• 30 days wild and the relationships between engagement with nature’s beauty, nature connectedness and well-being.

      Richardson, Miles; McEwan, Kirsten; University of Derby (Frontiers, 2018-09-03)
      Recent research suggests that engagement with natural beauty (EWNB) is key to the well-being benefits of nature connectedness. The Wildlife Trust’s 30 Days Wild campaign provides a large-scale intervention for improving public engagement with nature and its beauty. The effect of 30 Days Wild participation on levels of EWNB and the relationship between EWNB, nature connectedness and happiness was evaluated during the 2017 campaign. Of the 49,000 people who signed up to the campaign, 308 people fully completed measures of EWNB, nature connection, health, happiness, and conservation behaviors at baseline, post-30 days and post-2 months. There were sustained and significant increases for scores in nature connection, health, happiness, and conservation behaviors. In addition, 30 Days Wild was the first intervention found to increase EWNB. Further, the significant increase in EWNB mediated the relationship between the increases in nature connectedness and happiness. In a supplementary study to understand the well-being benefits further (n = 153), emotional regulation was found to mediate the relationship between nature connectedness and happiness, but EWNB and emotional regulation were not related. The links between nature’s beauty, nature connectedness and well-being are discussed within an account of affect-regulation.
    • 30 days wild: development and evaluation of a large-scale nature engagement campaign to improve well-being

      Richardson, Miles; Cormack, Adam; McRobert, Lucy; Underhill, Ralph; University of Derby; The Wildlife Trusts; PIRC (2016-02-18)
      There is a need to increase people’s engagement with and connection to nature, both for human well-being and the conservation of nature itself. In order to suggest ways for people to engage with nature and create a wider social context to normalise nature engagement, The Wildlife Trusts developed a mass engagement campaign, 30 Days Wild. The campaign asked people to engage with nature every day for a month. 12,400 people signed up for 30 Days Wild via an online sign-up with an estimated 18,500 taking part overall, resulting in an estimated 300,000 engagements with nature by participants. Samples of those taking part were found to have sustained increases in happiness, health, connection to nature and pro-nature behaviours. With the improvement in health being predicted by the improvement in happiness, this relationship was mediated by the change in connection to nature.
    • 30 days wild: who benefits most?

      Richardson, Miles; McEwan, Kirsten; Garip, Gulcan; University of Derby; Human Sciences Research Centre, University of Derby, Derby, UK; Human Sciences Research Centre, University of Derby, Derby, UK; Human Sciences Research Centre, University of Derby, Derby, UK (2018-08-07)
      There is a need to provide interventions to improve well-being that are accessible and cost-effective. Interventions to increase engagement with nature are coming to the fore. The Wildlife Trusts 30 Days Wild campaign shows promise as a large-scale intervention for improving public engagement with nature for well-being. The paper aims to discuss this issue. Design/methodology/approach In total, 273 people fully participated in a repeated measures evaluation comparing baseline measures of nature connection, health, happiness and conservation behaviours with measures post-30 days and 3 months. Findings There were sustained and significant increases for scores in nature connection, health, happiness and conservation behaviours. Those with lower scores at baseline in nature connection, conservation behaviours and happiness showed the most benefit. Older participants and those with higher baseline scores in conservation behaviours were the most likely to sustain their engagement with the campaign. Research limitations/implications Although the design and defined outcomes meet criteria for public health interventions, the self-reported measures, self-selecting sample and attrition are limitations. Originality/value The significant and sustained effects of the campaign on health, happiness and nature connection and conservation make this a promising intervention for improving human’s and nature’s well-being. The large community sample and naturalistic setting for the intervention make these data relevant to future interventions and policy.
    • Ability to receive compassion from others buffers the depressogenic effect of self-criticism: A cross-cultural multi-study analysis

