• 'Beyond Jack and Jill': designing for individuals using HADRIAN

      Porter, J. Mark; Case, Keith; Marshall, Russell; Gyi, Diane E.; Sims, Ruth; Loughborough University (Elsevier, 2004)
      In order to support the practice of ‘design for all’within the design community two key areas have been identified that are critical to success. The first is the provision of accurate and relevant data on the target users, in this case people of all shapes, sizes, ages and abilities. The second is the efficient and effective support in the use of these data during concept generation and product development. A database of individual people was created including their 3D anthropometry and functional abilities. Data sets for individuals are kept intact, a radical departure from the traditional approach which involves effectively ‘dismembering’people to create tables of percentiles for every dimension of interest. This database is accessed by HADRIAN, our CAD-based design tool, which is integrated with the SAMMIE CAD human modelling system. Using this system, proposed designs of products or services can be automatically evaluated for each individual in the database, based upon criteria set by the designer (e.g. access, reach, vision, mobility and strength). The tool can identify which individuals will be ‘designed in’or ‘designed out’and can support the designer in modifying the proposed design to achieve a greater percentage of people accommodated.
    • Case study 2: HADRIAN: A human factors computer-aided inclusive design tool for transport planning.

      Porter, J. Mark; Marshall, Russell; Case, Keith; Gyi, Diane E.; Sims, Ruth; Summerskill, Steve; Loughborough University (Loughborough University. Published by The Institution of Engineering and Technology, 2006)
      HADRIAN is a computer-based inclusive design tool developed initially to support the design of kitchen and shopping based tasks. The tool is currently being expanded to include data on an individual’s ability to undertake a variety of transport-related tasks, such as vehicle ingress/egress, coping with uneven surfaces, steps, street furniture and complex pedestrian environments. A feature of the enhanced HADRIAN tool will be a journey planner that compares an individual’s physical, cognitive and emotional abilities with the demands that will placed upon that individual depending on the mode(s) of transport available and the route options.
    • A computer aided ergonomics tool to support accessible transport design

      Marshall, Russell; Case, Keith; Porter, J. Mark; Sims, Ruth; Gyi, Diane E.; Loughborough University (2005)
      Accessible design is being promoted through concepts such as ‘Design for All’. This is an approach to design that aims to maximise the accessibility of a product, environment, or service through the provision of a solution that accommodates the needs of all users including those who are older or disabled. To support a ‘Design for All’ approach a computer aided design and analysis tool called HADRIAN has been developed. Initial developments addressed the provision of accurate and applicable data on the target users together with a means of using the data for ergonomics evaluations during the concept stages of design. This paper details some of this initial development together with the current focus for the HADRIAN system, namely that of transport design. The novel aspect of this research moves the focus away from isolated design problems such as the accessible design of a train or taxi, onto the concept of the journey and the system of design problems that must be addressed in order to create truly accessible transport.
    • Constraint modelling in 'design for all'

      Case, Keith; Goonetilleke, Thanuja Shiromie; Marshall, Russell; Porter, J. Mark; Gyi, Diane E.; Sims, Ruth; Loughborough University (CIT Press, 2003)
      Design for All', or Inclusive Design, is an approach to the design of products and workplaces that aims to maximise suitability for a wide range of consumers/workers. In particular attempts are made to include elderly and disabled consumers/workers without stigmatising the product or in any other way detracting from its attractiveness to younger more able-bodied users. The interest in Design for All stems from the increasing number of elderly and disabled people in western societies, the considerable economic power that they command and pressure from a wide variety of legislative forces. Research has recently been completed that provides a new basis for the application of ergonomics through computer aided design based on multivariate techniques using anthropometric and other data related to individuals rather than populations. The design tool created (known as HADRIAN) is briefly described. This tool is capable of assessing the percentage of the individuals that are able to perform a task whether this be in a domestic or industrial environment. However, it is not capable of suggesting design changes to improve this percentage accommodation, and hence ongoing research is concerned with ‘design synthesis’. The design synthesis approach uses a constraint modeller (SWORDS, which has been used elsewhere in many design and industrial applications) to search a potentially infinite design space to find sets of spatial characteristics of the design that maximise the user accommodation. This design synthesis approach is presented in this paper and described by a case study.
    • A design ergonomics approach to accessibility and user needs in transport

