• Academics’ understandings of the authorial academic writer: a qualitative analysis of authorial identity

      Cheung, Kevin Yet Fong; Elander, James; Stupple, Edward J. N.; Flay, Mike; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2016-12-22)
      Research on authorial identity has focused almost exclusively on the attitudes and beliefs of students. This paper explores how academics understand authorial identity in higher education. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 27 professional academics and analysed using thematic analysis, identifying themes at two levels. At the semantic level was a main theme called ‘the authorial writer’, with five subthemes: ‘authorial confidence’, ‘valuing writing’, ‘ownership and attachment’, ‘authorial thinking’, and ‘authorial goals’. At the latent level were two integrative themes: ‘tacit learning’ and ‘negotiating identities’. The semantic subthemes represent attributes that could be targets for pedagogic interventions. The integrative themes suggest processes in the development of authorial identity, which can inform more effective teaching. By identifying attributes and processes associated with authorial identity, these findings help towards a psychological understanding of authorial identity, informing development of more effective pedagogy to help students improve their academic writing and avoid plagiarism.
    • ‘All the burden on all the carers’: exploring quality of life with family caregivers of Huntington’s disease patients

      Aubeeluck, Aimee; Buchanan, Heather; Stupple, Edward J. N.; University of Derby (2011-11-13)
    • Belief–logic conflict resolution in syllogistic reasoning: Inspection-time evidence for a parallel-process model

      Stupple, Edward J. N.; Ball, Linden J.; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2008-04-29)
      An experiment is reported examining dual-process models of belief bias in syllogistic reasoning using a problem complexity manipulation and an inspection-time method to monitor processing latencies for premises and conclusions. Endorsement rates indicated increased belief bias on complex problems, a finding that runs counter to the “belief-first” selective scrutiny model, but which is consistent with other theories, including “reasoning-first” and “parallel-process” models. Inspection-time data revealed a number of effects that, again, arbitrated against the selective scrutiny model. The most striking inspection-time result was an interaction between logic and belief on premise-processing times, whereby belief – logic conflict problems promoted increased latencies relative to non-conflict problems. This finding challenges belief-first and reasoning-first models, but is directly predicted by parallel-process models, which assume that the outputs of simultaneous heuristic and analytic processing streams lead to an awareness of belief – logic conflicts than then require time-consuming resolution.
    • The chronometrics of confirmation bias: Evidence for the inhibition of intuitive judgements

      Stupple, Edward J. N.; Ball, Linden J.; University of Derby; Lancaster University (2011-03-29)
      Mercier & Sperber (M&S) claim that the phenomenon of belief bias – which they consider to be an archetypal manifestation of a general confirmation bias in human reasoning – provides fundamental support for their argumentative theory and its basis in intuitive judgement. We propose that chronometric evidence necessitates a more nuanced account of belief bias that is not readily captured by argumentative theory.
    • Cognitive control in belief-laden reasoning during conclusion processing: An ERP study

      Luo, Junlong; Liu, Xin; Stupple, Edward J. N.; Zhang, Entao; Xiao, Xiao; Jia, Lei; Yang, Qun; Li, Haijiang; Zhang, Qinglin; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2013-06)
      Belief bias is the tendency to accept conclusions that are compatible with existing beliefs more frequently than those that contradict beliefs. It is one of the most replicated behavioral findings in the reasoning literature. Recently, neuroimaging studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and event-related potentials (ERPs) have provided a new perspective and have demonstrated neural correlates of belief bias that have been viewed as supportive of dual-process theories of belief bias. However, fMRI studies have tended to focus on conclusion processing, while ERPs studies have been concerned with the processing of premises. In the present research, the electrophysiological correlates of cognitive control were studied among 12 subjects using high-density ERPs. The analysis was focused on the conclusion presentation phase and was limited to normatively sanctioned responses to valid–believable and valid–unbelievable problems. Results showed that when participants gave normatively sanctioned responses to problems where belief and logic conflicted, a more positive ERP deflection was elicited than for normatively sanctioned responses to nonconflict problems. This was observed from −400 to −200 ms prior to the correct response being given. The positive component is argued to be analogous to the late positive component (LPC) involved in cognitive control processes. This is consistent with the inhibition of empirically anomalous information when conclusions are unbelievable. These data are important in elucidating the neural correlates of belief bias by providing evidence for electrophysiological correlates of conflict resolution during conclusion processing. Moreover, they are supportive of dual-process theories of belief bias that propose conflict detection and resolution processes as central to the explanation of belief bias.
    • Conflict and dual process theory: The case of belief bias.

