• Activities of daily life still cause problems for many older and physically impaired people.

      Sims, Ruth; Gyi, Diane E.; Marshall, Russell; Case, Keith; Loughborough University (Design For All Institute of India, 2012)
      Activities of Daily Life (ADL) are those activities that are fundamental to maintaining independence. Without being able to do them, people can become dependent on others or simply not live their lives in the way that they would wish to. A survey of 50 older and disabled people found that surprising numbers were unable to fulfil the level of independence in ADL that they wished to. For all the advances in the recent age in technology and equipment design, these basic activities are still proving too difficult for a sizeable percentage of the older/disabled population. As the population ages, pressure will come to bear on designers to consider the needs of older/disabled people more fully, to meet the needs of the shifting market trends.
    • Age friendly kitchens: a study based on social history and ergonomics

      Maguire, Martin C.; Nicolle, Colette; Marshall, Russell; Sims, Ruth; Lawton, Clare; Peace, Sheila; Percival, John; Loughborough University (Helen Hamlyn Research Centre (Royal College of Art), 2011)
      The kitchen is an important space in the home serving many purposes both functional and social. The need was identified to chart social changes experienced by older people in relation to the kitchen and to understand current issues and problems of kitchen usage. Two interviews were conducted with 40 older participants (aged between 61 and 91) living in a variety of British housing types in Loughborough and Bristol. The first interview recorded their experience of the kitchen throughout their lives, and the second on the contemporary kitchen and how well it meets their needs. This paper focuses on the second interview. It was found that problems of reaching, bending and stretching, dexterity and sight were all relatively common while for specific tasks, problems with ironing, cleaning and shopping were the most frequent. Categorisation of participants’ likes and dislikes about their kitchens were recorded highlighting the most important issues for the participants. The paper reports on coping strategies used by older people in their kitchens which help to promote inclusive design social inclusion throughout the life course.
    • 'Beyond Jack and Jill': designing for individuals using HADRIAN

      Porter, J. Mark; Case, Keith; Marshall, Russell; Gyi, Diane E.; Sims, Ruth; Loughborough University (Elsevier, 2004)
      In order to support the practice of ‘design for all’within the design community two key areas have been identified that are critical to success. The first is the provision of accurate and relevant data on the target users, in this case people of all shapes, sizes, ages and abilities. The second is the efficient and effective support in the use of these data during concept generation and product development. A database of individual people was created including their 3D anthropometry and functional abilities. Data sets for individuals are kept intact, a radical departure from the traditional approach which involves effectively ‘dismembering’people to create tables of percentiles for every dimension of interest. This database is accessed by HADRIAN, our CAD-based design tool, which is integrated with the SAMMIE CAD human modelling system. Using this system, proposed designs of products or services can be automatically evaluated for each individual in the database, based upon criteria set by the designer (e.g. access, reach, vision, mobility and strength). The tool can identify which individuals will be ‘designed in’or ‘designed out’and can support the designer in modifying the proposed design to achieve a greater percentage of people accommodated.
    • Case study 2: HADRIAN: A human factors computer-aided inclusive design tool for transport planning.

      Porter, J. Mark; Marshall, Russell; Case, Keith; Gyi, Diane E.; Sims, Ruth; Summerskill, Steve; Loughborough University (Loughborough University. Published by The Institution of Engineering and Technology, 2006)
      HADRIAN is a computer-based inclusive design tool developed initially to support the design of kitchen and shopping based tasks. The tool is currently being expanded to include data on an individual’s ability to undertake a variety of transport-related tasks, such as vehicle ingress/egress, coping with uneven surfaces, steps, street furniture and complex pedestrian environments. A feature of the enhanced HADRIAN tool will be a journey planner that compares an individual’s physical, cognitive and emotional abilities with the demands that will placed upon that individual depending on the mode(s) of transport available and the route options.
    • A computer aided ergonomics tool to support accessible transport design

