• Belief–logic conflict resolution in syllogistic reasoning: Inspection-time evidence for a parallel-process model

      Stupple, Edward J. N.; Ball, Linden J.; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2008-04-29)
      An experiment is reported examining dual-process models of belief bias in syllogistic reasoning using a problem complexity manipulation and an inspection-time method to monitor processing latencies for premises and conclusions. Endorsement rates indicated increased belief bias on complex problems, a finding that runs counter to the “belief-first” selective scrutiny model, but which is consistent with other theories, including “reasoning-first” and “parallel-process” models. Inspection-time data revealed a number of effects that, again, arbitrated against the selective scrutiny model. The most striking inspection-time result was an interaction between logic and belief on premise-processing times, whereby belief – logic conflict problems promoted increased latencies relative to non-conflict problems. This finding challenges belief-first and reasoning-first models, but is directly predicted by parallel-process models, which assume that the outputs of simultaneous heuristic and analytic processing streams lead to an awareness of belief – logic conflicts than then require time-consuming resolution.
    • Beneficial long-term antidiabetic actions of N- and C-terminally modified analogues of apelin-13 in diet-induced obese diabetic mice

      Parthsarathy, Vadivel; Hogg, Christopher; Flatt, Peter R.; O'Harte, Finbarr P. M.; University of Ulster; School of Biomedical Sciences, SAAD Centre for Pharmacy and Diabetes; University of Ulster; Coleraine Northern Ireland, UK; School of Biomedical Sciences, SAAD Centre for Pharmacy and Diabetes; University of Ulster; Coleraine Northern Ireland, UK; School of Biomedical Sciences, SAAD Centre for Pharmacy and Diabetes; University of Ulster; Coleraine Northern Ireland, UK; School of Biomedical Sciences, SAAD Centre for Pharmacy and Diabetes; University of Ulster; Coleraine Northern Ireland, UK (Wiley, 2017-07-20)
      To investigate the chronic effects of twice-daily administration of stable apelin analogues, apelin-13 amide and pyroglutamyl (pGlu) apelin-13 amide, on metabolic variables in glucose-intolerant and insulin-resistant diet-induced obese mice fed a high-fat diet for 150 days. Groups of mice received twice-daily (9 am and 5 pm) injections of saline vehicle, apelin-13 amide, (pGlu)apelin-13 amide or exendin-4(1-39) for 28 days (all at 25 nmol/kg). Energy intake, body weight, non-fasting blood glucose, plasma insulin, glucose tolerance, metabolic response to feeding and insulin sensitivity, together with pancreatic hormone content and biochemical variables such as lipids and total GLP-1 were monitored. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry analysis and indirect calorimetry were also performed. Administration of apelin-13 amide, (pGlu)apelin-13 amide or exendin-4 significantly decreased body weight, food intake and blood glucose and increased plasma insulin compared with high-fat-fed saline-treated controls (P < .05 and P < .001), Additionally, all peptide-treated groups exhibited improved glucose tolerance (oral and intraperitoneal), metabolic responses to feeding and associated insulin secretion. (pGlu)apelin-13 amide also significantly improved glycated haemoglobin and insulin sensitivity after 28 days. Both (pGlu)apelin-13 amide and exendin-4 increased bone mineral content and decreased respiratory exchange ratio, whereas only (pGlu)apelin-13 amide increased energy expenditure. All treatment groups displayed reduced circulating triglycerides and increased glucagon-like peptide-1 concentrations, although only (pGlu)apelin-13 amide significantly reduced LDL cholesterol and total body fat, and increased pancreatic insulin content. These data indicate the therapeutic potential of stable apelin-13 analogues, with effects equivalent to or better than those of exendin-4.
    • 'Beyond Jack and Jill': designing for individuals using HADRIAN

