• An exploration of different types of positive affect in students and patients with bipolar disorder.

      Gilbert, Paul; McEwan, Kirsten; Mitra, Ranjana; Richter, Anne; Franks, Leigh; Mills, Alison; Bellew, Rebecca; Gale, Corinne; Kingsway Hospital; University of Derby (Giovanni Fioriti Editore, 2009-08)
      Objective: Depue and Morrone-Strupinsky (2005) distinguished between two different types of positive affect regulation system: 1. relates to activated positive affects such as excitement, joy and vitality; and 2. relates to positive affects associated with peacefulness, contentment and well-being, and is linked to the experience of attachment and social safeness. In addition, people can derive positive feelings from doing social things (e.g. enjoying being with friends), and non-social things (e.g. watching a sunset). The first aim of this study was to develop two scales to assess the enjoyment of social and non-social events and to explore how these relate to the two types of affect regulation. In addition, we explore how these two types of positive affect regulation system are related to measures of affective temperament linked to mood disorders. The second aim was to explore these dimensions in people who have a bipolar disorder. Method: Students (n=202) and patients with bipolar disorder (n=49) completed a set of self-report scales measuring: social and non-social positive affect; different types of positive affect; social rank; current affective temperament and mood. Results: Our data showed that, in both patient and student groups, non-social positive affect has few correlations with other types of positive affect and affective temperament. In contrast, the pleasures derived from social relationships are significantly related to other types of positive affect and mood linked affective temperaments. Conclusions: Social and non-social positive affect seem to operate quite differently. It is the positive affects that we receive from our social relationships that are most significantly linked to affective temperament and social rank variables. This finding may have implications for pharmacological, psychological and social therapies.