• Self-disgust as a potential mechanism underlying the association between body image disturbance and suicidal thoughts and behaviours

      Akram, Umair; Allen, Sarah; Stevenson, Jodie C.; Lazarus, Lambros; Ypsilanti, Antonia; Ackroyd, Millicent; Chester, Jessica; Longden, Jessica; Peters, Chloe; Irvine, Kamila R.; et al. (Elsevier BV, 2022-10-26)
      This study examined whether self-disgust added incremental variance to and mediated the multivariate association between measures of body image disturbance and suicidal thoughts and behaviours. We hypothesized that self-disgust would be associated with suicidal ideation above the effects of body image disturbance, and that self-disgust would mediate the relationship between body image disturbance and suicidal ideation. A total of N=728 participants completed The Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire, The Self-Disgust Scale, and the Suicidal Behaviours Questionnaire-Revised. Suicidality was significantly related to increased levels of self-disgust and body image disturbance, whereas self-disgust was associated with greater body image disturbance. Linear regression analysis showed that self-disgust was associated with suicidal thoughts and behaviours, over and above the effects of body image disturbance. Multiple mediation modelling further showed that self-disgust mediated the relationship between body image disturbance and suicidal thoughts and behaviours. Our findings highlight the role of self-disgust in the context of body image disturbance and support the notion that body image disturbance is associated with aversive self-conscious emotions. Interventions aiming to reduce the risk of suicidality in people with body image disturbance may address self-disgust and negative self-conscious emotions.
    • Discourse analysis and emotions

      Childs, Carrie; University of Derby (De Gruyter, 2022)
      This chapter is concerned with discourse-centred approaches for examining emotion in conversation. Specifically, the chapter focuses on Conversation Analysis and Discursive Psychology. These approaches share a focus on the study of language as a topic in its own right- as a means of constructing, rather than representing, reality. With regard to emotion, the focus is on examining emotional displays and the ways in which these are invoked, managed and treated in conversation. The primary issue is the interactional work that is done and how notions of emotion are topicalized and managed in specific settings. The chapter has two major subsections. In the first I introduce Conversation Analysis and Discursive Psychology as research tools. I provide a description of each and outline their core methodological features. In the second I provide specific examples that illustrate the application of Conversation Analysis and Discursive Psychology to the study of emotion. The aim is to elucidate these approaches as ways of exploring emotion in naturally occurring interaction, highlighting the ways in which approaches based on analysis of authentic interaction can contribute to an understanding of emotion in conversation.
    • Continuing professional development and mentoring

      Bryson, David; University of Derby (Taylor & Francis, 2021-11-24)
      This professional development paper aims to give you some pointers that will help you get the most from your mentorship experience as a mentor or a mentee. We look at how mentoring can support your professional development. A simple definition is that a mentor may share with a mentee (or protege) information about his or her own career path, as well as provide guidance, motivation, emotional support, and role modelling. A mentor may help with exploring careers, setting goals, developing contacts, and identifying resources.
    • 25 Years on: progress in computer-based learning,

      Bryson, David; University of Derby (Taylor & Francis, 2021-11-24)
      1996 saw several papers addressing and informing readers about developments in computer-based learning and their effective use in teaching also the impact of technological developments on services and personnel.
    • Production of Long-Acting CNGRC–CPG2 Fusion Proteins: New Derivatives to Overcome Drug Immunogenicity of Ligand-Directed Enzyme Prodrug Therapy for Targeted Cancer Treatment