      Marshall, Russell; Case, Keith; Porter, J. Mark; Sims, Ruth; Gyi, Diane E.; Loughborough University (2005)
      Accessible design is being promoted through concepts such as ‘Design for All’. This is an approach to design that aims to maximise the accessibility of a product, environment, or service through the provision of a solution that accommodates the needs of all users including those who are older or disabled. To support a ‘Design for All’ approach a computer aided design and analysis tool called HADRIAN has been developed. Initial developments addressed the provision of accurate and applicable data on the target users together with a means of using the data for ergonomics evaluations during the concept stages of design. This paper details some of this initial development together with the current focus for the HADRIAN system, namely that of transport design. The novel aspect of this research moves the focus away from isolated design problems such as the accessible design of a train or taxi, onto the concept of the journey and the system of design problems that must be addressed in order to create truly accessible transport.
    • Constraint modelling in 'design for all'

      Case, Keith; Goonetilleke, Thanuja Shiromie; Marshall, Russell; Porter, J. Mark; Gyi, Diane E.; Sims, Ruth; Loughborough University (CIT Press, 2003)
      Design for All', or Inclusive Design, is an approach to the design of products and workplaces that aims to maximise suitability for a wide range of consumers/workers. In particular attempts are made to include elderly and disabled consumers/workers without stigmatising the product or in any other way detracting from its attractiveness to younger more able-bodied users. The interest in Design for All stems from the increasing number of elderly and disabled people in western societies, the considerable economic power that they command and pressure from a wide variety of legislative forces. Research has recently been completed that provides a new basis for the application of ergonomics through computer aided design based on multivariate techniques using anthropometric and other data related to individuals rather than populations. The design tool created (known as HADRIAN) is briefly described. This tool is capable of assessing the percentage of the individuals that are able to perform a task whether this be in a domestic or industrial environment. However, it is not capable of suggesting design changes to improve this percentage accommodation, and hence ongoing research is concerned with ‘design synthesis’. The design synthesis approach uses a constraint modeller (SWORDS, which has been used elsewhere in many design and industrial applications) to search a potentially infinite design space to find sets of spatial characteristics of the design that maximise the user accommodation. This design synthesis approach is presented in this paper and described by a case study.
    • The contribution that a co-design approach can make to idea generation for workplace travel plans

      Ross, Tracy; Mitchell, Val; May, Andrew; Sims, Ruth; Loughborough University (Universities' Transport Study Group (UTSG), 2013)
      This study proposed the cooperative processes of ‘co-design’ as a means by which to increase ‘active’ participation in the early stages of workplace travel plan development. In particular, the research takes a first step towards a quantitative comparison of solutions/ideas generated using a co-design approach versus the more traditional methods normally used in travel planning by comparing the number, originality, breadth and type of ideas generated. One group of staff took part in a co-design study and another in a non-co-design study. The main findings were that co-design techniques appear to: encourage a greater number of ideas overall, a greater number of ideas that are innovative in the specific organisational context and different types of idea (particularly ones that tend towards more psychological-based interventions). However both approaches are similar in terms of the global innovativeness of the ideas they generate which was generally low.
    • Design and evaluation: end users, user datasets and personas

      Marshall, Russell; Cook, Sharon; Mitchell, Val; Summerskill, Steve; Haines, Victoria; Maguire, Martin C.; Sims, Ruth; Gyi, Diane E.; Case, Keith; Loughborough University (Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society, 2013-04-08)
      Understanding the needs and aspirations of a suitable range of users during the product design process is an extremely difficult task. Methods such as ethnographic studies can be used to gain a better understanding of users needs, but they are inherently time consuming and expensive. The time pressures that are evident in the work performed by design consultancies often make these techniques impractical. This paper contains a discussion about the use of 'personas', a method used by designers to overcome these issues. Personas are descriptive models of archetypal users derived from user research. The discussion focuses on two case studies, the first of which examines the use of personas in the car design process. The second examines the use of personas in the field of 'inclusive design', as demonstrated by the HADRIAN system. These case studies exemplify the benefits 'data rich' personas contribute as opposed to 'assumption based' personas. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society.
    • A design ergonomics approach to accessibility and user needs in transport