      Porter, J. Mark; Case, Keith; Marshall, Russell; Gyi, Diane E.; Sims, Ruth; Loughborough University (Elsevier, 2004)
      In order to support the practice of ‘design for all’within the design community two key areas have been identified that are critical to success. The first is the provision of accurate and relevant data on the target users, in this case people of all shapes, sizes, ages and abilities. The second is the efficient and effective support in the use of these data during concept generation and product development. A database of individual people was created including their 3D anthropometry and functional abilities. Data sets for individuals are kept intact, a radical departure from the traditional approach which involves effectively ‘dismembering’people to create tables of percentiles for every dimension of interest. This database is accessed by HADRIAN, our CAD-based design tool, which is integrated with the SAMMIE CAD human modelling system. Using this system, proposed designs of products or services can be automatically evaluated for each individual in the database, based upon criteria set by the designer (e.g. access, reach, vision, mobility and strength). The tool can identify which individuals will be ‘designed in’or ‘designed out’and can support the designer in modifying the proposed design to achieve a greater percentage of people accommodated.
    • Beyond knowing nature: Contact, emotion, compassion, meaning, and beauty are pathways to nature connection

      Lumber, Ryan; Richardson, Miles; Sheffield, David; DeMontfort University; University of Derby (Public Library of Science (PLOS), 2017-05-09)
      Feeling connected to nature has been shown to be beneficial to wellbeing and pro-environmental behaviour. General nature contact and knowledge based activities are often used in an attempt to engage people with nature. However the specific routes to nature connectedness have not been examined systematically. Two online surveys (total n = 321) of engagement with, and value of, nature activities structured around the nine values of the Biophila Hypothesis were conducted. Contact, emotion, meaning, and compassion, with the latter mediated by engagement with natural beauty, were predictors of connection with nature, yet knowledge based activities were not. In a third study (n = 72), a walking intervention with activities operationalising the identified predictors, was found to significantly increase connection to nature when compared to walking in nature alone or walking in and engaging with the built environment. The findings indicate that contact, emotion, meaning, compassion, and beauty are pathways for improving nature connectedness. The pathways also provide alternative values and frames to the traditional knowledge and identification routes often used by organisations when engaging the public with nature.
    • Beyond restoration: considering emotion regulation in natural well-being

      Richardson, Miles; University of Derby (Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers, 2019-04-22)
      Our relationship with the rest of the natural world can help emotional regulation, yet the role of nature in the regulation of emotions is often overlooked. As the health benefits provided by nature are increasingly recognised there is a need for accessible models that can explain and promote those well-being benefits. To complement existing theories based on restoration and to improve understanding of nature’s role in emotional regulation, this article provides an account of the well-being benefits of nature based on affect regulation. The article considers the relationships between emotional regulation, well-being and nature through an accessible model of affect regulation that explains research reporting physiological responses to nature. The model, and underpinning research, highlight the interconnectedness between people and the rest of nature, fitting a wider narrative about the human role in our ecosystem. Applied implications of this perspective are presented.
    • Blunted cardiovascular reactions are a predictor of negative health outcomes: A prospective cohort study

      Yuenyongchaiwat, Kornanong; Sheffield, David; Thammasat University; University of Derby; Physiotherapy Department; Faculty of Allied Health Sciences; Thammasat University; Khlong Luang Pathum Thani Thailand; Centre for Psychological Research; University of Derby; Derby UK (Wiley, 2017-04-12)
      The study examined whether cardiovascular responses to psychological stress tests predict future anxiety and depression scores 40-months later. Hemodynamic measures were obtained from 102 healthy adults before, during and after mental arithmetic, a speech task, and a cold pressor task. The 14-item Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was administered at initial testing and at 40-months follow-up. At initial testing analyses revealed that high anxiety symptoms were characterized by blunted cardiovascular reactions to acute mental stress, particularly mental arithmetic. Furthermore, after adjustment for baseline blood pressure (BP), baseline anxiety levels and traditional risk factors, attenuated systolic BP responses to mental arithmetic were associated with future anxiety levels (ΔR2 = .055). These findings suggest that blunted cardiovascular reactions to stress may be an independent risk factor for future anxiety levels.
    • Boarfish (Capros aper) protein hydrolysate has potent insulinotropic and GLP‐1 secretory activity in vitro and acute glucose lowering effects in mice