      Al-mansoori, Layla; Al Qahtani, Alanod D.; Elsinga, Philip; Goda, Sayed K.; Qatar University, Doha, Qatar; Anti-Doping Lab-Qatar (ADLQ), Doha, Qatar; University of Groningen, the Netherlands; Cairo University, Giza, Egypt; University of Derby (SAGE Publications, 2021-11-20)
      Aminopeptidase N (APN) is an enzyme highly expressed in metastatic cancers and could be used in targeted cancer therapy. Our previous work showed the successful construction of CNGRC–carboxypeptidase G2 (CPG2) and CNGRC–CPG2–CNGRC fusion proteins. Our conjugates and prodrugs were effective in targeting high APN-expressing cancer cells. In the present study, we aim to produce long-acting fusion proteins to overcome 2 of the main drawbacks of antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy. N-terminal and N-, C-terminal fusion CPG2, CNGRC–CPG2, and CNGRC–CPG2–CNGRC, respectively, were PEGylated using polyethylene glycol (PEG) maleimide (40K). We examined the effect of PEGylation on the therapeutic efficacy of the new products. The resulting PEGylated fusion proteins were tested for their stability, ex vivo immunotoxicity, binding capacity to their target on high HT1080, and low A549 APN-expressing cells. The catalytic activity of the resulting PEGylated fusion CPG2 proteins was investigated. Pro-drug “ZD2767P” cytotoxic effect in association with PEG CPG2–CNGRC fusion proteins on cancer cells was studied. Our work demonstrated that the properties of the PEGylated single-fused proteins were significantly improved over that of un-PEGylated fused CPG2, and its kinetic activity and APN-binding affinity were not negatively affected by the PEGylation. Significantly, The PEGylated single-fused CPG2 had lower immunogenicity than the un-PEGylated CPG2. Our results, however, were different in the case of the PEGylated double-fused CPG2. Although its stability in human serum under physiological conditions was not significantly affected, the kinetic activity and its binding affinity to their cellular marker (APN) were substantially reduced. When the study was performed with high and low APN-expressing cancer cell lines, using the prodrug ZD2767p, the PEGylated fusion CPG2 demonstrated cancer cell killing effects. We have successfully produced PEGylated-CNGRC–CPG2, which is bioactive and with lower immunogenicity in ligand-directed enzyme prodrug therapy for cancer treatment.
    • An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis exploring the experiences of mothers who relate to the term ‘Gender Disappointment’

      Young, Nina; Hallam, Jenny; Jackson, Jessica; Barnes, Christopher; Montague, Jane; University of Nottingham; University of Derby (MAG, 2021-11-19)
      In a western context little is known about what it means to associate with the term gender disappointment - feelings of despair around not having a child of the desired sex. Explore the lived experiences of British women who identify with the term gender disappointment. Six mothers of only sons who desired a daughter participated in a semi-structured interview via an online platform. An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) identified themes which relate to (i) pity, societal expectations of unfulfillment and concerns relating to future mother son relationship (ii) feelings of guilt and shame and (iii) barriers to seeking help and benefits of talking. More awareness relating to gender disappointment and the negative impact it has upon maternal wellbeing is needed. Mothers who identify with gender disappointment would benefit from support from health visitors to enable them to access the help they need.
    • Using patient feedback to adapt intervention materials based on acceptance and commitment therapy for people receiving renal dialysis