      Hermanto, Nicola; Zuroff, David C.; Kopala-Sibley, Daniel C.; Kelly, Allison C.; Matos, Marcela; Gilbert, Paul; Koestner, Richard; McGill University; University of Waterloo; University of Coimbra; Kingsway Hospital; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2016-04-29)
      Self-criticism has been shown to be a vulnerability factor that can lead to and maintain depression. We examined the moderating effect of fear of receiving compassion from others on the positive association between self-criticism and depression. Self-report measures were administered to four separate samples (total N = 701) varying in age (students and community adults) and cultural context (Canada, England, and Portugal). Two different measures of self-criticism and of depression were administered to investigate the generalizability of results. Self-criticism, depression, and fear of compassion from others were positively related to one another in all samples. As predicted, fear of compassion from others exerted a moderating effect on the relationship between self-criticism and depression. Low fear of compassion from others weakened the depressogenic effect of self-criticism, while high fear of compassion from others exacerbated the effect. Thus, a self-critic's ability to be open and responsive to care and support from others protected against depression. The aggregate moderating effect across the four studies was of medium size (d + = .53) and highly significant, indicating a robust phenomenon. Implications for working with self-critical depressed patients are discussed.
    • Academics’ understandings of the authorial academic writer: a qualitative analysis of authorial identity

      Cheung, Kevin Yet Fong; Elander, James; Stupple, Edward J. N.; Flay, Mike; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2016-12-22)
      Research on authorial identity has focused almost exclusively on the attitudes and beliefs of students. This paper explores how academics understand authorial identity in higher education. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 27 professional academics and analysed using thematic analysis, identifying themes at two levels. At the semantic level was a main theme called ‘the authorial writer’, with five subthemes: ‘authorial confidence’, ‘valuing writing’, ‘ownership and attachment’, ‘authorial thinking’, and ‘authorial goals’. At the latent level were two integrative themes: ‘tacit learning’ and ‘negotiating identities’. The semantic subthemes represent attributes that could be targets for pedagogic interventions. The integrative themes suggest processes in the development of authorial identity, which can inform more effective teaching. By identifying attributes and processes associated with authorial identity, these findings help towards a psychological understanding of authorial identity, informing development of more effective pedagogy to help students improve their academic writing and avoid plagiarism.
    • The accordian and the deep bowl of spaghetti: Eight researchers' experiences of using IPA as a methodology

      Wagstaff, Chris; Jeong, Hyeseung; Nolan, Maeve; Wilson, Tony; Tweedlie, Julie; Phillips, Elly; Senu, Halia; Holland, Fiona G.; University of Derby (2014)
      Since 1996 Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) has grown rapidly and been applied in areas outside its initial “home” of health psychology. However, explorations of its application from a researcher's perspective are scarce. This paper provides reflections on the experiences of eight individual researchers using IPA in diverse disciplinary fields and cultures. The research studies were conducted in the USA, Malaysia, Australia, New Zealand, Ireland and the UK by researchers with backgrounds in business management, consumer behaviour, mental health nursing, nurse education, applied linguistics, clinical psychology, health and education. They variously explored media awareness, employee commitment, disengagement from mental health services, in-vitro fertilisation treatment, student nurses' experience of child protection, second language acquisition in a university context, the male experience of spinal cord injury and academics experience of working in higher education and women’s experiences of body size and health practices. By bringing together intercultural, interdisciplinary experiences of using IPA, the paper discusses perceived strengths and weaknesses of IPA.
    • Activities of daily life still cause problems for many older and physically impaired people.

      Sims, Ruth; Gyi, Diane E.; Marshall, Russell; Case, Keith; Loughborough University (Design For All Institute of India, 2012)
      Activities of Daily Life (ADL) are those activities that are fundamental to maintaining independence. Without being able to do them, people can become dependent on others or simply not live their lives in the way that they would wish to. A survey of 50 older and disabled people found that surprising numbers were unable to fulfil the level of independence in ADL that they wished to. For all the advances in the recent age in technology and equipment design, these basic activities are still proving too difficult for a sizeable percentage of the older/disabled population. As the population ages, pressure will come to bear on designers to consider the needs of older/disabled people more fully, to meet the needs of the shifting market trends.
    • Affiliative and prosocial motives and emotions in mental health

      Gilbert, Paul; University of Derby (Servier Research Group, 2015)
      This paper argues that studies of mental health and wellbeing can be contextualized within an evolutionary approach that highlights the coregulating processes of emotions and motives. In particular, it suggests that, although many mental health symptoms are commonly linked to threat processing, attention also needs to be directed to the major regulators of threat processing, ie, prosocial and affiliative interactions with self and others. Given that human sociality has been a central driver for a whole range of human adaptations, a better understanding of the effects of prosocial interactions on health is required, and should be integrated into psychiatric formulations and interventions. Insight into the coregulating processes of motives and emotions, especially prosocial ones, offers improved ways of understanding mental health difficulties and their prevention and relief.
    • Age friendly kitchens: a study based on social history and ergonomics