      Parthsarathy, Vadivel; Mclaughlin, Christopher; Harnedy, Padraigin; Allsopp, Phillip; Crowe, William; McSorley, Emeir; FitzGerald, Dick; O'Harte, Finbarr; University of Ulster; University of Limerick (Wiley, 2018-10-16)
      The anti‐diabetic actions of a boarfish protein hydrolysate (BPH) were investigated in cultured cells and mice. A boarfish (Capros aper) muscle protein hydrolysate was generated using the enzymes Alcalase 2.4 L and Flavourzyme 500 L. Furthermore, the BPH was subjected to simulated gastrointestinal digestion (SGID). BPH and SGID samples (0.01–2.5 mg mL−1) were tested in vitro for DPP‐IV inhibition and insulin and GLP‐1 secretory activity from BRIN‐BD11 and GLUTag cells, respectively. The BPH and SGID samples, caused a dose‐dependent increase (4.2 to 5.3‐fold, P < 0.001) in insulin secretion from BRIN‐BD11 cells and inhibited DPP‐IV activity (IC50 1.18 ± 0.04 and 1.21 ± 0.04 mg mL−1), respectively. The SGID sample produced a 1.3‐fold (P < 0.01) increase in GLP‐1 secretion. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was conducted in healthy mice (n = 8), with or without BPH (50 mg/kg bodyweight). BPH mediated an increase in plasma insulin levels (AUC(0–120 min), P < 0.05) and a consequent reduction in blood glucose concentration (P < 0.01), after OGTT in mice versus controls. The BPH showed potent anti‐diabetic actions in cells and improved glucose tolerance in mice.
    • Body dysmorphic disorder: The functional and evolutionary context in phenomenology and a compassionate mind.

      Veale, David; Gilbert, Paul; King's College London; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2013-11-26)
      BACKGROUND: Social wariness and anxiety can take different forms. Paranoid anxiety focuses on the malevolence of others, whereas social anxiety focuses on the inadequacies in the self in competing for social position and social acceptance. This study investigates whether shame and shame memories are differently associated with paranoid and social anxieties.
    • Brief compassion-focused imagery dampens physiological pain responses

      Maratos, Frances A.; Sheffield, David; University of Derby (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-09-03)
      Affiliative processes are postulated to improve pain coping. Comparatively, compassion-focused imagery (CFI) also stimulates affiliate affect systems with a burgeoning behavioural, cognitive and physiological evidence base. Thus, the purpose of the present research was to investigate if engaging in brief CFI could improve pain coping. Utilising a randomised repeated measures crossover design, 37 participants were subjected to experimental pain (cold pressor) following counter-balanced engagement with CFI or control imagery, 1 week apart. Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) and questionnaire measures of emotional responding were taken: at baseline, following introduction to the imagery condition (anticipation), and immediately after the cold pressor pain task (actual). Participants exhibited increases in sAA levels in response to pain following control imagery but, no such changes were observed following CFI (i.e. there was a significant time-by-condition interaction). Pain tolerance (the length of time participants immersed their hands in the cold pressor) did not differ by imagery condition. However, sAA responses to actual pain predicted decreased pain tolerance in the CFI condition. Additionally, anticipatory sAA response predicted increased pain tolerance across both conditions. None of the emotional measures of well-being differed by imagery condition, nor by condition over time. These data demonstrate that using CFI can curtail a physiological stress response to pain, as indicated by increases in sAA in the control imagery condition only, following pain; pain tolerance was not influenced by CFI. Compassion-based approaches may therefore help people cope with the stress associated with pain.
    • A brief haemophilia pain coping questionnaire

      Elander, James; Robinson, Georgina; University of Derby (2008)
      Pain coping strategies are important influences on outcomes among people with painful chronic conditions. The pain coping strategies questionnaire (CSQ) was reviously adapted for sickle cell disease and haemophilia, but those versions have 80 items, and a briefer version with similar psychometric properties would facilitate research on pain coping. The full-length haemophilia-adapted CSQ, plus measures of pain frequency and intensity, pain acceptance, pain readiness to change, and health-related quality of life were completed by 190 men with haemophilia. Items were selected for a 27-item short form, which was completed 6 months later by 129 (68%) participants. Factor structure, reliability and concurrent validity were the same in the long and short forms. For the short form, internal reliabilities of the three composite scales were 0.86 for negative thoughts, 0.80 for active coping and 0.76 for passive adherence. Test–retest reliabilities were 0.73 for negative thoughts, 0.70 for active coping and 0.64 for passive adherence. Negative thoughts were associated with less readiness to change, less acceptance of pain and more impaired health-related quality of life, whereas active coping was associated with greater readiness to change and more acceptance of pain. The short form is a convenient brief measure of pain coping with good psychometric properties, and could be used to extend research on pain coping in haemophilia.
    • A brief outline of the evolutionary approach for compassion focused therapy.