      Elander, James; Kapadi, Romaana; Coyne, Emma; Taal, Maarten W.; Selby, Nicholas M.; Stalker, Carol; Mitchell, Kathryn; University of Derby (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2021-11-15)
      Theory-based intervention materials must be carefully adapted to meet the needs of users with specific physical conditions. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) has been adapted successfully for cancer, chronic pain, diabetes, irritable bowel syndrome, multiple sclerosis, and a range of other conditions, but not so far for people receiving renal haemodialysis. This paper presents findings from a study to adapt ACT-based intervention materials specifically for renal dialysis. Draft written materials consisting of four stories depicting fictitious individuals who used ACT-related techniques to help overcome different challenges and difficulties related to dialysis were adapted using a systematic patient consultation process. The participants were 18 people aged 19 to 80 years, with chronic kidney disease and receiving renal dialysis. Individual, semi-structured interviews were conducted to elicit participants’ views about how the content of the draft materials should be adapted to make them more realistic and relevant for people receiving renal dialysis and about how the materials should be presented and delivered to people receiving renal dialysis. The interview transcripts were analysed using a qualitative adaptation of the Delphi method in which themes are used as a framework for translating feedback into proposals for modifications. The analysis of patient feedback supported the use of patient stories but suggested they should be presented by video and narrated by real dialysis patients. They also indicated specific adaptations to make the stories more credible and realistic. Participant feedback was translated into proposals for change that were considered along with clinical, ethical and theoretical factors. The outcome was a design for a video-based intervention that separated the stories about individuals from the explanations of the specific ACT techniques and provided greater structure, with material organised into smaller chunks. This intervention is adapted specifically for people receiving renal dialysis while retaining the distinctive theoretical principles of ACT. The study shows the value of consulting patients in the development of intervention materials and illustrates a process for integrating patient feedback with theoretical, clinical and practical considerations in intervention design.
    • The secret language of flowers: insights from an outdoor, arts-based intervention designed to connect primary school children to locally accessible nature.

      Hallam, Jenny; Gallagher, Laurel; Owen, Kay; University of Derby; Urban Wilderness (Routledge: Taylor and Francis, 2021-11-08)
      This paper uses ethnography to explore an outdoor, arts-based intervention run by Urban Wilderness, in partnership with an English primary school. Urban Wilderness are a not-for-profit organisation which aims to connect children and young people from disadvantaged areas to locally accessible nature. Over the course of three afternoon workshops, Urban Wilderness facilitators, a professional artist and teaching staff explored a local park with ten 9–10-year-old children and co-created a sculpture which was exhibited in the park as part of a family festival. Analysis of audio recordings and photographs taken during the workshops explored the ways in which a youth led approach and arts-based methods (i) fostered a sense of connection to the park and (ii) deepened the children’s knowledge about the plants they observed. It is argued that arts-based methods created a sense of presence in nature which fostered close attention to the surrounding environment and reflection upon the children’s relationship with it. The creation of art also facilitated the development of multi-levelled understandings of nature which encompassed identification, folk law and symbolism. As such analysis highlighted the relevance of outdoor learning and a Froebelian approach for older primary school children who are traditionally taught in classroom environments.
    • Patient-reported factors associated with degree of pain medication dependence and presence of severe dependence among spinal outpatients

      Elander, James; Kapadi, Romaana; Bateman, Antony H; University of Derby; Royal Derby Spinal Centre, Royal Derby Hospital (Future Medicine Ltd, 2021-11-03)
      To identify risk factors for pain medication dependence. Chronic spinal pain outpatients (n=106) completed the Leeds Dependence. Questionnaire (LDQ) and measures of potential risk factors. Participants with high (n=3) and low (n=3) dependence were interviewed. Mean LDQ score was 11.52 (SD 7.35) and 15/106 participants (14.2%) were severely dependent (LDQ ≥20). In linear regression, pain intensity (β=0.313, p<0.001), being disabled by pain (β=0.355, p<0.001), borrowing pain medication (β=0.209, p=0.006), and emergency phone calls or clinic visits (β=0.169, p=0.029) were associated with degree of dependence across the range of LDQ scores. In logistic regression, pain intensity (p=0.001) and borrowing pain medication (p=0.004) increased the odds of severe dependence. Interviewees described how their pain influenced their pain medication use and one described pain medication addiction. Interventions to reduce pain intensity and pain-related disability may reduce pain medication dependence.
    • Bio-vehicles of cytotoxic drugs for delivery to tumor specific targets for cancer precision therapy