      Ball, Linden J.; Thompson, Valerie; Stupple, Edward J. N.; University of Central Lancashire; University of Saskatchewan; University of Derby (Routledge, 2017-11)
    • Development and validation of the student attitudes and beliefs about authorship scale: a psychometrically robust measure of authorial identity

      Cheung, Kevin Yet Fong; Stupple, Edward J. N.; Elander, James; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2015-04-22)
      One approach to plagiarism prevention focuses on improving students’ authorial identity, but work in this area depends on robust measures. This paper presents the development of a psychometrically robust measure of authorial identity - the Student Attitudes and Beliefs about Authorship Scale. In the item generation phase, a pool of items was developed and assessed for content validity by subject matter experts. In the exploratory phase, data from 439 higher education students were used to identify a latent variable model with three factors: ‘authorial confidence’, ‘valuing writing’ and ‘identification with author’. In the confirmatory phase, data from 306 higher education students were used to test the three-factor model's reliability and validity. The three-factor structure was confirmed, and the results showed the SABAS has a stronger psychometric basis than previously available measures. This measure of authorial identity can be used with confidence in research and pedagogy to help students improve their authorial identity.
    • Development of the critical thinking toolkit (CriTT): A measure of student attitudes and beliefs about critical thinking

      Stupple, Edward J. N.; Maratos, Frances A.; Elander, James; Hunt, Thomas E.; Cheung, Kevin Yet Fong; Aubeeluck, Aimee; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2016-11-24)
      Critical thinking is an important focus in higher education and is essential for good academic achievement. We report the development of a tool to measure critical thinking for three purposes: (i) to evaluate student perceptions and attitudes about critical thinking, (ii) to identify students in need of support to develop their critical thinking, and (iii) to predict academic performance. Seventy-seven items were generated from focus groups, interviews and the critical thinking literature. Data were collected from 133 psychology students. Factor Analysis revealed three latent factors based on a reduced set of 27 items. These factors were characterised as: Confidence in Critical Thinking; Valuing Critical Thinking; and Misconceptions. Reliability analysis demonstrated that the sub-scales were reliable. Convergent validity with measures of grade point average and argumentation skill was shown, with significant correlations between subscales and validation measures. Most notably, in multiple regression analysis, the three sub-scales from the new questionnaire substantially increased the variance in grade point average accounted for by measures of reflective thinking and argumentation. To sum, the resultant scale offers a measure that is simple to administer, can be used as a diagnostic tool to identify students who need support in developing their critical thinking skills, and can also predict academic performance.
    • Do graduate entry nursing student’s experience ‘Imposter Phenomenon’?: An issue for debate

      Aubeeluck, Aimee; Stacey, Gemma; Stupple, Edward J. N.; University of Derby (2016-07)
      The recruitment of Graduates into the nursing profession is seen as advantageous in the academic literature. Conversely educated nurses are often portrayed in the media as “too posh to wash”. We would argue these conflicting discourses have a negative effect on graduate entry nurse education. Graduate nursing students may be particularly susceptible to “Imposter Phenomenon” a concept that describes an “internal experience of intellectual phoniness” exhibited by individuals who appear successful to others, but internally feel incompetent. We would like to encourage debate through the presentation of a small set of pilot data that established that 74% of the participants had frequent to intense experiences of Imposter Phenomenon. Students experienced feelings of failure despite consistent high achievement. Our findings and the prevalent negative rhetoric surrounding highly educated student nurses raise concerns regarding the impact of the anti-intellectualism on the Graduate entry student’s perception of self. Others may argue that this could simply be a ’natural’ or expected level of anxiety in a time of transition that has no lasting impact. We debate this issue in relation to the existing literature to encourage critical dialogue.
    • Do student nurses experience Imposter Phenomenon? An international comparison of Final Year Undergraduate Nursing Students readiness for registration