      Marshall, Russell; Gyi, Diane E.; Case, Keith; Porter, J. Mark; Sims, Ruth; Summerskill, Steve; Davis, Peter; Loughborough University (Taylor & Francis, 2009)
      This paper describes research carried out into the area of accessibility and 'design for all'. The Accessibility and User Needs in Transport (AUNT-SUE) project was initiated to develop and test sustainable policies and practice that would deliver effective socially inclusive design and operation in transport and the public realm. Loughborough University's role in the project focuses on the provision of data on users that is accessible, valid, and applicable and a means of utilising the data to assess the accessibility of designs during the early stages of development. These needs have led to the development of the authors' inclusive design tool called HADRIAN. Data were collected on 100 people the majority of whom are older or have some form of impairment. These data include size, shape, capability, preferences and experiences with a range of daily activities and transport related tasks. These are partnered with a simple task analysis system. The system supports the construction of a task linked to a CAD model of a design to be evaluated. The task is then carried out by the virtual individuals in the database. Accessibility issues are reported by the system allowing excluded people to be investigated. Thus HADRIAN supports designers and ergonomists in attempting to 'design for all' by fostering empathy with the intended users, meeting their data needs through an accessible and applicable database and providing a means of gaining some of the feedback possible with a real user trial at a much earlier stage in the design process.
    • The HADRIAN approach to accessible transport.

      Marshall, Russell; Porter, J. Mark; Sims, Ruth; Summerskill, Steve; Gyi, Diane E.; Case, Keith; Loughborough University (IOS Press, 2009)
      This paper describes research carried out at Loughborough University in the UK into the areas of 'design for all' and accessible transport. The research addresses two common needs for designers and ergonomists working towards developing more inclusive products and environments, namely data on users that is accessible, valid, and applicable and a means of utilising the data to assess the accessibility of designs during the early stages of development. HADRIAN is a computer-based inclusive design tool that has been developed to support designers in their efforts to develop products that meet the needs of a broader range of users. Currently HADRIAN is being expanded to support transport design. This includes data on an individual's ability to undertake a variety of transport-related tasks, such as vehicle ingress/egress, coping with uneven surfaces, steps, street furniture and complex pedestrian environments. The subsequent use of this data will be supported either through a task analysis system that will allow a designer to evaluate a design for a part of the transport infrastructure (ticket barrier, train carriage etc.), or alternatively allow the designer or an end user to evaluate a whole journey. The 'journey planner' feature of the HADRIAN tool will compare an individual's physical, cognitive and emotional abilities with the demands placed upon that individual by the mode(s) of transport available and the route options selected. It is envisaged that these developments will prove extremely useful to users, designers, planners and all those involved with transport use and implementation.
    • HADRIAN meets AUNT-SUE

      Marshall, Russell; Porter, J. Mark; Sims, Ruth; Gyi, Diane E.; Case, Keith; Loughborough University (2005)
      HADRIAN is a computer aided design tool, developed to support designers in their efforts to ‘design for all’. Combining a database of individuals together with a task analysis tool HADRIAN provides a virtual group of 100 people, ready to perform a user trial at any point throughout a product’s design. Developed initially to predict design inclusion for localised design problems such as those experienced in a kitchen environment, HADRIAN is now being developed to include transport data as part of the AUNT-SUE project. AUNT-SUE is a transport related project that is funded as part of the EPSRC’s Sustainable Urban Environment programme. The project addresses policy making through to design and implementation in its aims to support effective socially inclusive design and operation of transport systems. Part of the AUNT-SUE project addresses exclusion faced by people whilst making a typical journey including: the inability to access adequate route-finding and timetabling information, problems accessing transport infrastructure (bus/tram stops, cycle routes, railway stations etc.), getting on and off transport, and managing interchanges between different transport types. This paper discusses the development of the relationship between HADRIAN and AUNTSUE. Initial work focuses on additional data for the database covering transport related tasks. Later work will focus on improving the task analysis capability of HADRIAN whilst integrating the transport related functionality. Ultimately the project also provides the opportunity to further develop HADRIAN towards the needs of designers developing products that maximise social inclusion.
    • HADRIAN: a human modelling CAD tool to promote "design for all"

