• Case study 2: HADRIAN: A human factors computer-aided inclusive design tool for transport planning.

      Porter, J. Mark; Marshall, Russell; Case, Keith; Gyi, Diane E.; Sims, Ruth; Summerskill, Steve; Loughborough University (Loughborough University. Published by The Institution of Engineering and Technology, 2006)
      HADRIAN is a computer-based inclusive design tool developed initially to support the design of kitchen and shopping based tasks. The tool is currently being expanded to include data on an individual’s ability to undertake a variety of transport-related tasks, such as vehicle ingress/egress, coping with uneven surfaces, steps, street furniture and complex pedestrian environments. A feature of the enhanced HADRIAN tool will be a journey planner that compares an individual’s physical, cognitive and emotional abilities with the demands that will placed upon that individual depending on the mode(s) of transport available and the route options.
    • Collection of anthropometry from older and physically impaired persons: traditional methods versus TC2 3-D body scanner

      Sims, Ruth; Marshall, Russell; Gyi, Diane E.; Summerskill, Steve; Case, Keith (2013-07-12)
      With advances in technology it is now possible to collect a wide range of anthropometric data, to a high degree of accuracy, using 3D light-based body scanners. This gives the potential to speed up the collection of anthropometric data for design purposes, to decrease processing time and data input required, and to reduce error due to inaccuracy of measurements taken using more traditional methods and equipment (anthropometer, stadiometer and sitting height table). However, when the data collection concerns older and/or physically impaired people there are serious issues for consideration when deciding on the best method to collect anthropometry. This paper discusses the issues arising when collecting data using both traditional methods of data collection and a first use by the experimental team of the TC2 3D body scanner, when faced with a ‘non-standard’ sample, during an EPSRC funded research project into issues surrounding transport usage by older and physically impaired people. Relevance to industry: Designing products, environments and services so that the increasing ageing population, as well as the physically impaired, can use them increases the potential market. To do this, up-to-date and relevant anthropometry is often needed. 3D light-based bodyscanners offer a potential fast way of obtaining this data, and this paper discusses some of the issues with using one scanner with older and disabled people.
    • Design and evaluation: end users, user datasets and personas

      Marshall, Russell; Cook, Sharon; Mitchell, Val; Summerskill, Steve; Haines, Victoria; Maguire, Martin C.; Sims, Ruth; Gyi, Diane E.; Case, Keith; Loughborough University (Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society, 2013-04-08)
      Understanding the needs and aspirations of a suitable range of users during the product design process is an extremely difficult task. Methods such as ethnographic studies can be used to gain a better understanding of users needs, but they are inherently time consuming and expensive. The time pressures that are evident in the work performed by design consultancies often make these techniques impractical. This paper contains a discussion about the use of 'personas', a method used by designers to overcome these issues. Personas are descriptive models of archetypal users derived from user research. The discussion focuses on two case studies, the first of which examines the use of personas in the car design process. The second examines the use of personas in the field of 'inclusive design', as demonstrated by the HADRIAN system. These case studies exemplify the benefits 'data rich' personas contribute as opposed to 'assumption based' personas. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society.
    • A design ergonomics approach to accessibility and user needs in transport

      Marshall, Russell; Gyi, Diane E.; Case, Keith; Porter, J. Mark; Sims, Ruth; Summerskill, Steve; Davis, Peter; Loughborough University (Taylor & Francis, 2009)
      This paper describes research carried out into the area of accessibility and 'design for all'. The Accessibility and User Needs in Transport (AUNT-SUE) project was initiated to develop and test sustainable policies and practice that would deliver effective socially inclusive design and operation in transport and the public realm. Loughborough University's role in the project focuses on the provision of data on users that is accessible, valid, and applicable and a means of utilising the data to assess the accessibility of designs during the early stages of development. These needs have led to the development of the authors' inclusive design tool called HADRIAN. Data were collected on 100 people the majority of whom are older or have some form of impairment. These data include size, shape, capability, preferences and experiences with a range of daily activities and transport related tasks. These are partnered with a simple task analysis system. The system supports the construction of a task linked to a CAD model of a design to be evaluated. The task is then carried out by the virtual individuals in the database. Accessibility issues are reported by the system allowing excluded people to be investigated. Thus HADRIAN supports designers and ergonomists in attempting to 'design for all' by fostering empathy with the intended users, meeting their data needs through an accessible and applicable database and providing a means of gaining some of the feedback possible with a real user trial at a much earlier stage in the design process.
    • Development and evaluation of task based digital human modeling for inclusive design

