• Conflict and dual process theory: The case of belief bias.

      Ball, Linden J.; Thompson, Valerie; Stupple, Edward J. N.; University of Central Lancashire; University of Saskatchewan; University of Derby (Routledge, 2017-11)
    • Motivational and behavioural models of change: A longitudinal analysis of change among men with chronic haemophilia-related joint pain

      Elander, James; Richardson, Cassandra; Morris, John; Robinson, Georgina; Schofield, Malcolm B.; University of Derby; University of Central Lancashire; Haemophilia Society UK; London Metropolitan University; Centre for Psychological Research; University of Derby; UK; et al. (Wiley, 2017-08-10)
      Background: Motivational and behavioral models of adjustment to chronic pain make different predictions about change processes, which can be tested in longitudinal analyses. Methods: We examined changes in motivation, coping and acceptance among 78 men with chronic hemophilia-related joint pain. Using cross-lagged regression analyses of changes from baseline to 6 months as predictors of changes from 6 to 12 months, with supplementary structural equation modelling, we tested two models in which motivational changes influence behavioral changes, and one in which behavioral changes influence motivational changes. Results: Changes in motivation to self-manage pain influenced later changes in pain coping, consistent with the motivational model of pain self-management, and also influenced later changes in activity engagement, the behavioral component of pain acceptance. Changes in activity engagement influenced later changes in pain willingness, consistent with the behavioral model of pain acceptance. Conclusions: Based on the findings, a combined model of changes in pain self-management and acceptance is proposed, which could guide combined interventions based on theories of motivation, coping and acceptance in chronic pain.
    • Slower is not always better: Response-time evidence clarifies the limited role of miserly information processing in the Cognitive Reflection Test

      Stupple, Edward J. N.; Pitchford, Melanie; Ball, Linden J.; Hunt, Thomas E.; Steel, Richard; University of Derby; University of Bedfordshire; University of Central Lancashire; Loughborough University (Public Library of Science (PLOS), 2017-11-04)
      We report a study examining the role of ‘cognitive miserliness’ as a determinant of poor performance on the standard three-item Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT). The cognitive miserliness hypothesis proposes that people often respond incorrectly on CRT items because of an unwillingness to go beyond default, heuristic processing and invest time and effort in analytic, reflective processing. Our analysis (N = 391) focused on people’s response times to CRT items to determine whether predicted associations are evident between miserly thinking and the generation of incorrect, intuitive answers. Evidence indicated only a weak correlation between CRT response times and accuracy. Item-level analyses also failed to demonstrate predicted response-time differences between correct analytic and incorrect intuitive answers for two of the three CRT items. We question whether participants who give incorrect intuitive answers on the CRT can legitimately be termed cognitive misers and whether the three CRT items measure the same general construct.
    • The use of an e-learning module on return to work advice for physiotherapists - A prospective cohort study.

      Chance-Larsen, Fiona; Chance-Larsen, Kenneth; Divanoglou, Anestis; Baird, Andrew; Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust; University of Central Lancashire; University of Iceland; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2018-06-20)
      Nonspecific low back pain (LBP) can progress to chronic disability and prolonged absence from work. Despite clinical and professional guidelines, physiotherapists often fail to address return to work outcomes. The aim of this exploratory study was to determine whether an e-learning resource tailored to physiotherapy practice could affect physiotherapists’ attitudes and beliefs regarding return to work advice for their patients. Design: A prospective interventional cohort study (pilot). Methods: Participants were recruited via the Chartered Society of Physiotherapy website. Responses on a clinical vignette, the Health Care Providers’ Pain and Impairment Scale (HC-Pairs), and the Behavioral Constructs Questionnaire (BCQ) were collected online at baseline (Q1) and 2-months post-intervention (Q2). Fifty-four physiotherapists completed Q1 and the response rate for Q2 was 44/54 (81%). Changes in the degree of agreement with guidelines indicated that the intervention made an impact on respondents (kappa 0.345; p = 0.003). HC-Pairs and BCQ results showed a nonstatistically significant trend toward the target behavior. There is a need for interventions to improve adherence with advice for return to work following nonspecific LBP. An e-learning tool for physiotherapists on advising patients regarding return to work has potential to positively affect self-reported clinical behavior.