• Using the theoretical domains framework to improve access to cervical screening for women with intellectual disabilities

      Whitelegg, Victoria; Elander, James; University of Derby (British Psychological Society, 2020-07-03)
      Regular attendance for screening can prevent most cervical cancers, but women with learning disabilities are potentially at greater risk of developing and dying from cervical cancer because current screening processes and practices create inequitable barriers, restricting their access to screening. In response, an objective of Public Health England’s 2018 ‘Screening Inequalities Strategy’ was to reduce inequalities through ‘evidence-based contributions’ to policy and best practice (Public Health England, 2018b). Health psychologists could contribute to this objective by facilitating collaborative work with cervical screening practitioners using the Theoretical Domains Framework. This enables health psychology evidence and theory, combined with the perceptions and experiences of screening practitioners, to identify relevant barriers and enablers to access, and this information can inform interventions and policy changes to make cervical screening programmes more open and effective for women with learning disabilities.
    • Exposure to contact sports results in maintained performance during experimental pain

      Thornton, C; Sheffield, D; Baird, A; Northumbria University; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2020-06-26)
      During pain, motor performance tends to decline. However, athletes who engage in contact sports are able to maintain performance despite the inherent pain that accompanies participation. This may be the result of being challenged rather than threatened by pain; adaptive coping strategies; habituation to pain; or finding pain less bothersome. This study aimed to measure performance of a novel motor task both in pain and not in pain within experienced contact athletes (n = 40), novice contact athletes (n = 40) and non-contact athletes (n = 40). Challenge and threat perceptions were manipulated during the pain condition and measures of pain tolerance, perception, coping styles and bothersomeness were taken. Results indicated that contact athletes, regardless of experience, were able to maintain their performance during painful stimulation. Non-contact athletes, conversely, performed significantly worse during pain stimulation. In addition, contact athletes tended to be more challenged and the non-contact athletes more threatened within the pain condition. Experienced contact athletes demonstrated higher levels of pain tolerance and direct coping, and reported lower levels of pain bothersomeness and intensity than the other groups. The results suggest that even relatively brief exposure to contact sports may be enough to help maintain performance in pain. Being in a challenged state appears to be an important factor during performance in pain. Moreover, pain tolerance, intensity and bothersomeness may differentiate novice and experienced athletes.PerspectiveExposure to voluntary pain and challenge states are associated with adaptive responses to pain. Motor task performance may be maintained in individuals with more experience of sports-related pain.
    • Does a natural environment enhance the effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR)? Examining the mental health and wellbeing, and nature connectedness benefits

      Jorgensen, Anna; Sheffield, David; Choe, Eun Yeong; University of Sheffield; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2020-06-24)
      This study investigated whether the impacts of a commonly used wellbeing intervention, Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR), are enhanced when combined with the benefits of exposure to a natural environment. Participants (n = 99) were randomly assigned to a weekly one-hour MBSR in one of three different environments (i.e. natural outdoor, built outdoor and indoor environments) over a six-week period. Participants’ wellbeing outcomes and nature connectedness were measured at baseline, during the intervention and at one-week and one-month follow up. The results show that the mental health and wellbeing outcomes of MBSR are greater when it carried out in a natural outdoor environment compared with indoor or built environments. Moreover, participants in the natural outdoor environment showed sustained improvements even after one month from completion of the intervention. This study supports the potential value of natural environments as settings for the enhancement of health care delivery and therapeutic interventions.
    • Measuring actions for nature—development and validation of a pro-nature conservation behaviour scale