      Marshall, Russell; Summerskill, Steve; Case, Keith; Gyi, Diane E.; Sims, Ruth; Loughborough University (Taylor and Francis, 2010)
      HADRIAN is a digital human modeling (DHM) system that is currently under development as part of an EPSRC funded project in the UK looking at accessible transport. The system is a partner tool to the long established SAMMIE DHM system and aims to address issues with the lack of applicability of DHM tools to inclusive or universal design problems. HADRIAN includes a database of 102 manikins based directly upon data taken from real people, many of whom are older or with disabilities and who span a broad range of anthropometry, age, and joint mobility. This database is combined with a task analysis tool that provides an automated means to investigate the accessibility of a workstation or environment. This paper discusses the issues and subsequent refinement of the tool that resulted from validation using an ATM design case study. In addition the results from a second validation are presented. This second study examines the accessibility of a Docklands Light Railway station in London. The results highlight that whilst physical simulations can be made with a generally good degree of accuracy there are still many opportunities to be explored in the cognitive and emotional areas that can be used to inform designers of accessibility issues during virtual assessments.
    • The HADRIAN approach to accessible transport.

      Marshall, Russell; Porter, J. Mark; Sims, Ruth; Summerskill, Steve; Gyi, Diane E.; Case, Keith; Loughborough University (IOS Press, 2009)
      This paper describes research carried out at Loughborough University in the UK into the areas of 'design for all' and accessible transport. The research addresses two common needs for designers and ergonomists working towards developing more inclusive products and environments, namely data on users that is accessible, valid, and applicable and a means of utilising the data to assess the accessibility of designs during the early stages of development. HADRIAN is a computer-based inclusive design tool that has been developed to support designers in their efforts to develop products that meet the needs of a broader range of users. Currently HADRIAN is being expanded to support transport design. This includes data on an individual's ability to undertake a variety of transport-related tasks, such as vehicle ingress/egress, coping with uneven surfaces, steps, street furniture and complex pedestrian environments. The subsequent use of this data will be supported either through a task analysis system that will allow a designer to evaluate a design for a part of the transport infrastructure (ticket barrier, train carriage etc.), or alternatively allow the designer or an end user to evaluate a whole journey. The 'journey planner' feature of the HADRIAN tool will compare an individual's physical, cognitive and emotional abilities with the demands placed upon that individual by the mode(s) of transport available and the route options selected. It is envisaged that these developments will prove extremely useful to users, designers, planners and all those involved with transport use and implementation.
    • HADRIAN: a virtual approach to design for all.

      Marshall, Russell; Case, Keith; Porter, J. Mark; Summerskill, Steve; Gyi, Diane E.; Davis, Peter; Sims, Ruth; Loughborough University (Taylor and Francis, 2010)
      This article describes research into the area of ‘design for all’. The research addresses two common needs for designers working towards developing inclusive products and environments, namely, data on users that are accessible, valid and applicable, and a means of utilising the data to assess the accessibility of designs during the early stages of development. The approach taken is through the development of a combined database and inclusive human modelling tool called HADRIAN. Data were collected on 100 people, the majority of whom are older or have some form of impairment. These individuals provide a browsable resource spanning size, shape, capability, preferences, and experiences with a range of daily activities and transport-related tasks. This is partnered with the development of a simple, CAD-based task analysis system. Tasks are carried out by the virtual individuals in the database and accessibility issues are reported, allowing excluded people to be investigated in order to understand the problems experienced and solutions identified. HADRIAN is also being expanded to include a more accessible journey planner that provides accessibility information to both end users and transport professionals. Together, HADRIAN allows more informed choices to be made either in travelling, or in the designing of products and environments.
    • Inclusive design for the mobility impaired

      Porter, J. Mark; Marshall, Russell; Case, Keith; Gyi, Diane E.; Sims, Ruth; Summerskill, Steve; Loughborough University (CRC Press, 2008)
      HADRIAN is a computer-based inclusive design tool developed initially to support the design of kitchen and shopping based tasks. The tool is currently being expanded to include data on an individual’s ability to undertake a variety of transport-related tasks, such as vehicle ingress/egress, coping with uneven surfaces, steps, street furniture and complex pedestrian environments. A feature of the enhanced HADRIAN tool will be a journey planner that compares an individual’s physical, cognitive and emotional abilities with the demands that will placed upon that individual depending on the mode(s) of transport available and the route options.
    • Multivariate design inclusion using HADRIAN.

