• The effect of shame and shame memories on paranoid ideation and social anxiety.

      Matos, Marcela; Pinto-Gouveia, José; Gilbert, Paul; University of Coimbra; University of Derby; Cognitive and Behavioural Research Centre (CINEICC); University of Coimbra; Coimbra; Portugal; Cognitive and Behavioural Research Centre (CINEICC); University of Coimbra; Coimbra; Portugal; Mental Health Research Unit; University of Derby; Derby; UK (Wiley, 2012-01-30)
      Background Social wariness and anxiety can take different forms. Paranoid anxiety focuses on the malevolence of others, whereas social anxiety focuses on the inadequacies in the self in competing for social position and social acceptance. This study investigates whether shame and shame memories are differently associated with paranoid and social anxieties. Method Shame, traumatic impact of shame memory, centrality of shame memory, paranoia and social anxiety were assessed using self-report questionnaires in 328 participants recruited from the general population. Results Results from path analyses show that external shame is specifically associated with paranoid anxiety. In contrast, internal shame is specifically associated with social anxiety. In addition, shame memories, which function like traumatic memories, or that are a central reference point to the individual's self-identity and life story, are significantly associated with paranoid anxiety, even when current external and internal shame are considered at the same time. Thus, traumatic impact of shame memory and centrality of shame memory predict paranoia (but not social anxiety) even when considering for current feelings of shame. Conclusion Our study supports the evolutionary model suggesting there are two different types of ‘conspecific’ anxiety, with different evolutionary histories, functions and psychological processes. Paranoia, but less so social anxiety, is associated with traumatic impact and the centrality of shame memories. Researchers and clinicians should distinguish between types of shame memory, particularly those where the self might have felt vulnerable and subordinate and perceived others as threatening and hostile, holding malevolent intentions towards the self.
    • Paranoid beliefs and self-criticism in students.

      Mills, Alison; Gilbert, Paul; Bellew, Rebecca; McEwan, Kirsten; Gale, Corinne; University of Derby; Kingsway Hospital (Wiley, 2007-09)
      Paranoid beliefs are associated with negative and malevolent views of others. This study, however, explored hostile and compassionate self‐to‐self relating in regard to paranoid beliefs. A total of 131 students were given a series of scales measuring paranoid ideation, forms and functions of self‐criticism, self‐reassurance, self‐compassion and depression. Test scores were subjected to correlation and hierarchical regression analyses to explore the relative contribution of study variables to paranoid beliefs. In this population, paranoid beliefs were associated with forms and functions of self‐criticism, especially self‐hating and self‐persecution. Paranoid beliefs were negatively correlated with self‐kindness and abilities to be self‐reassuring. These variables were also associated with depression (as were paranoid beliefs). A hierarchical regression found that self‐hatred remained a predictor of paranoid ideation even after controlling for depression and self‐reassurance. Paranoid beliefs seem to be associated with a critical and even hating experience of self. These inner experiences of self may be profitable targets for therapeutic interventions.