      Christensen, Martin; Aubeeluck, Aimee; Fergusson, Diana; Craft, Judy; Knight, Jessica; Wirihana, Lisa; Stupple, Edward J. N.; University of Derby; School of Nursing; Queensland University of Technology; Caboolture Campus, Tallon Street Caboolture Queensland 4510 Australia; Faculty of Medicine & Health Sciences; University of Nottingham, Royal Derby Hospital; Uttoxeter Road Derby DE22 3DT UK; et al. (2016-06)
      Background The transition shock sometimes associated with moving from student to registered nurse can lead to feelings of self-doubt and insecurity especially with the increased expectations and responsibilities that registration brings. Known as Imposter Phenomena, individuals often express a lack of self-confidence, uncertainty in their abilities or that others have an over inflated opinion of them. Aim The aim of this study is to examine the extent at which imposter phenomenon is evident in four final year nursing student cohorts in Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom. Design A survey design. Settings The study took place at 4 higher education institutes – two metropolitan campuses and two regional campuses between October 2014 and February 2015 in Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom. A sample of 223 final year nursing students undertaking nationally accredited nursing programmes were approached. Results Each cohort exhibited mild to moderate feelings of Imposter Phenomena. A positive weak correlation between imposter phenomena and preparedness for practice was found. The New Zealand cohort scored higher than both the Australian and United Kingdom cohorts on both feelings of imposterism and preparedness for practice. Conclusions Nursing students possess internalised feelings which suggest their performance and competence once qualified could be compromised. There is some speculation that the respective curriculums may have some bearing on preparing students for registration and beyond. It is recommended that educational programmes designed for this student cohort should be mindful of this internal conflict and potential external hostility.
    • Event-related potentials support a dual process account of the Embedded Chinese Character Task.

      Yin, Yue; Yu, Tingting; Wang, Shu; Zhou, Shujin; Tang, Xiaochen; Stupple, Edward J. N.; Luo, Junlong; Shanghai Normal University; Shanghai Jiaotong University; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2018-10-29)
      Tests of the principles of dual process theory are typically conducted in the reasoning and judgement/decision-making literature. The present study explores dual process explanations with a new paradigm – the Embedded Chinese Character Task (ECCT). The beauty of this task is that it allows the contrast of automatic and deliberate processes without the potential for conflict. We used event-related potentials (ERPs) and behavioral measures to investigate the time course of automatic (Type 1) and deliberative (Type 2) processes on the ECCT. Thus we explored whether there were differences in processing speed in neural activation. The ECCT requires the extraction of one Chinese character from another, which requires either an automatic strategy reliant on knowledge of Chinese character formation and meaning (based on the radical), or a deliberative strategy using the shape of the components of the character (based on the stroke). Participants judged whether character elements were included or excluded in test characters. Faster response time were observed when judging 'inclusion relations' on automatic problems supporting the proposal that they required a Type 1 process. In line with the behavioral results, the hypothesized faster automatic process showed the rapid differentiation of N2 and P3b components between inclusion and exclusion responses, while no difference was shown for deliberative problems. Thus, neural differences in processing were shown between automatic and deliberate problems, and automatic processing was faster than deliberate processing.
    • Exploring the experience of novelty when viewing creative adverts: An ERP study.

      Zhou, Shujin; Yin, Yue; Yu, Tingting; Stupple, Edward J. N.; Luo, Junlong; Shanghai Normal University; University of Derby (Frontiers, 2018-04-09)
      The electrophysiological correlates of experiencing novelty in creative advertising were studied in 28 healthy subjects using event-related potentials. Participants viewed images that were difficult to interpret until a description was presented providing either a creative description (CD) featuring an unexpected description of the image based on the original advertisement, or a normal description (ND), which was a literal description of the image (and served as a baseline condition). Participants evaluated the level of creativity of the description. The results showed that the N2 amplitude was higher for CDs than for NDs across middle and right scalp regions between 240 and 270 ms, most likely reflecting conflict detection. Moreover, CDs demonstrated greater N400 than NDs in a time window between 380 and 500 ms, it is argued that this reflects semantic integration. The present study investigates the electrophysiological correlates of experiencing novelty in advertising with ecologically valid stimuli. This substantially extends the findings of earlier laboratory studies with more artificial stimuli.
    • Exploring the reliability and validity of the Huntington’s Disease quality of life battery for carers (HDQoL-C) within a Polish population