      Gilbert, Paul; University of Derby (ECronicon, 2017-06-06)
      Abstract Humans are evolved animals set up to pursue various life tasks. This gives rise to different phenotypes some of which are conducive to well-being, while others are not. Compassion focused therapy seeks to harness the evolved importance of affiliative and caring motivational processing to help alleviate individuals who are caught in high levels of shame and self-criticism and conse
    • Brief report: self-compassion, physical health and the mediating role of health-promoting behaviours

      Dunne, Sara; Sheffield, David; Chilcot, Joseph; University of Derby (2016-04-26)
      To test the hypothesis that self-compassion predicts better physical health and that this is partially mediated through health-promoting behaviours, 147 adults completed self-report measures of self-compassion, health-promoting behaviours and physical health. Self-compassion and health-promoting behaviours were negatively associated with physical symptom scores. Self-compassion was positively associated with health-promoting behaviours. A bootstrapped mediation model confirmed a significant direct effect of self-compassion on physical health through health-promoting behaviours (R(2) = 0.13, b = -8.98, p = 0.015), which was partially mediated through health-promoting behaviours (R(2) = 0.06, b = -3.16, 95 per cent confidence interval [-6.78, -0.86]). Findings underscore the potential health-promoting benefits of self-compassion.
    • Building an online research profile

      Bryson, David; Human Sciences Research Centre (Taylor & Francis, 2019-05-23)
      Research and research publications are key elements in continuing professional development (CPD) as part of the mix of learning and development activities we undertake to keep ourselves current in our practice. Papers published in journals can be used by colleagues to support their evidence based practice. Posters and presentations seen and heard at a conferences can prompt ideas and developments at other organisations. In this way research is more than the publication of a piece of work it is about dissemination and its impact; for our CPD this is about how it benefits us and our patients.
    • The business of the body

      Holland, Fiona G.; University of Derby (Federation of Holistic Therapists, 2015-12)
    • Caenorhabditis elegans, a model organism for investigating immunity.

      Marsh, Elizabeth K; May, Robin C; University of Birmingham (2012-03-09)
      The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been a powerful experimental organism for almost half a century. Over the past 10 years, researchers have begun to exploit the power of C. elegans to investigate the biology of a number of human pathogens. This work has uncovered mechanisms of host immunity and pathogen virulence that are analogous to those involved during pathogenesis in humans or other animal hosts, as well as novel immunity mechanisms which appear to be unique to the worm. More recently, these investigations have uncovered details of the natural pathogens of C. elegans, including the description of a novel intracellular microsporidian parasite as well as new nodaviruses, the first identification of viral infections of this nematode. In this review, we consider the application of C. elegans to human infectious disease research, as well as consider the nematode response to these natural pathogens.
    • Can compassion, happiness and sympathetic concern be differentiated on the basis of facial expression?

      Condliffe, Otto; Maratos, Frances A.; University of Shanghai; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2020-04-11)
      Recent research has demonstrated the importance of positive emotions, and especially compassion, for well-being. Via two investigations, we set out to determine if facial expressions of happiness, “kind” compassion and sympathetic concern can be distinguished, given limitations of previous research. In investigation one, prototypes of the three expressions were analysed for similarities and differences using the facial action coding system (FACS) by two certified independent coders. Results established that each expression comprised distinct FACS units. Thus, in investigation 2, a new photographic stimulus set was developed using a gender/racially balanced group of actors to pose these expressions of “kind” compassion, happiness, sympathetic concern, and the face in a relaxed/neutral pose. 75 participants were then asked to name the FACS generated expressions using not only forced categorical quantitative ratings but, importantly, free response. Results revealed that kind compassionate facial expressions: (i) engendered words associated with contented and affiliative emotions (although, interestingly, not the word “kind”); (ii) were labelled as compassionate significantly more often than any of the other emotional expressions; but (iii) in common with happiness expressions, engendered happiness word groupings and ratings. Findings have implications for understandings of positive emotions, including specificity of expressions and their veridicality.
    • Case study 2: HADRIAN: A human factors computer-aided inclusive design tool for transport planning.

