• The Eag potassium channel as a new prognostic marker in ovarian cancer.

      Asher, Viren; Khan, Raheela; Warren, Averil; Shaw, Robert; Schalkwyk, Gerhard V.; Bali, Anish; Sowter, Heidi M.; Royal Derby Hospital, School of Graduate Entry Medicine and Health, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology; University of Derby (2010)
      Ovarian cancer is the second most common cancer of the female genital tract in the United Kingdom (UK), accounting for 6% of female deaths due to cancer. This cancer is associated with poor survival and there is a need for new treatments in addition to existing chemotherapy to improve survival. Potassium (K+) channels have been shown to be overexpressed in various cancers where they appear to play a role in cell proliferation and progression.
    • Early gamma-band activity as a function of threat processing in the extrastriate visual cortex

      Maratos, Frances A.; Senior, Carl; Mogg, Karin; Bradley, Brendan P.; Rippon, Gina (2012)
    • The early memories of warmth and safeness scale for adolescents: Cross-sample validation of the complete and brief versions

      Vagos, Paula; Ribeiro da Silva, Diana; Brazão, Nélio; Rijo, Daniel; Gilbert, Paul; University of Coimbra; University of Derby; Research Unit of the Cognitive-Behavioral Research and Intervention Center, Faculty of Psychology and Education Sciences; University of Coimbra; Coimbra Portugal; Research Unit of the Cognitive-Behavioral Research and Intervention Center, Faculty of Psychology and Education Sciences; University of Coimbra; Coimbra Portugal; Research Unit of the Cognitive-Behavioral Research and Intervention Center, Faculty of Psychology and Education Sciences; University of Coimbra; Coimbra Portugal; et al. (Wiley, 2016-12-06)
      This work presents psychometric analyses on the Early Memories of Warmth and Safeness Scale, which intends to evaluate the subjective perception of ones' early rearing experiences. Factor structure, measurement invariance, latent mean comparisons and validity in relation to external variables (i.e., forms of self-criticism/self-assurance, experiential avoidance and depressive, anxious and stress symptoms) were investigated. A sample of 1464 adolescents (52.3% male adolescents, mean age = 16.16, standard deviation = 1.51) was used, including 1064 participants recruited from schools, 192 participants recruited from foster care facilities and 208 boys recruited from juvenile justice facilities. A shortened version of the scale was also developed and subjected to the same psychometric analyses. A one-factor measurement model was a good fit for the data taken from both the complete and brief versions of the instrument. Such measures showed to be internally consistent with alpha values higher than 0.89. Evidence for their construct validity in relation to external variables was also found, with correlation values ranging from 0.19 to 0.45 for the complete version and from 0.18 to 0.44 for the brief version of the instrument. The brief version was the only one proving to be gender and sample invariant. Boys and girls scored similarly in their account of early memories, whereas community boys presented significantly higher scores when compared with referred and detained boys. Thus, the brief version of the instrument may be an appropriate alternative for use with diverse adolescent samples and may serve to advance knowledge on how early experiences impact on psychopathological outcomes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    • Eating attitudes and striving to avoid inferiority.

      Bellew, Rebecca; Gilbert, Paul; Mills, Alison; McEwan, Kirsten; Gale, Corinne; Kingsway Hospital; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2006-09-22)
      Vulnerability to some psychopathologies may be related to feeling the need to compete, strive, and achieve in order to avoid inferiority and rejection. This study explored “insecure striving”, (relating to a perceived need to strive to avoid inferiority and its consequence, rejection) in relationship to eating attitudes and appearance anxiety in students. Eating attitudes and appearance anxiety were associated with judgments of inferiority, insecure striving to avoid inferiority, and fear of losing out and were negatively associated to secure non-striving (social acceptance). Further work exploring the way people understand and react to the competitive dynamics of their social groups may illuminate important processes linked to eating disorders.
    • The effect of cognitive load on faking interrogative suggestibility on the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale

      Drake, Kim E.; Lipka, Sigrid; Smith, Charlotte; Egan, Vincent (2013-06-21)
      In the light of recent studies into the impact of cognitive load on detecting deception, the impact of cognitive load on faking on the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale (GSS) was investigated. Eighty undergraduate students participated in the study, and were randomly assigned to one of four conditions resulting from a combination of the factors: instruction type (genuine or instructed faking, see Hansen, Smeets, & Jelicic, 2009) and concurrent task (yes or no). Findings show that instructed fakers, not performing a concurrent task, score significantly higher on yield 1 in comparison to genuine interviewees. This is in line with previous studies into faking on the GSS. However, instructed fakers, performing a concurrent task, achieved significantly lower yield 1 scores than instructed fakers not performing a concurrent task. Genuine (non fakers) showed a different response to increased cognitive load during the dual-task paradigm. This study suggests that increasing cognitive load may potentially indicate (and preclude) faking attempts on the yield dimension of the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale.
    • The effect of creative psychological interventions on psychological outcomes for adult cancer patients: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials

      Archer, Stephanie; Buxton, Sarah; Sheffield, David; University of Derby; University of Derby; Derby UK; University of Derby; Derby UK; University of Derby; Derby UK (Wiley, 2014-06-21)
      Objective This systematic review examined the effectiveness of creative psychological interventions (CPIs) for adult cancer patients. In particular, the findings of randomised controlled trials of art, drama, dance/movement and music therapies on psychological outcomes were examined. Methods The review yielded 10 original studies analysing data from a total of 488 patients. Data extraction and quality assessment were conducted by two independent reviewers. Results Four of the papers focused on the use of art therapy, three studies used music therapy, one paper utilised dance therapy, one study used dance/movement therapy and the remaining paper used creative arts therapies, which was a combination of different art-based therapy approaches. Eight papers focused solely on breast cancer patients, and the remaining studies included mixed cancer sites/stages. The studies reported improvements in anxiety and depression, quality of life, coping, stress, anger and mood. However, few physical benefits of CPIs were reported; there was no significant impact of a CPI on physical aspects of quality of life, vigour-activity or fatigue-inertia or physical functioning. One study was assessed as high quality, seven studies were assessed as satisfactory and two studies were assessed to be of poorer quality. Conclusions There is initial evidence that CPIs benefit adult cancer patients with respect to anxiety and depression, quality of life, coping, stress, anger and mood; there was no evidence to suggest that any one type of CPI was especially beneficial. However, more and better quality research needs to be conducted, particularly in the areas of drama and dance/movement therapies.
    • Effect of self-adjustable masking noise on open-plan office worker’s concentration, task performance and attitudes

      Vassie, Ken; Richardson, Miles; BAE Systems; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2017-01-03)
      The aim of this study was to investigate the attitudes of workers in an open-plan office towards concentration, task performance and co-worker interaction when wearing earphones with masking noise and when not wearing earphones. The earphones with masking noise were evaluated over the course of a working day and the level of the office noise varied between 51 and 59 dBA. The spectrum of the masking noise was brown noise modified by a PC audio controller and earphones (the spectrum of the modified brown noise was substantially different to that of brown masking noise). The questionnaire based quantitative study (Study 1, n = 28) indicates that disturbance to concentration and task performance is reduced by modified brown masking noise thereby confirming previous studies. However all the participants in the qualitative study, which involved both open ended questionnaire and focus group interviews, (Study 2, n = 28 for open ended questionnaire and 12 for focus groups) identified that they would not use earphones with modified brown masking noise to counteract office noise. An important reason for this is that modified brown masking noise obscured nearby relevant conversations, which participants identified as being crucial to the success of their overall work task. Other participants rejected the brown masking noise delivered through earphones as it caused irritation and discomfort. It is recommended that future studies into the effectiveness of masking noise in open-plan offices should include consideration of the relevance of nearby conversations. Future studies should also consider other types of masking noise and should measure the level and duration of the masking noise.
    • The effect of shame and shame memories on paranoid ideation and social anxiety.