      Al-mansoori, Layla; Elsinga, Philip; Goda, Sayed K.; Qatar University, Doha, Qatar; University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands; Cairo University, Egypt; University of Derby (Elsevier BV, 2021-10-01)
      Abnormal structural and molecular changes in malignant tissues were thoroughly investigated and utilized to target tumor cells, hence rescuing normal healthy tissues and lowering the unwanted side effects as non-specific cytotoxicity. Various ligands for cancer cell specific markers have been uncovered and inspected for directional delivery of the anti-cancer drug to the tumor site, in addition to diagnostic applications. Over the past few decades research related to the ligand targeted therapy (LTT) increased tremendously aiming to treat various pathologies, mainly cancers with well exclusive markers. Malignant tumors are known to induce elevated levels of a variety of proteins and peptides known as cancer “markers” as certain antigens (e.g., Prostate specific membrane antigen “PSMA”, carcinoembryonic antigen “CEA”), receptors (folate receptor, somatostatin receptor), integrins (Integrin αvβ3) and cluster of differentiation molecules (CD13). The choice of an appropriate marker to be targeted and the design of effective ligand-drug conjugate all has to be carefully selected to generate the required therapeutic effect. Moreover, since some tumors express aberrantly high levels of more than one marker, some approaches investigated targeting cancer cells with more than one ligand (dual or multi targeting). We aim in this review to report an update on the cancer-specific receptors and the vehicles to deliver cytotoxic drugs, including recent advancements on nano delivery systems and their implementation in targeted cancer therapy. We will discuss the advantages and limitations facing this approach and possible solutions to mitigate these obstacles. To achieve the said aim a literature search in electronic data bases (PubMed and others) using keywords “Cancer specific receptors, cancer specific antibody, tumor specific peptide carriers, cancer overexpressed proteins, gold nanotechnology and gold nanoparticles in cancer treatment” was carried out.
    • Continuing professional development and journaling

      Bryson, David; University of Derby (Informa UK Limited, 2021-09-13)
      This professional development paper looks at CPD and journaling which will help you discover how journaling can support your professional practice, mental health and continuing professional development.
    • Development and testing of the Nature Connectedness Parental Self-Efficacy (NCPSE) scale

      Barnes, Christopher; Holland, Fiona G.; Harvey, Caroline; Wall, Su; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2021-09-08)
      There is growing interest in nature connectedness and its benefits to people, and more recently to parents and their children. However, very little research exists that investigates the abilities parents have to engage their children in nature-related activities – parental self-efficacy. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to design, develop and validate a new measure of Nature Connectedness Parental Self-Efficacy (NCPSE). The NCPSE scale was created through a review of the literature, focus groups with parents and experts in the area, and a pilot study (n = 154) to assess an initial item pool of questions. Full reliability and validity testing was then conducted with 362 parents from the general population and of these 83 completed a test-retest follow-up survey. Exploratory Factor Analysis and reliability testing resulted in a 22- item measure with four subscales: Accessing Nature, Communicating about Nature, Overcoming Personal Barriers, and Overcoming Situational Barriers. Validity was also tested using the Generalised Self-Efficacy Scale, Nature Connectedness Index, and the WHO-5 wellbeing measure. The NCPSE demonstrated very good to excellent internal consistency as a whole and for each of its subscales, and is stable over time. Low to moderate correlations with the GSES, NCI and WHO-5 evidence the scales validity and illustrate that greater NCPSE is related to greater General Self-Efficacy, Nature Connectedness and Wellbeing of parents. NCPSE was also significantly and positively related to parental age and the average number of visits parents made to natural spaces each week either by themselves or together with their families. The evidence presented suggests that the NCPSE is a reliable and valid measure of parental self-efficacy related to nature connectedness. The scale may be useful when investigating the relationship between parent-child nature connectedness, specific population groups, and as a way of evaluating interventions designed to improve families’ connectedness to and engagement with nature.
    • ‘I don’t wanna go. I’m staying. This is my home now.’ Analysis of an intervention for connecting young people to urban nature.