      Barbett, Lea; Stupple, Edward; Sweet, Michael; Schofield, Malcolm; Richardson, Miles; University of Derby (MDPI, 2020-06-15)
      Scientists have classed the ongoing decline in biodiversity—caused by humans—as a mass extinction. To mitigate the consequences of this extinction, immediate action is of the utmost importance. However, effective ways of promoting pro-nature conservation behaviours to preserve and enhance biodiversity require better understanding and measurement. Thus, a reliable and valid measurement tool is needed. While there are measurement tools for general pro-environmental behaviours, as of yet, no measure of behaviours that specifically promote biodiversity exists. Here, we present such a tool: the Pro-Nature Conservation Behaviour Scale (ProCoBS), a psychometrically validated questionnaire scale measuring active behaviours that specifically support the conservation of biodiversity. An item pool developed through consultation with wildlife and biodiversity experts was subjected to psychometric scale development analyses. Data from 300 participants were used to develop the 18-item ProCoBS long form, as well as an 8-item short form. A latent variable model with four factors (Individual Engagement, Social Engagement, Planting, and Wildlife) was identified. In a second study, a subset of 250 of the original participants answered the questionnaire again, in addition to related psychological constructs. The data were used to assess test–retest reliability and construct validity. Results showed that the scale and its short form were reliable (full scale: α = 0.893, short form: α = 0.825) and valid. In a third study, a representative sample of 1298 adults in the UK completed the short form. Confirmatory Factor Analysis demonstrated a good fit for all factors, indicating that the ProCoBS is a psychometrically robust measure. The ProCoBS provides the definitive, much needed tool for measuring conservation behaviours. This will enhance research and impact practical work in the conservation domain for a sustainable future. A cross-cultural examination of the scale is still needed. View Full-Text
    • The neurophysiological relationship between number anxiety and the EEG gamma-band

      Baker, Ian; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2020-06-11)
      The development of math anxiety is thought to originate at a young age, as a form of number anxiety, but has not been investigated extensively. Research has shown greater levels of EEG gamma-band activity are experienced during threat perception and attentional bias. This has been identified in high math anxious individuals when confronted with math-based tasks, but has not yet been explored for number anxiety specifically. Single-digit numbers and letters were presented to 15 high and 15 low math anxious participants, who were required to observe the stimuli. High math anxious participants displayed significantly greater levels of gamma activity during number observation compared to letter observation. Findings suggest high math anxious individuals may have a threat-related response to observation of simple numerical stimuli. Further behavioural investigations are needed, but high math anxious individuals may display avoidance towards number and math due to a threat response associated with increased gamma activity.
    • Can compassion, happiness and sympathetic concern be differentiated on the basis of facial expression?

      Condliffe, Otto; Maratos, Frances A.; University of Shanghai; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2020-04-11)
      Recent research has demonstrated the importance of positive emotions, and especially compassion, for well-being. Via two investigations, we set out to determine if facial expressions of happiness, “kind” compassion and sympathetic concern can be distinguished, given limitations of previous research. In investigation one, prototypes of the three expressions were analysed for similarities and differences using the facial action coding system (FACS) by two certified independent coders. Results established that each expression comprised distinct FACS units. Thus, in investigation 2, a new photographic stimulus set was developed using a gender/racially balanced group of actors to pose these expressions of “kind” compassion, happiness, sympathetic concern, and the face in a relaxed/neutral pose. 75 participants were then asked to name the FACS generated expressions using not only forced categorical quantitative ratings but, importantly, free response. Results revealed that kind compassionate facial expressions: (i) engendered words associated with contented and affiliative emotions (although, interestingly, not the word “kind”); (ii) were labelled as compassionate significantly more often than any of the other emotional expressions; but (iii) in common with happiness expressions, engendered happiness word groupings and ratings. Findings have implications for understandings of positive emotions, including specificity of expressions and their veridicality.
    • A randomized-controlled pilot trial of an online compassionate mind training intervention to help people with chronic pain avoid analgesic misuse