      Matos, Marcela; Pinto-Gouveia, José; Gilbert, Paul; University of Coimbra; University of Derby; Cognitive and Behavioural Research Centre (CINEICC); University of Coimbra; Coimbra; Portugal; Cognitive and Behavioural Research Centre (CINEICC); University of Coimbra; Coimbra; Portugal; Mental Health Research Unit; University of Derby; Derby; UK (Wiley, 2012-01-30)
      Background Social wariness and anxiety can take different forms. Paranoid anxiety focuses on the malevolence of others, whereas social anxiety focuses on the inadequacies in the self in competing for social position and social acceptance. This study investigates whether shame and shame memories are differently associated with paranoid and social anxieties. Method Shame, traumatic impact of shame memory, centrality of shame memory, paranoia and social anxiety were assessed using self-report questionnaires in 328 participants recruited from the general population. Results Results from path analyses show that external shame is specifically associated with paranoid anxiety. In contrast, internal shame is specifically associated with social anxiety. In addition, shame memories, which function like traumatic memories, or that are a central reference point to the individual's self-identity and life story, are significantly associated with paranoid anxiety, even when current external and internal shame are considered at the same time. Thus, traumatic impact of shame memory and centrality of shame memory predict paranoia (but not social anxiety) even when considering for current feelings of shame. Conclusion Our study supports the evolutionary model suggesting there are two different types of ‘conspecific’ anxiety, with different evolutionary histories, functions and psychological processes. Paranoia, but less so social anxiety, is associated with traumatic impact and the centrality of shame memories. Researchers and clinicians should distinguish between types of shame memory, particularly those where the self might have felt vulnerable and subordinate and perceived others as threatening and hostile, holding malevolent intentions towards the self.
    • The effect of warm-up on high-intensity, intermittent running using nonmotorized treadmill ergometry.

      Brown, Peter I.; Hughes, Michael G.; Tong, Richard J.; University of Derby, Department of Sport and Exercise (2008-05)
      The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of previous warming on high-intensity intermittent running using nonmotorized treadmill ergometry. Ten male soccer players completed a repeated sprint test (10 x 6-second sprints with 34-second recovery) on a nonmotorized treadmill preceded by an active warm-up (10 minutes of running: 70% VO2max; mean core temperature (Tc) 37.8 +/- 0.2 degrees C), a passive warm-up (hot water submersion: 40.1 +/- 0.2 degrees C until Tc reached that of the active warm-up; 10 minutes +/- 23 seconds), or no warm-up (control). All warm-up conditions were followed by a 10-minute static recovery period with no stretching permitted. After the 10-minute rest period, Tc was higher before exercise in the passive trial (38.0 +/- 0.2 degrees C) compared to the active (37.7 +/- 0.4 degrees C) and control trials (37.2 +/- 0.2 degrees C; p < 0.05). There were no differences in pre-exercise oxygen consumption and blood lactate concentration; however, heart rate was greater in the active trial (p < 0.05). The peak mean 1-second maximum speed (MxSP) and group mean MxSP were not different in the active and passive trials (7.28 +/- 0.12 and 7.16 +/- 0.10 m x s(-1), respectively, and 7.07 +/- 0.33 and 7.02 +/- 0.24 m x s(-1), respectively; p > 0.05), although both were greater than the control. The percentage of decrement in performance fatigue was similar between all conditions (active, 3.4 +/- 1.3%; passive, 4.0 +/- 2.0%; and control, 3.7 +/- 2.4%). We conclude that there is no difference in high-intensity intermittent running performance when preceded by an active or passive warm-up when matched for post-warm-up Tc. However, repeated sprinting ability is significantly improved after both active and passive warm-ups compared to no warm-up.
    • Effects of a pain self-management intervention combining written and video elements on health-related quality of life among people with different levels of education