      Maguire, Martin C.; Nicolle, Colette; Marshall, Russell; Sims, Ruth; Lawton, Clare; Peace, Sheila; Percival, John; Loughborough University (Helen Hamlyn Research Centre (Royal College of Art), 2011)
      The kitchen is an important space in the home serving many purposes both functional and social. The need was identified to chart social changes experienced by older people in relation to the kitchen and to understand current issues and problems of kitchen usage. Two interviews were conducted with 40 older participants (aged between 61 and 91) living in a variety of British housing types in Loughborough and Bristol. The first interview recorded their experience of the kitchen throughout their lives, and the second on the contemporary kitchen and how well it meets their needs. This paper focuses on the second interview. It was found that problems of reaching, bending and stretching, dexterity and sight were all relatively common while for specific tasks, problems with ironing, cleaning and shopping were the most frequent. Categorisation of participants’ likes and dislikes about their kitchens were recorded highlighting the most important issues for the participants. The paper reports on coping strategies used by older people in their kitchens which help to promote inclusive design social inclusion throughout the life course.
    • Alcohol consumption patterns: A comparison according to smoking status

      Haynes, Caroline Anne; Clements, Keith; University of Derby (British Psychological Society, 2001)
      Objectives: Alcohol consumption patterns in 375 undergraduates are examined and consumption across smoking status is compared. Relationships between alcohol expectancies, personality and smoking status are also explored. It was anticipated that smokers would consume more alcohol than non-smokers, and that they would differ in alcohol expectancies and personality. Finally, methodological issues concerning the measurement of alcohol consumption by questionnaire are also considered. Method & Design: Questionnaire-based. Measures: all participants completed an alcohol consumption questionnaire, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire – Revised Short Scale (Eysenck & Eysenck, 1991), the Arnett Inventory of Sensation Seeking (Arnett, 1994) and the Alcohol Effects Questionnaire (Rosenhow, in press). Smokers also completed a smoking questionnaire. Analyses: Data was analysed using ANOVA, correlation and regression. Results: The main hypotheses were supported. Smokers consumed more alcohol than nonsmokers. Ninety-one per cent of smokers also reported an increase in smoking following the consumption of alcohol. Personality differences between smokers and non-smokers were observed. Alcohol expectancies varied according to alcohol consumption, but not smoking status. Evidence for the underreporting of alcohol consumption was also observed in some of the measures used. Conclusions: The importance of examining multiple substance use is highlighted. Programmes aimed at reducing or preventing alcohol consumption and smoking may want to consider the role of personality. Finally, methodological issues raised concerning the underreporting of alcohol consumption via questionnaires must be considered in future research into alcohol consumption.
    • ‘All the burden on all the carers’: exploring quality of life with family caregivers of Huntington’s disease patients

      Aubeeluck, Aimee; Buchanan, Heather; Stupple, Edward J. N.; University of Derby (2011-11-13)
    • An objective examination of consumer perception of nutrition information based on healthiness ratings and eye movements

      Jones, Gary; Richardson, Miles; Nottingham Trent University; University of Derby (Cambridge University Press, 2007-03)
    • Analysing men's written friendship narratives

      Guy, L.; Montague, Jane; University of Birmingham; University of Derby (2012-05-24)
    • Antioxidative effects of flavonoids and their metabolites against hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced oxidative stress in a human first trimester trophoblast cell line.

      Ebegboni, Vernon J; Dickenson John M; Sivasubramaniam, Shiva; Nottingham Trent University (Elsevier, 2018-08-09)
      This study aimed to investigate the cytoprotective effects of flavonoids, their metabolites alone or in combination against hypoxia/reoxygenation induced oxidative stress in the transformed human first trimester trophoblast cell line (HTR-8/SVneo). Oxidative stress was achieved with hypoxia followed by reoxygenation and the following assays were performed: MTT, CellTox™ Green Cytotoxicity, CellTiter-Glo®, NADP/NADPH-Glo™, ROS-Glo™/H2O2, GSH/GSSG-Glo™ and Caspase-Glo® 3/7 assays. HTR-8/SVneo cells, pre-treated for 24 h with flavonoids or their metabolites were protected significantly from oxidative stress. Flavonoids were associated with ROS modulation, reducing the generation of superoxide/hydrogen peroxide. The activities of caspases 3/7 were also significantly reduced significantly in HTR-8/SVneo cells pre-treated with flavonoids. This study has shown for the first time that 24 h pre-treatment with flavonoids, their metabolites alone or in combination, protected against HR-induced oxidative stress in the trophoblast cell line. These data indicate that dietary flavonoids may be beneficial to placental health and invasion during early gestation.
    • Assessing the medium-term impact of a home-visiting programme on child maltreatment in England: protocol for a routine data linkage study.