      Dhokia, Mayoor; Elander, James; Clements, Keith; Gilbert, Paul; University of Derby (American Psychological Association (APA), 2020-04-09)
      Problematic use of prescribed and over-the-counter analgesics is widespread and increasing among people with chronic pain, but the availability of preventative and treatment services is limited. We evaluated a 21-day online intervention based on compassionate mind training in a prospective, randomized-controlled trial. The participants were 73 adults with concerns about their use of analgesics for chronic pain conditions. Participants completed measures of analgesic use, misuse and dependence, plus self-criticism and self-reassurance (self-inadequacy, self-reassurance and self-hate), cognitive impulsivity (negative urgency, lack of perseverance, lack of premeditation, sensation-seeking and positive urgency) and behavioral impulsivity (delay discounting) at baseline, post-intervention and 1-week post-intervention follow-up. Following baseline assessment, participants were randomized to compassionate mind training (CMT; n=38) or relaxation music (RM; n=35), both delivered online. No adverse events or safety issues were reported and high participant retention and exercise completion rates showed that the intervention was acceptable to participants. Repeated measures analysis of variance showed that by comparison with RM, the CMT group had reduced prescription analgesic use (F=6.123, p=0.015), analgesic dependence (F=14.322, p<.001), self-hate (F=12.218, p<0.001), negative urgency (F=7.323, p=0.006) and lack of perseverance (F=7.453, p=0.001) from baseline to post-intervention, and those improvements were maintained at follow-up. The results show that exercises based on CMT principles and techniques and delivered online can reduce analgesic use, risk of analgesic dependence, and some aspects of self-criticism and impulsivity.
    • Using journal alerts to support your continuing professional development

      Bryson, David; University of Derby (Taylor & Francis, 2020-04-06)
      There are many ways to keep up to date with research that affect your role and personal development. You can regularly use PubMed or Scholar to find recent papers using keyword search, you can rely on others to do the work for you with literature reviews, share the job with Journal clubs or using Journal alerts you can have the papers and research you want delivered to your inbox.
    • Pain and athletes: Contact sport participation and performance in pain

      Sheffield, David; Thornton, C; Jones, M.V.; University of Derby; Northumbria University; Manchester Metropolitan University (Elsevier BV, 2020-03-29)
      This study examined the effect of cold pressor pain on performance in high-contact athletes, low-contact athletes and non-athletes. A three-group between-subjects experimental design was used. Seventy-one participants completed a motor task and a cognitive task of different complexity (easy or hard) both in pain and not in pain. The motor task involved participants throwing a tennis ball at numbered targets in the correct order. In the cognitive task, participants were required to check off the numbers one to twenty-five in the correct order from a grid of randomly ordered numbers. Task difficulty was increased by adding dummy targets (motor task) or extra numbers (cognitive task). Cold pressor pain was rated as less intense by high-contact athletes during both tasks compared to low-contact athletes and non-athletes. High-contact athletes’ performance was not hampered by pain on the motor task, whereas it was in low-contact athletes and non-athletes. However, pain did not hamper performance for any group during the cognitive task. Low-contact and non-athletes did not differ from each other in their pain reports or the degree to which their performance was hampered by pain in either task. This study provides evidence that adaptation to pain through participation in high-contact sports can enhance both pain tolerance generally and motor performance specifically under increases in pain. The mechanisms behind these differences warrant further exploration.
    • A theory of challenge and threat states in athletes: a revised conceptualization

      Meijen, Carla; Turner, Martin; Jones, Marc V; Sheffield, David; McCarthy, Paul; St Mary’s University, Twickenham, London; Manchester Metropolitan University; University of Derby; Glasgow Caledonian University (Frontiers, 2020-02-06)
      The Theory of Challenge and Threat States in Athletes (TCTSA) provides a psychophysiological framework for how athletes anticipate motivated performance situations. The purpose of this review is to discuss how research has addressed the 15 predictions made by the TCTSA, to evaluate the mechanisms underpinning the TCTSA in light of the research that has emerged in the last ten years, and to inform a revised TCTSA (TCTSA-R). There was support for many of the 15 predictions in the TCTSA, with two main areas for reflection identified; to understand the physiology of challenge and to re-evaluate the concept of resource appraisals. This re-evaluation informs the TCTSA-R which elucidates the physiological changes, predispositions, and cognitive appraisals that mark challenge and threat states. First, the relative strength of the sympathetic nervous system response is outlined as a determinant of challenge and threat patterns of reactivity and we suggest that oxytocin and neuropeptide Y are also key indicators of an adaptive approach to motivated performance situations and can facilitate a challenge state. Second, although predispositions were acknowledged within the TCTSA, how these may influence challenge and threat states was not specified. In the TCTSA-R it is proposed that one’s propensity to appraise stressors as a challenge that most strongly dictates acute cognitive appraisals. Third, in the TCTSA-R a more parsimonious integration of Lazarusian ideas of cognitive appraisal and challenge and threat is proposed. Given that an athlete can make both challenge and threat primary appraisals and can have both high or low resources compared to perceived demands, a 2x2 bifurcation theory of challenge and threat is proposed. This reflects polychotomy of four parts; high challenge, low challenge, low threat, and high threat. For example, in low threat, an athlete can evince a threat state but still perform well so long as they perceive high resources. Consequently, we propose suggestions for research concerning measurement tools and a reconsideration of resources to include social support. Finally, applied recommendations are made based on adjusting demands and enhancing resources.
    • National guidelines and your continuing professional development