      Hallam, Jenny; Gallagher, Laurel; Harvey, Caroline; University of Derby; Urban Wilderness, Stoke on Trent (Elsevier, 2021-09-08)
      This paper uses ethnography to explore young people’s engagement with a UK based intervention designed to promote a meaningful connection to locally accessible urban nature. During the intervention seven young people (aged between 11 and 12 years old) from a socially disadvantaged area, took part in three two-hour sessions held in a patch of urban nature close to their school. During the sessions, facilitators and teachers worked collaboratively with the young people as they explored the space and took part in den building activities. All sessions were recorded using audio and video equipment and a case study approach was utilised to explore the experiences of two young people involved in the project as they worked with practitioners and each other to develop a meaningful connection to the space. Analysis highlights the importance of youth centred interventions which use practical activities to develop a sense of belonging and wellbeing. These issues are discussed in relation to traditional nature engagement interventions and recommendations for practitioners are put forward.
    • The role of perceived descriptive and injunctive norms on the self-reported frequency of meat and plant-based meal intake in UK-based adults

      Sharps, Maxine; Fallon, Vicky; Ryan, Sean; Helen, Coulthard; De Montfort University; University of Liverpool; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2021-07-28)
      Perceived social norms refer to beliefs that people hold about what other people do (descriptive norms) and approve of (injunctive norms), and are associated with food intake. However, less is known about whether perceived social norms are associated with meat and plant-based meal intake. Using a cross-sectional survey design 136 participants (aged 19-66 years, mean age=39.63, SD=12.85 years, mean BMI=25.77, SD=5.30, 80.9% female, 77.9% omnivores, 22.1% flexitarians) answered questions about how frequently they consumed meat and plant-based meals, and how frequently they perceived people in their social environment to consume (perceived descriptive norms), and approve of consuming (perceived injunctive norms) meat and plant-based meals. Perceived descriptive and injunctive norms were positively associated with participants’ frequency of meat intake: participants ate meat more frequently when they perceived their significant other to frequently eat meat (descriptive norm), and when they perceived their significant other and friends to approve of (injunctive norm) frequently eating meat. Perceived descriptive norms were positively associated, but injunctive norms were negatively associated with participants’ frequency of plant-based meal intake: participants ate plant-based meals more frequently when they perceived their extended family, friends, and significant other to frequently eat plant-based meals. However, participants ate plant-based meals more frequently when they perceived their extended family to approve of less frequent plant-based meal intake. These results suggest that different social groups may be important for meat and plant-based meal intake, with significant others and friends appearing to be important reference points for both food types. Further research examining the contexts in which the different social groups influence eating behaviour would be of value.
    • The flows of compassion in adolescents as measured by the compassionate engagement and action scales

      Cunha, Marina; Galhardo, Ana; Gilbert, Paul; Rodrigues, Cátia; Matos, Marcela; University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal; University of Derby (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2021-07-23)
      The development of self-report instruments assessing the different facets of compassion adapted for different age groups is crucial for research and clinical practice. This study examined the factor structure and psychometric properties of the adaptation to adolescents of the Compassionate Engagement and Action Scales (CEAS-A) in a sample of 674 Portuguese adolescents. Confirmatory factor analyses showed that the factor structure of the CEAS-A was similar to the one found in the adults’ version, with higher-order factor models encompassing two first/s-order factors in each scale (Engagement and Actions). The CEAS-A revealed good construct validity, reliability, and temporal stability. Gender differences were found in Self-compassion and Compassion for Other scales. Path analysis results indicated that self-criticism had a direct negative impact on adolescents’ life satisfaction, whereas the impact of self-reassurance on life satisfaction was partially mediated by self-compassion and compassion from others. The CEAS-A is the first self-report instrument that allows for the assessment of the three different flows of compassion in adolescents and may be an important and useful tool for research and clinical practice.
    • Assisting you to advance with ethics in research: an introduction to ethical governance and application procedures