      Marshall, Russell; Summerskill, Steve; Porter, J. Mark; Case, Keith; Sims, Ruth; Gyi, Diane E.; Davis, Peter; Loughborough University (2008)
      This paper details the development of our computer based design tool: HADRIAN. Developed to address the area of user accommodation within design and in particular the support for ‘design for all’, HADRIAN provides an integrated database and analysis system. The data element of HADRIAN is an attempt to simplify the understanding and use of ergonomics data by the design community in addition to encouraging empathy with the end user. Anthropometry and functional abilities were collected from 100 individuals many of whom are older or have some form of disability. In addition, behavioural data was collected from the individuals performing common tasks associated with daily living and the use of transport. The individuals in the database effectively form a virtual user group that can then be used to investigate and evaluate a concept design of a product, or environment through a task analysis feature. Further developments for the HADRIAN tool also include an inclusive journey planner that allows individual travellers, or transport planners to evaluate the inclusiveness of a particular route. Together this package of tools provides a richer, more accessible set of data for human modelling and ergonomics design, and a means to assess the inclusiveness of a product, environment, or journey.
    • Supporting a design-driven approach to social inclusion and accessibility in transport

      Marshall, Russell; Summerskill, Steve; Case, Keith; Hussain, Amjad; Gyi, Diane E.; Sims, Ruth; Morris, Andrew; Barnes, Jo; Loughborough University (2016-06-07)
      This paper presents research into the area of public transport and accessibility, addressing the support of practitioners in achieving socially inclusive solutions to the mobility issues of diverse populations. For decades social policy has been underpinned by a stereotyping of populations into simplified sub groups: old, young, disabled, etc. and thus solutions often fail to properly address the richness of human variability. These shortcomings are often ‘managed’ through the ability for people to adapt, however, this is not a sustainable way in which to build a socially inclusive transport infrastructure. A software design tool called HADRIAN is presented. This tool provides a means to evaluate designs for their physical inclusiveness through the use of a virtual user group. This virtual user group is the embodiment of over 100 people that can be used to assess an existing or proposed design and to gain an understanding of what may be done to improve its accommodation. A case study exploring the use of the tool is described together with work in exploring the correlation of the individuals within the HADRIAN system with data on the UK population as a whole and how the inclusion or exclusion of individuals with specific characteristics can be used to inform a more representative view of the inclusiveness of a design.
    • Supporting an inclusive, sustainable approach to design and manufacture.

      Marshall, Russell; Case, Keith; Gyi, Diane E.; Summerskill, Steve; Sims, Ruth; Loughborough University (2011)
      Taking a more inclusive and accessible approach to the design of products, services and systems is supported with a proven business model. Due to the increasing age of global populations and the prevalence of people with a disability, there is a significant market to be addressed through more inclusive design. Taking an inclusive approach can then act as a driver for more sustainable product development ensuring that products meet the needs of the broadest range of users possible and are sufficiently flexible to meet the changing demands of users as they age. This paper reports on research done in order to address shortcomings in the tools available to designers looking to take an inclusive approach and the availability of data to support such tools. In particular the paper introduces a digital human modelling tool called HADRIAN designed to allow the evaluation of designs within a CAD environment that consider the abilities of a very broad range of users. However, design is one element within the realisation of products. This paper explores also explores the use of HADRIAN beyond its initial design-led remit, into the implications for the manufacture of these inclusive products as part of a broader view of sustainable manufacturing practice.
    • Supporting older and disabled people’s needs in product, environment and service design