      Aubeeluck, Aimee; Stupple, Edward; Bartoszek, A; Kocka, K; Ślusarska, B; Stupple, Edward J. N.; University of Derby (MDPI, 2019-06-30)
      Huntington’s disease (HD) is a rare genetic neurodegenerative disorder that causes motor disorders, neuropsychiatric symptoms and a progressing deterioration of cognitive functions. Complex issues resulting from the hereditary nature of HD, the complexity of symptoms and the concealed onset of the disease have a great impact on the quality of life of family carers. The caregivers are called the “forgotten people” in HD, especially with relation to genetic counseling. This study aims to explore the reliability and validity of the Huntington’s Disease Quality of Life Battery for carers (HDQoL-C) within a Polish population. A total of 90 carers recruited from the Enroll-HD study in Polish research centers of the European Huntington’s Disease Network completed a polish translation of the HDQoL-C. Data were subjected to Principle Components Analysis (PCA) and reliability measures. The Polish version of the shortened versions of the HDQoL-C is similarly valid compared to the original English version and suitable for use within this population. The HDQoL-C has previously demonstrated a wide range of benefits for practitioners in capturing and understanding carer experience and these benefits can now be extended to Polish speaking populations.
    • Figural effects in a syllogistic evaluation paradigm

      Stupple, Edward J. N.; Ball, Linden J.; University of Derby (Hogrefe, 2007-01)
      Robust biases have been found in syllogistic reasoning that relate to the figure of premises and to the directionality of terms in given conclusions. Mental models theorists (e.g., Johnson-Laird & Byrne, 1991) have explained figural bias by assuming that reasoners can more readily form integrated models of premises when their middle terms are contiguous than when they are not. Biases associated with the direction of conclusion terms have been interpreted as reflecting a natural mode of reading off conclusions from models according to a “first-in, first-out principle.” We report an experiment investigating the impact of systematic figural and conclusion-direction manipulations on the processing effort directed at syllogistic components, as indexed through a novel inspection-time method. The study yielded reliable support for mental-models predictions concerning the nature and locus of figural and directionality effects in syllogistic reasoning. We argue that other accounts of syllogistic reasoning seem less able to accommodate the full breadth of inspection-time findings observed.
    • Further evidence of reliability and validity of the Huntington’s disease quality of life battery for carers: Italian and French translations

      Aubeeluck, Aimee; Dorey, Julie; Squitieri, Ferdinando; Clay, Emilie; Stupple, Edward J. N.; De Nicola, Annunziata; Buchanan, Heather; Martino, Tiziana; Toumi, Mondher; University of Derby (2012-07-21)
      Background Existing research suggests that family caregivers of persons with Huntington’s disease (HD) face a distinct series of problems, linked to the complex nature of the disease. Aubeeluck and Buchanan (Clin Genet, 71(5):434–445, 2007) developed and validated a disease-specific measure used to explore caregivers quality of life and assess the efficacy of therapeutic interventions. This current study builds on this research through the validation of French and Italian translations of the Huntington’s disease quality of life battery for carers (HDQoL-C). Method A total of 301 family carers completed the HDQoL-C. Participants were recruited through the “Euro-HDB” study which is measuring the burden in HD across Europe and the USA. Results Factor analysis demonstrated good internal consistency, reliability and congruent validity. Carers who cared for patients with less clinically severe symptoms reported significantly better QoL than carers of patients with more clinically severe symptoms. Discussion Findings indicate the HDQoL-C is multi-lingual, multi-cultural and easily applicable in other languages.
    • In search of critical thinking in psychology: an exploration of student and lecturer understandings in higher education

      Duro, Elaine; Elander, James; Maratos, Frances A.; Stupple, Edward J. N.; Aubeeluck, Aimee; University of Derby (Sage Publications, 2013-12)
      This qualitative study of understandings of critical thinking in higher education aimed to identify themes that could help to demystify critical thinking and inform its more explicit incorporation in the psychology curriculum. Data collected from focus groups with 26 undergraduate psychology students and individual semi-structured interviews with 4 psychology lecturers were examined using thematic analysis. The same key themes were identified from both student and lecturer data: ‘vague beginnings’, ‘conceptualizations’, ‘development and transitions’, and ‘learning strategies’. Both students and lecturers described critical thinking as implicit knowledge that develops through social interactions. The findings indicate the importance of explicit discussion about critical thinking, and could be used to inform the design and delivery of instructional methods to promote critical thinking
    • An international validation of a clinical tool to assess carers’ quality of life in Huntington’s Disease.