      Sivasubramaniam, Shivadas; Dlabolová, Henek Dlabolova; Kralikova, Veronika; Reza Khan, Zeenath; University of Derby; Mendel University in Brno, Zemědělská, 1665, Brno, Czechia; University of Wollongong in Dubai, Dubai, UAE (Springer Nature, 2021-07-13)
      Ethics and ethical behaviour are the fundamental pillars of a civilised society. The focus on ethical behaviour is indispensable in certain fields such as medicine, finance, or law. In fact, ethics gets precedence with anything that would include, affect, transform, or influence upon individuals, communities or any living creatures. Many institutions within Europe have set up their own committees to focus on or approve activities that have ethical impact. In contrast, lesser-developed countries (worldwide) are trying to set up these committees to govern their academia and research. As the first European consortium established to assist academic integrity, European Network for Academic Integrity (ENAI), we felt the importance of guiding those institutions and communities that are trying to conduct research with ethical principles. We have established an ethical advisory working group within ENAI with the aim to promote ethics within curriculum, research and institutional policies. We are constantly researching available data on this subject and committed to help the academia to convey and conduct ethical behaviour. Upon preliminary review and discussion, the group found a disparity in understanding, practice and teaching approaches to ethical applications of research projects among peers. Therefore, this short paper preliminarily aims to critically review the available information on ethics, the history behind establishing ethical principles and its international guidelines to govern research. The paper is based on the workshop conducted in the 5th International conference Plagiarism across Europe and Beyond, in Mykolas Romeris University, Lithuania in 2019. During the workshop, we have detailed a) basic needs of an ethical committee within an institution; b) a typical ethical approval process (with examples from three different universities); and c) the ways to obtain informed consent with some examples. These are summarised in this paper with some example comparisons of ethical approval processes from different universities. We believe this paper will provide guidelines on preparing and training both researchers and research students in appropriately upholding ethical practices through ethical approval processes.
    • An exploration of primary school teachers’ maths anxiety using interpretative phenomenological analysis

      Dove, Jane; Montague, Jane; Hunt, Thomas, E; University of Derby (Final International University, 2021-06-30)
      Primary school teachers are important in children’s learning of mathematics, and maths anxiety development has been partly attributed to children’s classroom experiences (Das & Das, 2013). Maths anxiety was explored in UK primary school teachers, with a view to understanding its development and impact. Data from four semi-structured individual interviews were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA), which facilitates a deeper knowledge of individuals’ personal experience. Three key themes emerged: “experiencing the psychological consequences of maths anxiety”, “social influences” and “the consequences of experiencing maths anxiety as a teaching professional”. The findings contribute to our understanding of the influence of maths anxiety on teachers and teaching practices.
    • Nature Engagement for Human and Nature’s Wellbeing during the Corona Pandemic

      Richardson, Miles; Hamlin, Iain; University of Derby (Emerald, 2021-05-28)
      To explore the associations between noticing nature, nature connectedness, time in nature and human and nature’s wellbeing during the Corona pandemic restrictions. Natural England’s People and Nature Survey (PANS) data (n=4206) from the UK was used to assess a number of wellbeing outcomes (loneliness, life satisfaction, worthwhile life and happiness) and pro-nature behaviours as a function of longer-term physical time in nature and psychological connectedness to nature and shorter-term visits and noticing of nature. Longer-term factors of nature connectedness and time in nature were both consistent significant predictors of wellbeing measures (apart from loneliness) and pro-nature conservation behaviours. Considered alone short-term visits and noticing were again consistent and significant predictors of three wellbeing measures, but recent visits to nature were not associated with pro-nature conservation behaviours. A combined regression highlighted the importance of a longer-term relationship with nature in all outcomes apart from loneliness, but also revealed that, even when considered in concert with longer-term factors, currently noticing nature had a role in feeling one’s life was worthwhile, pro-nature behaviours and loneliness. The closeness of the human-nature relationship and noticing nature have rarely been examined in concert with nature visits. Further, the reciprocal benefits of pro-nature behaviours are often overlooked.
    • A systematic review of self-report measures of negative self-referential emotions developed for non-clinical child and adolescent samples