      Elander, James; Stalker, Carol; University of Derby (Dove Press, 2015-08-20)
      Combining written and video material could increase the impact of health education for people with less education, but more evidence is needed about the impact of combined materials in different formats, especially in the context of chronic pain self-management. This study tested the impact of combining written information about self-managing chronic joint pain, which used language at a high reading level, with a DVD containing narrative video material presented directly by patients, using language at a lower reading level. Physical and mental health-related quality of life (36-item Short Form Health Survey) was measured among 107 men with hemophilia before and six months after being randomly assigned to receive an information booklet alone or the booklet plus the DVD. Analysis of covariance was used to compare health outcomes between randomized groups at follow-up, using the baseline measures as covariates, with stratified analyses for groups with different level of education. The DVD significantly improved mental health-related quality of life among those with only high school education. Video material could therefore supplement written information to increase its impact on groups with less education, and combined interventions of this type could help to achieve health benefits for disadvantaged groups who are most in need of intervention.
    • The effects of anxiety on temporal attention for emotive and neutral faces in children

      Kelly, Lauren; Maratos, Frances A.; Lipka, Sigrid; University of Derby (Stress and Anxiety Research Society (STAR), 2014-07)
      OBJECTIVES: Cognitive theories suggest that the aetiology and maintenance of anxiety are associated with biases of attention for threatening information. However, findings relating to studies in child populations are inconsistent and the majority of such research has focused on spatial attentional biases. Consequently, the aim here was to investigate the effects of anxiety on temporal biases of attention for emotive stimuli in children. METHODS: A total of 53 children, aged eight to eleven, were preselected for levels of trait anxiety to participate in an attentional blink task. On each trial, two target stimuli (i.e., a neutral face and either a happy or angry face) appeared in a stream of consecutively presented distracters (i.e., scrambled face stimuli). Participants were required to report which face(s) they had seen. RESULTS: A mixed analysis of variance revealed a significant interaction between anxiety and trial type, such that high trait anxiety was associated with facilitated engagement towards angry, compared with happy and neutral, faces. In addition, high trait, relative to low trait, anxious participants displayed facilitated engagement towards neutral faces. CONCLUSIONS: Findings offer support for cognitive theories, which purport that attentional bias for threat is an innate phenomenon and moderated according to anxiety level. The neutral face finding may further suggest that maladaptive assumptions/beliefs, particularly concerning ambiguous situations, play a role in the aetiology and/or maintenance of anxiety disorders. This research offers important clinical implications in relation to attention retraining that has been used to successfully attenuate such biases in anxious adults.
    • Effects of area and family deprivation on risk factors for teenage pregnancy among 13 – 15-year-old girls

      Smith, Debbie M.; Elander, James; University of Derby; London Metropolitan University (2006-11-01)
      Information is needed about how the effects of socio-economic deprivation on teenage pregnancy are mediated by proximal risk factors, in order to target area-wide and family interventions more effectively. Using a 262 factorial design, we tested the separate and interacting effects of area deprivation and family deprivation on six specific proximal risk factors for teenage pregnancy: early sexual activity, life expectations, knowledge and beliefs about contraceptives, attitude to abortion, beliefs about love, and use of local sexual health services. Data were collected from 201 13 – 15- year-old girls in deprived and non-deprived families living in deprived and more affluent areas of the United Kingdom. Area deprivation significantly increased early sexual activity, and both area and family deprivation significantly reduced life expectations. Significant interactions between area and family deprivation showed that the impact of living in a deprived area depends to some extent on family circumstances, with implications for targeting different types of intervention. Living in a deprived area increased early sexual activity much more markedly among girls in deprived families, so interventions to reduce early sexual activity could target individually deprived girls living in deprived areas. Living in a more affluent area increased life expectations, but only among girls in non-deprived families, so both area-wide and individually targeted interventions would be needed to raise life expectations among girls most at risk of teenage pregnancy.
    • The effects of flavonoids on human first trimester trophoblast spheroidal stem cell self-renewal, invasion and JNK/p38 MAPK activation: Understanding the cytoprotective effects of these phytonutrients against oxidative stress