      Ludd-Widger, Fiona V.; Cannings-John, Rebecca; Channon, Sue; Fitzsimmons, Deborah; Hood, Kerenza; Jones, Kerina H.; Kemp, Alison; Kenkre, Joyce; Longo, Mirella; McEwan, Kirsten; Moody, Gwenllian; Owen-Jones, Eleri; Sanders, Julia; Segrott, Jeremy; Robling, Mike; Cardiff University; Swansea Unviersity; University of South Wales; University of Derby (BMJ Publishing Group Ltd., 2017-05-03)
      ABSTRACT Introduction Child maltreatment involves acts of omission (neglect) or commission (abuse) often by caregivers that results in potential or actual harm to a child. The Building Blocks trial (ISRCTN23019866) assessed the short-term impact of an intensive programme of antenatal and postnatal visiting by specially trained nurses to support young pregnant women in England. The Building Blocks: 2–6 Study will assess the medium-term impacts of the programme for mothers and children (n=1562), through the linkage of routinely collected data to the trial data, with a particular emphasis on the programme’s impact on preventing child maltreatment. Methods and analysis We have developed a bespoke model of data linkage whereby outcome data for the trial cohort will be retrieved by linked anonymous data abstraction from NHS Digital, Office for National Statistics and the Department for Education’s National Pupil Database. Participants will be given reasonable opportunity to opt out of this study prior to data transfer. The information centres will match participants to the information held in their databases using standard identifiers and send extracts to a third-party safe haven. The study will have 80% power to detect a 4% difference (4%vs8%) for the binary primary outcome of child in need status (from birth to key stage 1) at a two-sided 5% alpha level by following up 602 children in each trial arm. Analysis will be by intention to treat using logistic multilevel modelling. A cost-and-consequences analysis will extend the time frame of the economic analysis from the original trial. Ethics and dissemination The study protocol has been approved by the National Health Service Wales Research Ethics Committee and the Health Research Authority’s Confidentiality Advisory Group. Methods of innovative study design and findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals and conferences; results will be of interest to clinical and policy stakeholders in the UK.
    • Assessing the roles of the sender and experimenter in dream ESP research.

      Roe, Chris A.; Sherwood, Simon J.; Farrell, Louise; Savva, Louie; Baker, Ian S.; University of Edinburgh (European Journal of Parapsychology, 2007)
      This study explored the role of the sender in a dream ESP task by considering the effects of presence of a sender (sender, no sender) and the receiver’s expectancy that a sender was present. Forty participants each completed a sender and a no sender trial on consecutive nights by keeping a dream diary of all mentation they could recall when they awoke. The order of trials was randomised across participants. On no-sender nights a randomly selected video clip was played repeatedly from 2:00 until 6:30am; on sender nights a sender would also watch the clip between 6:00 and 6:30am and attempt to communicate its content. Both sender and no sender conditions produced above chance hit rates (30% and 35% respectively), but z scores for similarity ratings did not deviate significantly from chance (sender night: t(39) = 0.92, p = .18; no sender night: t(39) = 1.11, p = .14, one-tailed). There was no difference in performance in terms of sender conditions (z = -0.22, p = .41, one-tailed) or sender expectancy (z = -0.18, p = .46, one-tailed), failing to support the proposal that senders play an active role in dream ESP success. Possible improvements in the manipulation of participant expectancy are discussed.
    • Assessing the short-term outcomes of a community-based intervention for overweight and obese children: The MEND 5-7 programme

      Smith, Lindsey; Chadwick, Paul; Radley, Duncan; Kolotourou, Maria; Gammon, C. S.; Rosborough, J.; Sacher, Paul M. (2013-07-16)
      The aim of this study was to report outcomes of the UK service level delivery of MEND (Mind, Exercise, Nutrition...Do it!) 5-7, a multicomponent, community-based, healthy lifestyle intervention designed for overweight and obese children aged 5–7 years and their families.
    • An assessment of the relative influence of pain coping, negative thoughts about pain, and pain acceptance on health-related quality of life among people with hemophilia