      Porter, J. Mark; Marshall, Russell; Case, Keith; Gyi, Diane E.; Sims, Ruth; Summerskill, Steve; Loughborough University (Loughborough University. Published by The Institution of Engineering and Technology, 2006)
      HADRIAN is a computer-based inclusive design tool developed initially to support the design of kitchen and shopping based tasks. The tool is currently being expanded to include data on an individual’s ability to undertake a variety of transport-related tasks, such as vehicle ingress/egress, coping with uneven surfaces, steps, street furniture and complex pedestrian environments. A feature of the enhanced HADRIAN tool will be a journey planner that compares an individual’s physical, cognitive and emotional abilities with the demands that will placed upon that individual depending on the mode(s) of transport available and the route options.
    • Children's construction task performance and spatial ability: controlling task complexity and predicting mathematics performance.

      Richardson, Miles; Hunt, Thomas E.; Richardson, Cassandra; University of Derby (2014-12)
      This paper presents a methodology to control construction task complexity and examined the relationships between construction performance and spatial and mathematical abilities in children. The study included three groups of children (N = 96); ages 7-8, 10-11, and 13-14 years. Each group constructed seven pre-specified objects. The study replicated and extended previous findings that indicated that the extent of component symmetry and variety, and the number of components for each object and available for selection, significantly predicted construction task difficulty. Results showed that this methodology is a valid and reliable technique for assessing and predicting construction play task difficulty. Furthermore, construction play performance predicted mathematical attainment independently of spatial ability.
    • Children’s well-being and nature connectedness: Exploring the impact of a ‘3-good-things’ writing task on nature connectedness and well-being.

      Harvey, Caroline; Sheffield, David; Richardson, Miles; University of Derby (2016-09-10)
      The health benefits of being connected to nature are well documented amongst both adults and children therefore simple interventions that lead to greater connectedness are valuable. The ‘3-good-things’ writing task is a positive psychology intervention which has been shown to increase happiness and decrease depression. Focusing the 3-good-things writing tasks on nature related good things has been found to increase nature connection in a sample of adults and the present research extends this to explore the impact of the intervention on nature connectedness in children. Children (n= 167) aged 9-11 completed measures of nature connection, mindfulness and life satisfaction at three time points, before and after the intervention, and again approximately eight weeks later. The intervention consisted of writing 3 good things about nature that they noticed every day for 5 days, whilst the control group wrote about 3 things they had noticed. Data will be analysed using factorial mixed design analysis. Relationships between the dependent variables will be explored using multiple regression.
    • Chronic apelin analogue administration is more effective than established incretin therapies for alleviating metabolic dysfunction in diabetic db/db mice.

      O'Harte, Finbarr P M; Parthsarathy, Vadivel; Flatt, Peter R; University of Ulster (Elsevier, 2020-01-03)
      Stable apelin-13 peptide analogues have shown promising acute antidiabetic effects in mice with diet-induced obesity diabetes. Here the efficacy of (pGlu)apelin-13 amide (apelin amide) and the acylated analogue (pGlu)(Lys8GluPAL)apelin-13 amide (apelin FA), were examined following chronic administration in db/db mice, a genetic model of degenerative diabetes. Groups of 9-week old male db/db mice (n = 8) received twice daily injections (09:00 and 17:00 h; i.p.) or saline vehicle, apelin amide, apelin FA, or the established incretin therapies, exendin-4(1-39) or liraglutide, all at 25 nmol/kg body weight for 21 days. Control C57BL/6J mice were given saline twice daily. No changes in body weight or food intake were observed with either apelin or liraglutide treatments, but exendin-4 showed a reduction in cumulative food intake (p < 0.01) compared with saline-treated db/db mice. Apelin analogues and incretin mimetics induced sustained improvements of glycaemia (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001, from day 9-21), lowered HbA1c at 21 days (p < 0.05) and raised plasma insulin concentrations. The treatments also improved OGTT and ipGTT with enhanced insulin responses compared with saline-treated control db/db mice (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001). Apelin amide was superior to incretin mimetics in lowering plasma triglycerides by 34% (p < 0.05). Apelin analogues unlike both incretin mimetics reduced pancreatic α-cell area (p < 0.05 to p < 0.01) and all peptide treatments enhanced pancreatic insulin content (p < 0.05 to p < 0.01). In conclusion, longer-term administration of apelin-13 analogues, induced similar and in some respects more effective metabolic improvements than incretin mimetics in db/db mice, providing a viable alternative approach for counteracting metabolic dysfunction for mild and more degenerative forms of the disease.