      sivasubramaniam, shiva; dickenson, John; Ebegoni, \vernon; Balahamar, Reham; Nottingham Trent University (Elsivier, 2019-04-22)
      Adequate invasion and complete remodelling of the maternal spiral arteries by the invading extravillous trophoblasts are the major determinants of a successful pregnancy. Increase in oxidative stress during pregnancy has been linked to the reduction in trophoblast invasion and incomplete conversion of the maternal spiral arteries, resulting in pregnancy complications such as pre-eclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, and spontaneous miscarriages resulting in foetal/maternal mortality. The use of antioxidant therapy (vitamin C and E) and other preventative treatments (such as low dose aspirin) have been ineffective in preventing pre-eclampsia. Also, as the majority of antihypertensive drugs pose side effects, choosing an appropriate treatment would depend upon the efficacy and safety of mother/foetus. Since pre-eclampsia is mainly linked to placental oxidative stress, new diet-based antioxidants can be of use to prevent this condition. The antioxidant properties of flavonoids (naturally occurring phenolic compounds which are ubiquitously distributed in fruits and vegetables) have been well documented in non-trophoblast cells. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effects of flavonoids (quercetin, hesperidin) and their metabolites (Quercetin 3-O-β-glucuronide and hesperetin), either alone or in combination, on first trimester trophoblast cell line HTR-8/SVneo during oxidative stress. The data obtained from this study indicate that selected flavonoids, their respective metabolites significantly reduced the levels of reduced glutathione (p < 0.0001) during HR-induced oxidative stress. These flavonoids also inhibited the activation of pro-apoptotic kinases (p38 MAPK and c-Jun N-terminal kinase) during HR-induced phosphorylation. In addition, they enhanced spheroid stem-like cell generation from HTR8/SVneo cells, aiding their invasion. Our data suggest that dietary intake of food rich in quercetin or hesperidin during early pregnancy can significantly improve trophoblast (placenta) health and function against oxidative stress.
    • Effects of intranasal oxytocin on compassion focused imagery.

      Rockliff, Helen; Karl, Anke; McEwan, Kirsten; Gilbert, Jean; Matos, Marcela; Gilbert, Paul; University of Bristol; University of Exeter; University of Derby; University of Coimbra (American Psychological Association, 2011-06-27)
      This study explored the effects of oxytocin on Compassion Focused Imagery (CFI), that is, imagining another “mind” being deeply compassionate to oneself, and the interaction of these effects with self-criticism and feeling socially safe with others. Forty-four healthy participants (29 men and 15 women) completed self-report measures of self-criticism, attachment style, and social safeness before taking part in a double-blind randomized placebo controlled study. They attended two imagery sessions, receiving oxytocin in one and a placebo in the other. Positive affect was measured before and after each imagery session, and “imagery experience” was assessed after each session. Overall, oxytocin increased the ease of imagining compassionate qualities but there were important individual differences in how CFI was experienced. Participants higher in self-criticism, lower in self-reassurance, social safeness, and attachment security had less positive experiences of CFI under oxytocin than placebo, indicating that the effects of oxytocin on affiliation may depend on attachment and self-evaluative styles.
    • Effects of time pressure and maths anxiety on solving mental arithmetic problems

      Lipka, Sigrid; Clarke, Lauren; University of Derby (British Psychological Society, 2014-09-03)
      Time pressure and anxiety are thought to affect working memory (e.g., Hill & Wigfield, 1984; Eysenck et al., 2007). Previously, mental arithmetic tasks have been utilised as a measure of working memory (Matthews & Campbell, 2010). Due to the rise in interest in maths anxiety, the aim of the current study was to investigate the impact of time pressure on working memory performance in a maths anxious sample. The Mathematics Anxiety Scale (MAS-UK; Hunt, Clark-Carter & Sheffield, 2011) was utilised to categorise 40 individuals into high or low maths anxious groups. Participants later completed a mental arithmetic task under two different time pressure conditions. Results showed that there was no overall effect of maths anxiety on performance in the mental arithmetic task. However, performance was worse under high as compared to low time pressure. This effect was more pronounced for high-anxious than low-anxious individuals. Possible mechanisms underlying this effect are considered in terms of the Attentional Control Theory (ACT; Eysenck et al, 2007) and it is concluded that task-irrelevant thoughts resulting from time pressure are most likely to impair the processing efficiency and performance effectiveness of highly maths anxious individuals.
    • The efficacy of psychologically based interventions to improve anxiety, depression and quality of life in COPD: a systematic review and meta-analysis