      Bryson, David; University of Derby (Taylor & Francis, 2020-01-23)
      There are several links between the national guidelines produced by the Institute of Medical Illustrators (IMI), the development of evidence-based practice and continuing professional development (CPD). This includes their development, research and testing in practice, their use either to support the development of best practice or their direct implementation. This paper suggests a number of ways to engage with the guidelines to support your professional learning and CPD.
    • Nature contact, nature connectedness and associations with health, wellbeing and pro-environmental behaviours

      White, Mathew P.; Hunt, Anne; Richardson, Miles; Pahl, Sabine; Burt, Jim; University of Plymouth; University of Exeter; Natural England, UK; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2020-01-18)
    • Psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the perceived maternal parenting self-efficacy (PMP S-E) tool for primiparous women

      Vargas‑Porras, Carolina; Roa‑Díaz, Zayne Milena; Barnes, Christopher; Adamson-Macedo, Elvidina N.; Ferré‑Grau, Carme; De-Molina-Fernandez, Maria Inmaculada; Universidad Industrial de Santander, Bucaramanga; University of Bern, Switzerland; University of Derby; University of Wolverhampton; et al. (Springer, 2020-01-09)
      The objective of this study was to determine the validity and the reliability of the Perceived Maternal Parenting Self-Efficacy tool translated into Spanish and adapted to be used among primiparous women of term babies. Validation study. A total of 210 women participated in the survey to establish construct validity and reliability. The questionnaire has 20 items and four subscales. The higher the score, the higher the self-efficacy. A process of translation/back-translation and cultural adaptation in accordance with international standards and an expert review were conducted to test face and content validity. The Validity Content Index and an exploratory factor analysis were used to identify the structure of the questionnaire. Reliability was estimated using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. Linguistic and cultural adaptation, validation and reliability were performed. Face validity for women was as follows: high comprehension (99%); and for experts: medium comprehension (84.1%), medium clarity (83.9%) and medium precision (80%). Concerning pertinence, the content validity index was 0.93 (i.e., highly pertinent). Concerning relevance, the content validity index was 0.96 (i.e., highly relevant). Factor validation identified four factors that accounted for 91% of the variance. Overall Cronbach’s alpha value was 0.98 (IC 95 0.97–0.98). Given the robust properties of the Spanish version of the Perceived Maternal Parenting Self-efficacy, it may be used to identify women with low self-efficacy and to assess the effectiveness of health-based interventions.
    • Chronic apelin analogue administration is more effective than established incretin therapies for alleviating metabolic dysfunction in diabetic db/db mice.

