• Interpersonal sensitivities: their link to mood, anger and gender.

      Gilbert, Paul; Irons, Christopher Paul; Olsen, K.; Gilbert, Jean; McEwan, Kirsten; Kingsway Hospital; University of Derby (British Psychological Society, 2006-03)
      This paper explores two interpersonal sensitivities (to rejection and to social putdown) in a group of 54 depressed men and 50 depressed women. Measures of anhedonia, anxiety, anger, social comparison, and submissive behaviour were also obtained. We found no differences in rejection sensitivity, anger, anhedonia, or anxiety between the sample of depressed men and women. Depressed women rated themselves as more submissive and more inferior than depressed men, and blamed themselves more for being criticized and put-down by other people. Principal components analysis (PCA) revealed three underlying factors: mood (including anxiety and depression), internalization (related to self-blame and feelings of low rank), and externalization (related to anger and blaming others for criticism). For both men and women internalization was significantly correlated with depression. However, externalization was negatively related to depression in women, but positively related to depression in men. Hence, the difference between the genders was on externalization but not internalization.