      Baraniak, Amy; Sheffield, David; University of Derby (2012-05-25)
      Objective: To systematically evaluate the efficacy of psychologically based interventions for addressing psychological outcomes in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods: Electronic databases, key journals and reference lists of included studies were scrutinised for inclusion; in addition authors were contacted for potential unpublished research. Nine studies were identified for inclusion. Data was extracted by two reviewers independently using a standardised extraction sheet and a series of meta-analyses completed for measures of anxiety, depression and quality of life. Results: Eight studies evaluated a cognitive behavioural- or psychotherapeutically based intervention and one study evaluated taped progressive muscle relaxation. The studies revealed some evidence for the interventions’ impact on anxiety, but, taken together interventions had limited effectiveness. The meta-analyses that were conducted revealed a small effect for anxiety only. Conclusion: The results are discussed considering the limitations of the research and previous work in this area. A systematic evaluation of psychological interventions on psychological co-morbidity in patients with COPD is recommended. Practice implications: There is some evidence that psychological interventions impact anxiety and this should be explored further and more interventions should target quality of life.
    • An efficient approach to understanding and predicting the effects of multiple task characteristics on performance

      Richardson, Miles; University of Derby (2016-05-30)
      In ergonomics there is often a need to identify and predict the separate effects of multiple factors on performance. A cost-effective fractional factorial approach to understanding the relationship between task characteristics and task performance is presented. The method has been shown to provide sufficient independent variability to reveal and predict the effects of task characteristics on performance in two domains. The five steps outlined are: selection of performance measure, task characteristic identification, task design for user trials, data collection, regression model development and task characteristic analysis. The approach can be used for furthering knowledge of task performance, theoretical understanding, experimental control and prediction of task performance.
    • Embedding compassionate micro skills of communication in higher education: implementation with psychology undergraduates

      Harvey, Caroline; Maratos, Frances; Montague, Jane; Gale, Maggie; Gilbert, Theo; Clark, Karen; University of Derby; University of Hertfordshire (British Psychological Society, 2020-09-01)
      Many students struggle with group-based assessments. The pedagogic approach of the ‘compassionate micro skills of communication’ (CMSC) aims to equip students with the skills necessary to work effectively in group settings. To this end, students studying on a core psychology module involving group-work, received structured CMSC learning in seminars. Following its implementation, analysis of data from four student and one staff focus groups, using thematic analysis, indicated support for the pedagogic approach. Four themes emerged: the use of CMSC for addressing unhelpful group behaviours; employing helpful group behaviours; enhancing inclusivity; and areas for CMSC improvement and roll out. Quantitative data collection is still on-going and will be reported elsewhere. However, our preliminary analysis of the qualitative data provides good support for utilising a CMSC pedagogic approach in Higher Education regarding both its efficacy and potential positive impact.
    • Embodying compassion: A virtual reality paradigm for overcoming excessive self-criticism

      Falconer, Caroline J.; Slater, Mel; Rovira, Aitor; King, John A.; Gilbert, Paul; Antley, Angus; Brewin, Chris R.; University College London; University of Barcelona; University of Derby (PLOS, 2014-11-12)
      Virtual reality has been successfully used to study and treat psychological disorders such as phobias and posttraumatic stress disorder but has rarely been applied to clinically-relevant emotions other than fear and anxiety. Self-criticism is a ubiquitous feature of psychopathology and can be treated by increasing levels of self-compassion. We exploited the known effects of identification with a virtual body to arrange for healthy female volunteers high in self-criticism to experience self-compassion from an embodied first-person perspective within immersive virtual reality. Whereas observation and practice of compassionate responses reduced self-criticism, the additional experience of embodiment also increased self-compassion and feelings of being safe. The results suggest potential new uses for immersive virtual reality in a range of clinical conditions.