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Measurement of external shame: An inside viewBalsamo, Michela; Macchia, Antonella; Carlucci, Leonardo; Picconi, Laura; Tommasi, Marco; Gilbert, Paul; Saggino, Aristide; University of Chieti-Pescara; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2014-08-26)The aims of this study were to investigate the construct validity of the Other as Shamer scale (OAS) using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and to examine the psychometric properties of its Italian version in a sample of 687 nonclinical individuals. The CFA results indicated that the hypothesized hierarchical model (with 1 higher order factor and 3 first-order factors) was the best fitting solution. Cronbach's alpha indexes, as well as test–retest stability, provided satisfactory results. Correlations of the OAS total score and its subscales with the Beck Depression Inventory–II (rs = .30–.48) and the Teate Depression Inventory (rs = .32–.45) were both substantial and significant (p < .01). Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to indicate sensitivity and specificity of the OAS and its subscales when determining those nonclinical subjects who met clinical thresholds for depression symptoms. A series of cutoff scores for the OAS scale and its subscales was developed, with sensitivity values between .70 and .62, and specificity values between .71 and .62, indicating good to fair discrimination between the 2 groups (depressed vs. nondepressed). The theoretical and practical implications of these results were discussed.
Rank perception and self-evaluation in eating disordersCardi, Valentina; Di Matteo, Rosalia; Gilbert, Paul; Treasure, Janet; King's College London; University of Chieti-Pescara; University of Derby; King's College London; Institute of Psychiatry, Psychological Medicine, Section of Eating Disorders; London United Kingdom; Department of Neuroscience and Imaging; University of Chieti-Pescara; Chieti Italy; Mental Health Research Unit; University of Derby; Derby United Kingdom; et al. (Wiley, 2014-02-18)ABSTRACT Objectives Heightened sensitivity to social comparison and negative self-evaluation have been implicated in the development and maintenance of eating disorders (EDs). This study used behavioral tasks, as well as self-report measures, to examine processing of social rank-related cues and implicit self-concept in participants with EDs. Method Fifty healthy participants (HCs), 46 people with an ED, and 22 people recovered from an ED (REC) undertook an attentional bias task using social rank-related cues and an implicit self-evaluation task. In addition, they completed self-report measures of social comparison, submissive behavior, and shame. Results People with EDs showed vigilance toward social rank-related stimuli and lower implicit positive self-evaluation than HCs. Self-report data confirmed the behavioral findings and showed that people with EDs had higher levels of unfavorable social comparison, submissive behaviors, and external and internal shame than HCs. People who had recovered from an ED showed an intermediate profile between the two groups. Discussion People with EDs have heightened sensitivity to social rank-related cues and impaired self-evaluation at an automatic level of processing. Some of these biases remain in people who have recovered. Interventions which aim to remediate social threat sensitivity and negative bias about self and others might be of benefit in EDs. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2014; 47:543–552)