      Elander, James; Robinson, Georgina; Mitchell, Kathryn; Morris, John; University of Derby; University of West London; Katherine Dormandy Trust (Elsevier, 2009-09)
      Many people with hemophilia are affected by chronic arthritic joint pain as well as acute bleeding pain. In this cross-sectional study, 209 men with hemophilia A or B completed the Hemophilia Pain Coping Questionnaire (HPCQ), the Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire (CPAQ), and the RAND 36-item Health Survey (SF-36), a measure of health-related quality of life. Multiple regression was used to test the influence of active pain coping, passive adherence coping, and negative thoughts about pain (HPCQ scales), and activity engagement and pain willingness (CPAQ scales), on physical and mental components of quality of life (SF-36 PCS and MCS scales), taking account of age, hemophilia severity, use of clotting factor, and pain intensity. Pain intensity was the main influence on physical quality of life and negative thoughts was the main influence on mental quality of life. Activity engagement and pain willingness had small but significant influences on physical and mental quality of life. Pain willingness also moderated and partly mediated the influence of pain intensity on physical quality of life, and activity engagement and pain willingness mediated the influence of negative thoughts on mental quality of life. Negative thoughts moderated and partly mediated the influence of pain intensity on mental quality of life. There was no evidence that active pain coping influenced quality of life. The findings suggest that quality of life in hemophilia could potentially be improved by interventions to increase pain acceptance and reduce negative thoughts about pain, especially among those with less severe pain.
    • Attentional bias towards threatening and neutral facial expressions in high trait anxious children.

      Kelly, Lauren; Maratos, Frances A.; Lipka, Sigrid; Croker, Steve; University of Derby (2016-07-03)
      Research suggests anxious children display increased attentional biases for threat-related stimuli. However, findings based upon spatial domain research are equivocal. Moreover, few studies allow for the independent analysis of trials containing neutral (i.e., potentially ambiguous) faces. Here, we report two temporal attentional blink experiments with high trait anxious (HTA) and low trait anxious (LTA) children. In an emotive experiment, we manipulated the valence of the second target (T2: threatening/positive/neutral). Results revealed that HTA, relative to LTA, children demonstrated better performance on neutral trials. Additionally, HTA children demonstrated a threat-superiority effect whereas LTA children demonstrated an emotion-superiority effect. In a non-emotive control, no differences between HTA and LTA children were observed. Results suggest trait anxiety is associated with an attentional bias for threat in children. Additionally, the neutral face finding suggests HTA children bias attention towards ambiguity. These findings could have important implications for current anxiety disorder research and treatments.
    • Attentional biases towards familiar and unfamiliar foods in children. The role of food neophobia

      Maratos, Frances A.; Staples, Paul; University of Derby (2015-08)
      Familiarity of food stimuli is one factor that has been proposed to explain food preferences and food neophobia in children, with some research suggesting that food neophobia (and familiarity) is at first a predominant of the visual domain. Considering visual attentional biases are a key factor implicated in a majority of fear-related phobias/anxieties, the purpose of this research was to investigate attentional biases to familiar and unfamiliar fruit and vegetables in 8 to 11 year old children with differing levels of food neophobia. To this end, 70 primary aged children completed a visual-probe task measuring attentional biases towards familiar and unfamiliar fruit/vegetables, as well as the food neophobia, general neophobia and willingness to try self-report measures. Results revealed that as an undifferentiated population all children appeared to demonstrate an attentional bias toward the unfamiliar fruit and vegetable stimuli. However, when considering food neophobia, this bias was significantly exaggerated for children self-reporting high food neophobia and negligible for children self-reporting low food neophobia. In addition, willingness to try the food stimuli was inversely correlated with attentional bias toward the unfamiliar fruits/vegetables. Our results demonstrate that visual aspects of food stimuli (e.g. familiarity) play an important role in childhood food neophobia. This study provides the first empirical test of recent theory/models of food neophobia (e.g. Brown & Harris, 2012). Findings are discussed in light of these models and related anxiety models, along with implications concerning the treatment of childhood food neophobia.