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DUSP10 negatively regulates the inflammatory response to Rhinovirus through IL-1β signalling.Manley, Grace C. A; Stokes, Clare A; Marsh, Elizabeth K.; Sabroe, Ian; Parker, Lisa C; University of Sheffield (American Society for Microbiology, 2018-10-17)Rhinoviral infection is a common trigger of the excessive inflammation observed during exacerbations of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Rhinovirus (RV) recognition by pattern recognition receptors activates the MAPK pathways, common inducers of inflammatory gene production. A family of dual-specificity phosphatases (DUSPs) can regulate MAPK function, but their roles in rhinoviral infection are not known. We hypothesised that DUSPs would negatively regulate the inflammatory response to RV infection. Our results revealed that p38 and JNK MAPKs play key roles in the inflammatory response of epithelial cells to RV infection. Three DUSPs previously shown to have roles in innate immunity, 1, 4 and 10, were expressed in primary bronchial epithelial cells, one of which, DUSP10, was down regulated by RV infection. Small interfering-RNA knock down of DUSP10 identified a role for the protein in negatively regulating inflammatory cytokine production in response to IL-1β alone and in combination with RV, without any effect on RV replication. This study identifies DUSP10 as an important regulator of airway inflammation in respiratory viral infection.Importance Rhinoviruses are one of the causes of the common cold. In patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, viral infections, including rhinovirus, are the commonest cause of exacerbations. Novel therapeutics to limit viral inflammation are clearly required. The work presented here identifies DUSP10 as an important protein involved in limiting the inflammatory response in the airway without affecting immune control of the virus.
Pellino-1 regulates the responses of the airway to viral infectionMarsh, Elizabeth K; Prestwich, Elizabeth C; Marriott, Helen M; Williams, Lynne; Hart, Amber R; Muir, Claire F; Parker, Lisa C; Jonker, Marnix R; Heijink, Irene H; Timens, Wim; et al. (Frontiers, 2020-08-31)Exposure to respiratory pathogens is a leading cause of exacerbations of airway diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Pellino-1 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase known to regulate virally-induced inflammation. We wished to determine the role of Pellino-1 in the host response to respiratory viruses in health and disease. Pellino-1 expression was examined in bronchial sections from patients with GOLD stage 2 COPD and healthy controls. Primary bronchial epithelial cells (PBECs), in which Pellino-1 expression had been knocked down, were extracellularly challenged with the TLR3 agonist poly(I:C). C57BL/6 Peli1-/- mice and wild type littermates were subjected to intranasal infection with clinically-relevant respiratory viruses; rhinovirus (RV1B) and influenza A. We find that Pellino-1 is expressed in the airways of normal subjects and those with COPD, and that Pellino-1 regulates TLR3 signalling and responses to airways viruses. In particular we observed that knockout of Pellino‐1 in the murine lung resulted in increased production of proinflammatory cytokines IL‐6 and TNFα upon viral infection, accompanied by enhanced recruitment of immune cells to the airways, without any change in viral replication. Pellino-1 therefore regulates inflammatory airway responses without altering replication of respiratory viruses.