      Aubeeluck, Aimee; Stupple, Edward J. N.; Schofield, Malcolm B.; Hughes, Alis C.; van der Meer, Lucienne; Landwehrmeyer, Bernhard; Ho, Aileen K.; University of Derby; University of Nottingham; Leiden University Medical Centre; et al. (Frontiers, 2019-07-23)
      Family carers of individuals living with Huntington’s disease (HD) manage a distinct and unique series of difficulties arising from the complex nature of HD. This paper presents the validation of the definitive measure of quality of life (QoL) for this group. The Huntington’s Disease Quality of Life Battery for Carers (HDQoL-C) was expanded (n = 47) and then administered to an international sample of 1716 partners and family carers from 13 countries. In terms of the psychometric properties of the tool, exploratory analysis of half of the sample demonstrated good internal consistency and reliability. Some items on the full version did not meet psychometric thresholds and a short version (HDQoL-Cs) (n = 23) was developed based on more stringent criteria. This was achieved using standard psychometric item reduction techniques to both increase reliability and reduce the burden of carers completing the scale. Confirmatory factor analysis of the model structure showed a good fit for all factors and indicated that the HDQoL-C and HDQoL-Cs are psychometrically robust measures of QoL. We found that carers who lived with and looked after their spouse/partner had reduced sense of coping, hope for the future, and overall QoL. Carers with children who were at risk carried the gene or were symptomatic also had poorer QoL outcomes. Findings indicated the HDQoL-C and HDQoL-Cs are valid in multiple languages and across varied cultures as measures of self-reported QoL in family carers of individual’s living with HD. These psychometrically validated tools can aid and guide the implementation of therapeutic interventions to improve life quality in this population and research into international and cross-cultural carer experiences. The HDQoL-Cs is recommended as the definitive international measure of HD carer QoL.
    • Matching bias in syllogistic reasoning: Evidence for a dual-process account from response times and confidence ratings

      Stupple, Edward J. N.; Ball, Linden J.; Ellis, Daniel; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2013-02)
      We examined matching bias in syllogistic reasoning by analysing response times, confidence ratings, and individual differences. Roberts’ (2005) “negations paradigm” was used to generate conflict between the surface features of problems and the logical status of conclusions. The experiment replicated matching bias effects in conclusion evaluation (Stupple & Waterhouse, 2009), revealing increased processing times for matching/logic “conflict problems”. Results paralleled chronometric evidence from the belief bias paradigm indicating that logic/belief conflict problems take longer to process than non-conflict problems (Stupple, Ball, Evans, & Kamal-Smith, 2011). Individuals’ response times for conflict problems also showed patterns of association with the degree of overall normative responding. Acceptance rates, response times, metacognitive confidence judgements, and individual differences all converged in supporting dual-process theory. This is noteworthy because dual-process predictions about heuristic/analytic conflict in syllogistic reasoning generalised from the belief bias paradigm to a situation where matching features of conclusions, rather than beliefs, were set in opposition to logic.
    • The Monty Hall problem revisited: Autonomic arousal in an inverted version of the game.

      Massad, Eduardo; dos Santos, Paulo Cesar Costa; da Rocha, Armando Freitas; Stupple, Edward J. N.; University of Sao Paulo; London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine; University of Derby; Fundacao Getulio Vargas (Public Library of Science (PLOS), 2018-03-26)
      The asymmetry of autonomic arousal for potential losses and gains was assessed by the galvanic skin response (GSR) of participants playing classic and inverted versions of the Monty Hall problem (MHP). In both versions, the prize remained the same (a pen valued at £10 for the right answer), but in the modified version, prizes were received prior to choosing the door. Both experimental groups showed increased levels of GSR while completing the task, demonstrating increased autonomic arousal during the game. However, a robust difference in GSR was detected between classic and inverted versions of the MHP, thus demonstrating the differing autonomic arousal involved in deciding between the alternatives presented by the game. Participants experienced a stronger autonomic response when they could lose the prize than when they could win the prize. This experiment presents the first demonstration of this effect on the MHP. The stronger autonomic arousal for the inverted task may indicate a stronger emotional reaction and/or greater attentional focus than for the standard version of the task. These data demonstrate that potential losses increase arousal in more complex tasks than is typically shown.