      Porter, J. Mark; Marshall, Russell; Sims, Ruth; Gyi, Diane E.; Case, Keith; Loughborough University (2003)
      The arguments for a Design for All or Inclusive Design approach to product, environment or service design are clear and well understood. In order to address the underlying issues it is vitally important that designers are educated, informed and supported in the principles of Design for All, with appropriate and applicable data, and with the tools and techniques to employ this data in their design activity. This paper introduces our approach to supporting the designer in a Design for All philosophy. The main focus of this approach is our computer aided design and analysis tool HADRIAN. HADRIAN provides our sample database of 100 individuals across a broad spectrum of ages and abilities together with a task analysis tool. Working in combination with the existing human modelling system SAMMIE the system allows the designer to assess their designs against the population in the database to determine the percentage who are effectively ‘designed out’. The system has been developed to build empathy with the target population. In addition, the system provides a relatively simple, yet powerful, method of obtaining a form of user feedback and insight normally only attainable through expensive prototypes mock-ups and user trials. This feedback is also provided at a much earlier stage of the design process. HADRIAN is the result of a three year EPSRC funded project that was part of the EQUAL initiative. This project concluded in October 2002 but the development of HADRIAN is ongoing.
    • HADRIAN: a virtual approach to design for all.

      Marshall, Russell; Case, Keith; Porter, J. Mark; Summerskill, Steve; Gyi, Diane E.; Davis, Peter; Sims, Ruth; Loughborough University (Taylor and Francis, 2010)
      This article describes research into the area of ‘design for all’. The research addresses two common needs for designers working towards developing inclusive products and environments, namely, data on users that are accessible, valid and applicable, and a means of utilising the data to assess the accessibility of designs during the early stages of development. The approach taken is through the development of a combined database and inclusive human modelling tool called HADRIAN. Data were collected on 100 people, the majority of whom are older or have some form of impairment. These individuals provide a browsable resource spanning size, shape, capability, preferences, and experiences with a range of daily activities and transport-related tasks. This is partnered with the development of a simple, CAD-based task analysis system. Tasks are carried out by the virtual individuals in the database and accessibility issues are reported, allowing excluded people to be investigated in order to understand the problems experienced and solutions identified. HADRIAN is also being expanded to include a more accessible journey planner that provides accessibility information to both end users and transport professionals. Together, HADRIAN allows more informed choices to be made either in travelling, or in the designing of products and environments.
    • HADRIAN: “I am not a number, I am a free man!”

      Porter, J. Mark; Marshall, Russell; Sims, Ruth; Case, Keith; Gyi, Diane E.; Loughborough University (Chalmers University, 2006)
      HADRIAN was created to make a step-function change in the way that inclusive design is accepted and integrated within design practice. Tables of percentile data have now been replaced by holistic databases of individuals covering a wide range of sizes and abilities. Whilst the initial research focussed on physical and behavioural issues related to anthropometry and biomechanics, our current data collection also includes simple emotional and cognitive data within the tool. Details of HADRIAN are presented, including our ‘journey planner’ that is being developed that will compare an individual’s physical, cognitive and emotional abilities with the demands that will be placed upon that individual during the envisioned journey. If the journey is unachievable or very difficult, then that person is likely to feel socially excluded. It is intended that the planner will identify a suitable alternative route and/or choice of transport mode. Designers will also be able to use the planner to assess inclusive design issues for existing and new facilities.
    • In search of design synthesis by linking ergonomic evaluation and constraint modelling to attain design for all