      O'Harte, Finbarr P M; Parthsarathy, Vadivel; Flatt, Peter R; University of Ulster (Elsevier, 2020-01-03)
      Stable apelin-13 peptide analogues have shown promising acute antidiabetic effects in mice with diet-induced obesity diabetes. Here the efficacy of (pGlu)apelin-13 amide (apelin amide) and the acylated analogue (pGlu)(Lys8GluPAL)apelin-13 amide (apelin FA), were examined following chronic administration in db/db mice, a genetic model of degenerative diabetes. Groups of 9-week old male db/db mice (n = 8) received twice daily injections (09:00 and 17:00 h; i.p.) or saline vehicle, apelin amide, apelin FA, or the established incretin therapies, exendin-4(1-39) or liraglutide, all at 25 nmol/kg body weight for 21 days. Control C57BL/6J mice were given saline twice daily. No changes in body weight or food intake were observed with either apelin or liraglutide treatments, but exendin-4 showed a reduction in cumulative food intake (p < 0.01) compared with saline-treated db/db mice. Apelin analogues and incretin mimetics induced sustained improvements of glycaemia (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001, from day 9-21), lowered HbA1c at 21 days (p < 0.05) and raised plasma insulin concentrations. The treatments also improved OGTT and ipGTT with enhanced insulin responses compared with saline-treated control db/db mice (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001). Apelin amide was superior to incretin mimetics in lowering plasma triglycerides by 34% (p < 0.05). Apelin analogues unlike both incretin mimetics reduced pancreatic α-cell area (p < 0.05 to p < 0.01) and all peptide treatments enhanced pancreatic insulin content (p < 0.05 to p < 0.01). In conclusion, longer-term administration of apelin-13 analogues, induced similar and in some respects more effective metabolic improvements than incretin mimetics in db/db mice, providing a viable alternative approach for counteracting metabolic dysfunction for mild and more degenerative forms of the disease.
    • Pain coping, pain acceptance and analgesic use as predictors of health-related quality of life among women with primary dysmenorrhea

      Kapadi, Romaana; Elander, James; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2019-12-24)
      Primary dysmenorrhea causes menstrual pain that affects women’s quality of life (QoL) and analgesics are only moderately effective. Pain coping and pain acceptance influence QoL among people affected by other chronic pain conditions, so we examined pain coping, pain acceptance and analgesic use as predictors of QoL among women with primary dysmenorrhea. 145 women with primary dysmenorrhea completed an online survey including the Menstrual Symptoms Questionnaire (MSQ), the Coping Strategies Questionnaire (CSQ), the Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire (CPAQ-8), questions about analgesic use, and the Short Form-12 (SF-12), a measure of physical and mental health-related QoL. In multiple regression, pain acceptance predicted better physical and mental QoL, whereas pain coping did not predict mental or physical quality of life. Being married or cohabiting and menstrual pain that was less severe and shorter in duration predicted better physical QoL, and those effects were mediated by pain acceptance. Being older at the onset of painful periods predicted better mental QoL and that effect was also mediated by pain acceptance. More severe menstrual pain and congestive rather than spasmodic dysmenorrhea predicted worse mental QoL but those effects were not mediated by other factors. Analgesic use did not predict physical or mental QoL. The results show the impact that menstrual pain has on women’s quality of life, and suggest that initiatives to increase pain acceptance among women with menstrual pain are worthwhile. More research is needed to understand more fully the factors that influence health-related quality of life among women with menstrual pain.
    • Simulated natural environments bolster the effectiveness of a mindfulness programme: A comparison with a relaxation-based intervention

      Choe, Eun Yeong; Jorgensen, Anna; Sheffield, David; University of Sheffield; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2019-12-14)
      This study assesses the effectiveness of incorporating the beneficial effects of exposure to nature in a 3-week mindfulness programme. Participants (n = 122) were randomly assigned to one of two intervention groups (mindfulness, relaxation group) under different simulated environmental conditions (two natural, two non-natural environments) during an intervention lasting three weeks. The participants in the mindfulness group were asked to attend a weekly 1-h mindfulness programme. The relaxation group also spent 1 h per week on relaxation activities of their choice (e.g. reading books or magazines). Participants’ wellbeing outcomes and nature connectedness were measured before and after the three-week intervention, and at one-week follow-up. The findings show that the mindfulness programme was more effective when carried out in a natural environment. In addition, the mindfulness group in natural environments continued to improve even after the intervention was completed. This study offers valuable insights into the benefits of combining a wellbeing intervention with exposure to nature.
    • "We've been exploring and adventuring." A investigation into young people's engagement with a semi wild, disused space