      Ashra, Hajra; Barnes, Christopher; Stupple, Edward; Maratos, Frances A.; University of Derby (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2021-02-05)
      The crisis in child and adolescent mental health and wellbeing has prompted the development of school and community-based interventions to tackle negative emotions towards the self. Providing an evidence-base for such interventions is therefore a priority for policy makers and practitioners. This paper presents the first systematic review of self-referential and self-report measures of negative emotions for use with non-clinical child/adolescent populations, and evaluation of their psychometric properties. A systematic search of electronic databases and grey literature was conducted. Peer reviewed articles that introduced a new measure or included psychometric evaluation of a negative self-referential emotion for children and/or adolescents were identified. Study characteristics were extracted, and psychometric properties rated using internationally recognised quality criteria. Initially, 98 measures designed for evaluating children and adolescents’ negative self-referential emotions were found. Measures were primarily excluded if they were intended for clinical diagnosis or did not focus on self-referential emotions. The remaining eight measures (Brief Shame and Guilt Questionnaire; Self-Consciousness Scale-Children; Shame and Guilt Scale for Adolescents; Test of Self-Conscious Affect- Adolescents; The Child-Adolescent Perfectionism Scale [CAPS]; Child and Adolescent Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale Revised; Children Automatic Thoughts Scale [CATS]; Negative Affect Self-Statement Questionnaire) were organised into domains consisting of self-conscious emotions, self-oriented perfectionism and negative self-cognitions. Psychometric quality ratings identified the CAPS (Flett et al. in J Psychoeduc Assess 34:634–652, 2016) and the CATS (Schniering and Rapee in Behav Res Ther 40:1091–1109, 2002) as having the strongest psychometric qualities. However, all reviewed measures lacked full evaluation of essential psychometric properties. Our review revealed a paucity of self-referential emotional measures suitable for assessing adverse negative self-referential emotions in general child and adolescent populations. Measures suitable for use in non-clinical samples were identified, but these require further evaluation and/or new scale developments are needed. The psychometric findings and methodological issues identified will guide researchers and practitioners to make evidence-based decisions in order to select optimal measures.
    • Moments, not minutes: The nature-wellbeing relationship

      Richardson, Miles; Passmore, Holli-Anne; Lumber, Ryan; Thomas, Rory; Hunt, Alex; University of Derby; National Trust (University of Waikato, 2021-01-31)
      A wealth of literature has evidenced the important role that the greater-than-human natural environment plays in our mental health and wellbeing (reviews by Bratman et al., 2019; Capaldi et al., 2014, 2015; Pritchard et al., 2019). Spending time in nature, engaging with nature directly and indirectly, and a strong sense of nature connectedness (a psychological/emotional connection with nature) have each been shown to positively impact wellbeing. Few studies, however, have examined the importance that various nature-related factors have on our wellbeing when examined in concert with each other, with none including factors of nature connection and engagement. In the current study, using a national United Kingdom sample of 2,096 adults, we provide new insights into this gap in the literature. Our primary focus was on examining, when considered simultaneously, the patterns and relative predictive importance to hedonic wellbeing (i.e., happiness), eudaimonic wellbeing (i.e., worthwhile life), illbeing (i.e., depression and anxiety), and general physical health of five nature-related factors: (1) nature connectedness, (2) time in nature, (3) engagement with nature through simple everyday activities, (4) indirect engagement with nature, and (5) knowledge and study of nature. A consistent pattern of results emerged across multiple analytical approaches (i.e., correlations, linear regression, dominance analyses, commonality analysis), wherein time in nature was not the main (or significant) predictive nature-related factor for wellbeing. Rather, nature connectedness and engaging with nature through simple activities (e.g., smelling flowers) consistently emerged as being the significant and prominent factors in predicting and explaining variance in mental health and wellbeing. Implications for practical application and policy/programme planning are discussed.