      Goonetilleke, Thanuja Shiromie; Case, Keith; Marshall, Russell; Porter, J. Mark; Gyi, Diane E.; Sims, Ruth; Loughborough University (2003)
      To enable designers to 'design for all', a sound understanding of the intended users, their anthropometry and mobility is needed. Information is also required regarding users' abilities and disabilities based on the tasks they are to perform while using the product being designed. Users, each of whom is an individual (and not just a part of the population), have different needs, physical sizes, coping strategies, abilities and disabilities. To use and apply each of these parameters together with the variables of the product and to meet the challenges of ‘design for all’ criteria, it is imperative for the designers to use effective and efficient tools. This paper presents an approach for design synthesis with the objective of determining design parameters of a design that would meet the needs of a specified user population or maximise the percentage accommodation. A new software tool is being developed to assist designers in the product development process. This software is able to suggest design parameters that would maximise user accommodation, after considering all the data sets for individual users. To achieve this, the software utilises capabilities of three very different pieces of software. The first of these is called HADRIAN, which is the prototype software currently under development, by the ‘Design for All’ project group at Loughborough University. HADRIAN provides an integrated database about individual users and can carry out a task analysis for the tasks that the user has to perform when interacting with the product or the environment that is being developed. Mathematical analysis software is used to fit functions to this data so that the SWORDS Constraint Modelling software can be used to find the optimum parameters of the design that would maximise the user accommodation. Issues in the design and implementation of this software system are discussed in the context of simple examples from kitchen design and automated teller machines (ATMs).
    • Inclusive design for the mobility impaired

      Porter, J. Mark; Marshall, Russell; Case, Keith; Gyi, Diane E.; Sims, Ruth; Summerskill, Steve; Loughborough University (CRC Press, 2008)
      HADRIAN is a computer-based inclusive design tool developed initially to support the design of kitchen and shopping based tasks. The tool is currently being expanded to include data on an individual’s ability to undertake a variety of transport-related tasks, such as vehicle ingress/egress, coping with uneven surfaces, steps, street furniture and complex pedestrian environments. A feature of the enhanced HADRIAN tool will be a journey planner that compares an individual’s physical, cognitive and emotional abilities with the demands that will placed upon that individual depending on the mode(s) of transport available and the route options.
    • Multivariate design inclusion using HADRIAN.

      Marshall, Russell; Summerskill, Steve; Porter, J. Mark; Case, Keith; Sims, Ruth; Gyi, Diane E.; Davis, Peter; Loughborough University (2008)
      This paper details the development of our computer based design tool: HADRIAN. Developed to address the area of user accommodation within design and in particular the support for ‘design for all’, HADRIAN provides an integrated database and analysis system. The data element of HADRIAN is an attempt to simplify the understanding and use of ergonomics data by the design community in addition to encouraging empathy with the end user. Anthropometry and functional abilities were collected from 100 individuals many of whom are older or have some form of disability. In addition, behavioural data was collected from the individuals performing common tasks associated with daily living and the use of transport. The individuals in the database effectively form a virtual user group that can then be used to investigate and evaluate a concept design of a product, or environment through a task analysis feature. Further developments for the HADRIAN tool also include an inclusive journey planner that allows individual travellers, or transport planners to evaluate the inclusiveness of a particular route. Together this package of tools provides a richer, more accessible set of data for human modelling and ergonomics design, and a means to assess the inclusiveness of a product, environment, or journey.
    • Representing older and disabled people in virtual user trials: data collection methods

