison were associated with negative affect. All of these variables were related to eating regulation and weight control (p < 0.001). Path analysis revealed that the association of shame, hated-self, and low self-reassurance on disinhibition and susceptibility to hunger was fully mediated by weight-related negative affect, even when controlling for the effect of depressive symptoms (p < 0.050 to p < 0.010). In addition, feelings of inadequacy and unfavourable social comparisons were associated with higher disinhibition and susceptibility to hunger, partially mediated through weight-related negative affect (p = 0.001). These variables were negatively associated with extent of weight loss during programme attendance prior to the survey, while self-reassurance and positive social comparisons were positively associated with the extent of weight loss prior to the survey (p < .050). Shame, self-criticism, and perceptions of inferiority may play a significant role in self-regulation of eating behaviour in overweight people trying to manage their weight.
    • The impact of walking environment and connectedness to nature, mindfulness and empathy: A comparison of natural and urban locations

      Birdsall, Kerry; Harvey, Caroline; University of Derby (2016-09-10)
      Immersion in nature has been demonstrated to improve health and well-being, and has also been found to increase measures of trait nature connectedness. However, the effect of such an environment on other personality traits remains in question. An experiment was conducted to examine the effect of urban and natural walking environments and time on measures of nature connectedness, mindfulness, cognitive empathy and affective empathy. Participants (N=44) conducted a thirty-minute walk on three consecutive days and measures of the dependent variables were taken pre and post intervention. A series of factorial mixed design ANOVAs were used to assess the impact of walking in urban and rural environments on the dependent variables. The results indicated that walking in a natural environment significantly increased nature connectedness, mindfulness and cognitive empathy over time but did not have a significant main effect on affective empathy. This research highlights the potential of interventions involving walking in natural environments for positive psychological outcomes in terms of the enhancement of desirable personality traits.
    • Implicit alcohol-aggression scripts and alcohol-related aggression on a laboratory task in 11- to 14-year-old adolescents

      Brown, Stephen L.; Lipka, Sigrid; Coyne, Sarah M.; Qualter, Pamela; Barlow, Alexandra; Taylor, Paul (2013-06-21)
      Social scripts are commonly shared representations of behavior in social contexts, which are seen to be partly transmitted through social and cultural media. Research suggests that people hold scripts associated with alcohol-related aggression, but, unlike general aggression scripts, there is little evidence of social transmission. To demonstrate social transmission of alcohol-related aggression scripts, learning mechanisms based on personal experience should be minimized. We used a lexical decision task to examine implicit links between alcohol and aggression in alcohol-naïve adolescents who have limited personal or vicarious experience of alcohol-related aggression. One hundred and four 11–14 year old adolescents made lexical decisions on aggressive or nonaggressive words preceded by 40-ms alcohol or nonalcohol word primes. Repeated measures analyses of group data showed that alcohol word primes did not lead to faster responses to aggressive words than to nonaggressive words, nor were responses to aggressive words faster when they were preceded by alcohol word primes than by nonalcohol word primes. However, at an individual level, faster recognition times to the alcohol prime/aggression target word combination predicted aggression on a competitive laboratory task in 14 year olds only. This occurred only when the competitive aggression task was preceded by a visual presentation of alcoholic, but not nonalcoholic beverage, images. We concluded that alcohol-related aggression scripts are not strongly developed in this age group, but individual differences in script strength are linked to alcohol-related laboratory aggression. Aggr. Behav. 37:430–439, 2011. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    • In search of an authorial identity

      Elander, James; University of Derby (British Psychological Society, 2015-05-01)
      Plagiarism happens so quickly and easily when text can be copied and pasted, especially when students feel under pressure to get good grades and are working to multiple, fast-approaching deadlines. Authorial identity provides a very positive and satisfying focus for pedagogic work to help students improve their writing and avoid plagiarism. It can be applied in many ways to different aspects of student writing development, and it involves a very psychological approach to plagiarism prevention.
    • In search of critical thinking in psychology: an exploration of student and lecturer understandings in higher education

      Duro, Elaine; Elander, James; Maratos, Frances A.; Stupple, Edward J. N.; Aubeeluck, Aimee; University of Derby (Sage Publications, 2013-12)
      This qualitative study of understandings of critical thinking in higher education aimed to identify themes that could help to demystify critical thinking and inform its more explicit incorporation in the psychology curriculum. Data collected from focus groups with 26 undergraduate psychology students and individual semi-structured interviews with 4 psychology lecturers were examined using thematic analysis. The same key themes were identified from both student and lecturer data: ‘vague beginnings’, ‘conceptualizations’, ‘development and transitions’, and ‘learning strategies’. Both students and lecturers described critical thinking as implicit knowledge that develops through social interactions. The findings indicate the importance of explicit discussion about critical thinking, and could be used to inform the design and delivery of instructional methods to promote critical thinking
    • In search of design synthesis by linking ergonomic evaluation and constraint modelling to attain design for all

      Goonetilleke, Thanuja Shiromie; Case, Keith; Marshall, Russell; Porter, J. Mark; Gyi, Diane E.; Sims, Ruth; Loughborough University (2003)
      To enable designers to 'design for all', a sound understanding of the intended users, their anthropometry and mobility is needed. Information is also required regarding users' abilities and disabilities based on the tasks they are to perform while using the product being designed. Users, each of whom is an individual (and not just a part of the population), have different needs, physical sizes, coping strategies, abilities and disabilities. To use and apply each of these parameters together with the variables of the product and to meet the challenges of ‘design for all’ criteria, it is imperative for the designers to use effective and efficient tools. This paper presents an approach for design synthesis with the objective of determining design parameters of a design that would meet the needs of a specified user population or maximise the percentage accommodation. A new software tool is being developed to assist designers in the product development process. This software is able to suggest design parameters that would maximise user accommodation, after considering all the data sets for individual users. To achieve this, the software utilises capabilities of three very different pieces of software. The first of these is called HADRIAN, which is the prototype software currently under development, by the ‘Design for All’ project group at Loughborough University. HADRIAN provides an integrated database about individual users and can carry out a task analysis for the tasks that the user has to perform when interacting with the product or the environment that is being developed. Mathematical analysis software is used to fit functions to this data so that the SWORDS Constraint Modelling software can be used to find the optimum parameters of the design that would maximise the user accommodation. Issues in the design and implementation of this software system are discussed in the context of simple examples from kitchen design and automated teller machines (ATMs).