      Sims, Ruth; Marshall, Russell; Summerskill, Steve; Gyi, Diane E.; Case, Keith; Loughborough University (2012)
      For the last decade research by the Loughborough Design School in the UK has lead a computer-based tool called HADRIAN has been developed to encourage empathy between design professionals, policy makers, commissioning clients and potential end-users, including people who are older or who may have some form of impairment. The tool provides a means to evaluate the accessibility and inclusiveness of a design by simulating the abilities of older and disabled people and performing virtual user trials where potential barriers introduced by the proposed design can be identified and rectified before the design is implemented in the real world. This paper presents and discusses three validation trials conducted to evaluate the simulation capabilities of HADRIAN compared to real people interacting with the same tasks. Trials included two laboratory-based tasks and one field trial at a railways station.
    • Validation of the HADRIAN system using an ATM evaluation case study

      Summerskill, Steve; Marshall, Russell; Case, Keith; Gyi, Diane E.; Sims, Ruth; Davis, Peter; Day, Philip N.; Rohan, C.; Birnie, S.; Loughborough University (2010)
      The HADRIAN human modelling system is under development as part of the EPSRC funded AUNT-SUE project. The HADRIAN system aims to foster a 'design for all' ethos by allowing ergonomists and designers to see the effects of different kinds of disability on the physical capabilities of elderly and people with disabilities. This system is based upon the long established SAMMIE system, and uses data collected from 102 people, 79 of whom are registered as disabled, or have age related mobility issues. The HADRIAN system allows three dimensional CAD data of new products to be imported, with a subsequent automated analysis using all of the 102 sample members. The following paper describes the process and results gathered from a validation study using an ATM design as a case study. The results indicated that fine tuning of the behavioural data built into HADRIAN would improve the accuracy of an automated product analysis.
    • Validation of the HADRIAN system using an ATM evaluation case study

      Summerskill, Steve; Marshall, Russell; Case, Keith; Gyi, Diane E.; Sims, Ruth; Davis, Peter; Loughborough University (2009)
      The HADRIAN human modelling system is under development as part of the EPSRC funded AUNT-SUE project. The HADRIAN system aims to foster a ‘design for all’ ethos by allowing ergonomists and designers to see the effects of different kinds of disability on the physical capabilities of elderly and disabled people. This system is based upon the long established SAMMIE system, and uses data collected from 102 people, 79 of whom are registered as disabled, or have age related mobility issues. The HADRIAN system allows three dimensional CAD data of new products to be imported, with a subsequent automated analysis using all of the 102 sample members. The following paper describes the process and results gathered from a validation study using an ATM design as a case study. The results indicated that fine tuning of the behavioural data built into HADRIAN would improve the accuracy of an automated product analysis.
    • Virtual task simulation for inclusive design.

      Marshall, Russell; Case, Keith; Summerskill, Steve; Sims, Ruth; Gyi, Diane E.; Davis, Peter; Loughborough University (2009)
      Human modelling tools provide a means to perform virtual task evaluations upon designs within the computer environment. The ability to evaluate the accommodation of a design early on in the design process before physical prototypes can be built has many advantages. These advantages are particularly relevant in supporting people in attempting to design products that are inclusive and accessible. HADRIAN is a new tool developed to provide accessible, and applicable data on people with a broad range of size, age, and ability together with a means of optimising virtual task evaluations. This paper describes the use of HADRIAN in performing a task evaluation, focusing on the underlying methodology that aims to achieve a virtual simulation that mimics a real world user trial.
    • Untitled

      Case, Keith; Marshall, Russell; Hogberg, Dan; Summerskill, Steve; Gyi, Diane E.; Sims, Ruth; Loughborough University (Springer Verlag, 2009)
      Anthropometric data are often described in terms of percentiles and too often digital human models are synthesised from such data using a single percentile value for all body dimensions. The poor correlation between body dimensions means that products may be evaluated against models of humans that do not exist. Alternative digital approaches try to minimise this difficulty using pre-defined families of manikins to represent human diversity, whereas in the real world carefully selected real people take part in ‘fitting trials’. HADRIAN is a digital human modeling system which uses discrete data sets for individuals rather than statistical populations. A task description language is used to execute the evaluative capabilities of the underlying SAMMIE human modelling system as though a ‘real’ fitting trial was being conducted. The approach is described with a focus on the elderly and disabled and their potential exclusion from public transport systems.