      Gyi, Diane E.; Sims, Ruth; Porter, J. Mark; Marshall, Russell; Case, Keith; Loughborough University (2004)
      A database was developed to support the creation of a computer-based tool which will support design teams in evaluating the usability of a design during early prototyping and indicate which individuals are effectively excluded or designed out. Methods are described for the collection of multivariate data on 100 real individuals covering a range of physical characteristics and capabilities. These data were tested to ensure a breadth of representation of individuals (particularly older and disabled people) in terms of anthropometry, joint constraints, postural capabilities and task behaviours. The concept of the design tool itself is explored by conducting virtual user trials in the computer-aided design environment. The novel approach of the research encourages empathy with individual users and allows generic abilities, such as bending, reaching and lifting to be assessed.
    • Using Hadrian for eliciting virtual user feedback in 'Design For All'

      Marshall, Russell; Porter, J. Mark; Case, Keith; Sims, Ruth; Gyi, Diane E.; Loughborough University (2004)
      Design for All' is an approach to product, environment or service design that aims to maximise the usability of a particular design. However, a key concept of this approach is not to tailor designs to the user in a bespoke fashion, but rather to provide a single solution that accommodates the needs of all users including those who are older or disabled. In order to support the designer / design team in ‘Design for All’ a computer aided design and analysis tool has been developed. The tool, known as HADRIAN, has been developed to address two critical factors. The first factor is the provision of accurate and applicable data on the target users including a broad spectrum of size, shape, age and ability. The second factor is an efficient and effective means of utilising the data for ergonomics evaluations during the concept stages of design. HADRIAN’s database and task analysis tool work in combination with the existing human modelling system SAMMIE. The system as a whole allows assessment of a design against the population in the database providing a means to elicit some of the feedback that might be gained by real user trials at a stage in the design process when physical mock-ups and user group selection would be prohibitively time consuming and expensive.
    • Virtual fitting trails using SAMMIE and HADRIAN

      Marshall, Russell; Porter, J. Mark; Case, Keith; Sims, Ruth; Gyi, Diane E.; Loughborough University (2003)
      Fitting trials are a common technique employed in ergonomics evaluation. Fitting trials employ a panel of users carefully selected to be representative of the population at which the product, or environment, has been targeted. The panel are then used to evaluate the design against a set of criteria in order to determine a level of suitability of the design. Whilst traditionally this process has taken place with real people and full size mock-ups, increasingly the process is becoming computer supported and makes use of CAD models and human manikins in a ‘virtual’ fitting trial. The use of these technologies can clearly play a key role in supporting user-centred design, however, there are a number of shortcomings in the current technology, data, and infrastructure used for computer aided ergonomics evaluations in design. This paper will introduce HADRIAN, a computer aided ergonomics analysis tool developed at Loughborough University. HADRIAN works together with the existing system SAMMIE. The paper will focus on the novel aspects of the systems demonstrating how, together they may be employed to not only make virtual fitting trails more efficacious but also encourage empathy with the end user.
    • Virtual task analysis in 'design for all'.

      Marshall, Russell; Case, Keith; Porter, J. Mark; Gyi, Diane E.; Sims, Ruth; Loughborough University (2003)
      Design for All’ or ‘Inclusive Design’ is an approach to product, environment or service design that aims to maximise the applicability of a particular design. However, the concept is not to tailor designs in a bespoke fashion, but rather to provide a single solution that accommodates the needs of all users including those who are older or disabled. In order to educate and support the designer in their endeavours to ‘Design for All’ a computer aided design and analysis tool has been developed. The tool, known as HADRIAN, has been developed to meet two key areas of deficiency in existing approaches. HADRIAN provides improved data for the designer with a sample database of 100 individuals across a broad spectrum of ages and abilities. HADRIAN also provides a means of using this data for ergonomics evaluations through a task analysis tool. Working in combination with the existing human modelling system SAMMIE the system allows the designer to assess their designs against the population in the database to determine the percentage who are effectively ‘designed out’.