      Hallam, Jenny; Gallagher, Laurel; Harvey, Caroline; University of Derby (APA, 2019-10-24)
      This paper uses ethnography to explore young people’s engagement with an intervention run by Feral Spaces which was designed to promote a meaningful connection to a disused space. Over the course of three sessions, each lasting two hours, seven young people aged between 11 and 12 years old took part in a range of den building activities in a semi-wild area which was local to them. The sessions were recorded using audio and video equipment and an inductive thematic analysis informed by a realist framework was used to analyse the naturalistic data collected. The analysis presents four themes - engaging with the environment, developing a sense of awe and wonder, respect and attachment to the space and a sense of belonging which map out the young people’s growing connection to nature evidenced during the intervention. Within each of these themes the young people’s experiences are discussed in relation to theory of biophilia and the pathways to nature model in order to evaluate their relevance for researchers and practitioners who seek to understand children’s connection with nature and promote it. Furthermore, the positive relationships and emotions experienced during the intervention are explored. It is argued that the community-based intervention developed the young people’s understandings of the natural world and their confidence to engage with it in a personally meaningful way. This had positive implications in terms of supporting the young people’s wellbeing.
    • An English version of the mathematics teaching anxiety scale

      Hunt, Thomas E.; SARI, Mehmet Hayri; University of Derby; Veli University (IJATE, 2019-10-15)
      This study represents the implementation of an English version of the Mathematics Teaching Anxiety Scale (MTAS), originally published in Turkey (Sari, 2014). One hundred and twenty-seven primary school teachers from across the U.K. completed the survey, including 74 qualified teachers and 53 trainees. Following item-reduction and factor analysis, the 19-item MTAS was found to have excellent internal consistency (α = .94) and has a two-factor structure. Factor one, labelled Self-Directed Mathematics Teaching Anxiety, includes 12 items pertaining to a teacher's own teaching practice and perceived ability, whereas factor two, labelled Pupil/Student-Directed Mathematics Teaching Anxiety, includes 7 items pertaining to anxiety concerning pupils/students failing assessments or not reaching curriculum/school targets. Pre-service teachers, compared to in-service teachers, self-reported significantly higher overall maths teaching anxiety. Among in-service teachers, there was a significant negative correlation between length of service and maths teaching anxiety. These findings are important in the context of retention issues in newly qualified teachers and the need to support trainees and newer teachers if they experience anxiety related to teaching maths.
    • Sweating the small stuff: a meta-analysis of skin conductance on the Iowa gambling task

      Simonovic, Boban; Stupple, Edward J. N.; Gale, Maggie; Sheffield, David (Springer, 2019-09-06)
      To systematically examine the role of anticipatory skin conductance responses (aSCRs) in predicting Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) performance. Secondly, to assess the quality of aSCR evidence for the Somatic Marker Hypothesis (SMH) during the IGT. Finally, to evaluate the reliability of current psychophysiological measurements on the IGT. Electronic databases, journals and reference lists were examined for inclusion. Data were extracted by two reviewers and validated by another reviewer, using a standardised extraction sheet along with a quality assessment. Two meta-analyses of aSCR measures were conducted to test the relationship between overall aSCR and IGT performance, and differences in aSCR between advantageous and disadvantageous decks. Twenty studies were included in this review. Quality assessment revealed that five studies did not measure anticipatory responses, and few stated they followed standard IGT and/or psychophysiological procedures. The first meta-analysis of 15 studies revealed a significant, small-to-medium relationship between aSCR and IGT performance (r= .22). The second meta-analysis of eight studies revealed a significant, small difference in aSCR between the advantageous and disadvantageous decks (r= .10); however, publication bias is likely to be an issue. Meta-analyses revealed aSCR evidence supporting the SMH. However, inconsistencies in the IGT and psychophysiological methods, along with publication bias, cast doubt on these effects. It is recommended that future tests of the SMH use a range of psychophysiological measures, a standardised IGT protocol, and discriminate between advantageous and disadvantageous decks.