• The flows of compassion in adolescents as measured by the compassionate engagement and action scales

      Cunha, Marina; Galhardo, Ana; Gilbert, Paul; Rodrigues, Cátia; Matos, Marcela; University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal; University of Derby (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2021-07-23)
      The development of self-report instruments assessing the different facets of compassion adapted for different age groups is crucial for research and clinical practice. This study examined the factor structure and psychometric properties of the adaptation to adolescents of the Compassionate Engagement and Action Scales (CEAS-A) in a sample of 674 Portuguese adolescents. Confirmatory factor analyses showed that the factor structure of the CEAS-A was similar to the one found in the adults’ version, with higher-order factor models encompassing two first/s-order factors in each scale (Engagement and Actions). The CEAS-A revealed good construct validity, reliability, and temporal stability. Gender differences were found in Self-compassion and Compassion for Other scales. Path analysis results indicated that self-criticism had a direct negative impact on adolescents’ life satisfaction, whereas the impact of self-reassurance on life satisfaction was partially mediated by self-compassion and compassion from others. The CEAS-A is the first self-report instrument that allows for the assessment of the three different flows of compassion in adolescents and may be an important and useful tool for research and clinical practice.