      Marshall, Russell; Gyi, Diane E.; Case, Keith; Porter, J. Mark; Sims, Ruth; Summerskill, Steve; Davis, Peter; Loughborough University (Taylor & Francis, 2009)
      This paper describes research carried out into the area of accessibility and 'design for all'. The Accessibility and User Needs in Transport (AUNT-SUE) project was initiated to develop and test sustainable policies and practice that would deliver effective socially inclusive design and operation in transport and the public realm. Loughborough University's role in the project focuses on the provision of data on users that is accessible, valid, and applicable and a means of utilising the data to assess the accessibility of designs during the early stages of development. These needs have led to the development of the authors' inclusive design tool called HADRIAN. Data were collected on 100 people the majority of whom are older or have some form of impairment. These data include size, shape, capability, preferences and experiences with a range of daily activities and transport related tasks. These are partnered with a simple task analysis system. The system supports the construction of a task linked to a CAD model of a design to be evaluated. The task is then carried out by the virtual individuals in the database. Accessibility issues are reported by the system allowing excluded people to be investigated. Thus HADRIAN supports designers and ergonomists in attempting to 'design for all' by fostering empathy with the intended users, meeting their data needs through an accessible and applicable database and providing a means of gaining some of the feedback possible with a real user trial at a much earlier stage in the design process.
    • 'Design for all': methods and data to support designers

      Sims, Ruth; Loughborough University (Ruth Elise Sims, 2003)
      If designers are to meet the needs of the growing population of older and disabled people then data on size, shape, posture and capabilities will be increasingly important. This thesis details a methodology for the collection of anthropometry, joint constraints, reach range, postural capability and task specific information, to create a unique database of `individuals'. These data were then used in the development of a computer-based design tool (HADRIAN), to allow design professionals to estimate the percentage of people who could be accommodated by a design. Having complete data sets for individuals is vital to enable multivariate analysis, as opposed to traditional univariate percentile data. Following a review of the literature two interview surveys were conducted with 32 design professionals and 50 older and disabled people. The majority of designers were aware of the philosophy of `design for all', but rarely considered the approach due to perceived time and financial costs. With respect to older and disabled people it was found that nearly all experienced problems completing basic activities of daily life, and that improvements to existing designs could improve quality of life. Activities such as being able to cook a meal, and use the bath were reported as being particularly important. Firstly, a pilot study was conducted with 8 participants to assess the different data collection options. Data were then collected on 100 people, with the majority being older and/or disabled, and encompassing a wide range of capabilities. From these data it was possible to see that the anthropometric data showed a range beyond 15` and 99`h percentile for each dimension when compared to existing anthropometry data, and a breadth of variation in task specific behaviours. Validation trials were then conducted to compare the actual task performance of 10 of the 100 `individuals' with that predicted by HADRIAN, with postures and task capabilities being correctly predicted for open-access reach-and-lift tasks. This gives some confidence that it is possible to predict postures and capabilities from the data collected.
    • Development and evaluation of task based digital human modeling for inclusive design

      Marshall, Russell; Summerskill, Steve; Case, Keith; Gyi, Diane E.; Sims, Ruth; Loughborough University (Taylor and Francis, 2010)
      HADRIAN is a digital human modeling (DHM) system that is currently under development as part of an EPSRC funded project in the UK looking at accessible transport. The system is a partner tool to the long established SAMMIE DHM system and aims to address issues with the lack of applicability of DHM tools to inclusive or universal design problems. HADRIAN includes a database of 102 manikins based directly upon data taken from real people, many of whom are older or with disabilities and who span a broad range of anthropometry, age, and joint mobility. This database is combined with a task analysis tool that provides an automated means to investigate the accessibility of a workstation or environment. This paper discusses the issues and subsequent refinement of the tool that resulted from validation using an ATM design case study. In addition the results from a second validation are presented. This second study examines the accessibility of a Docklands Light Railway station in London. The results highlight that whilst physical simulations can be made with a generally good degree of accuracy there are still many opportunities to be explored in the cognitive and emotional areas that can be used to inform designers of accessibility issues during virtual assessments.
    • Empirical investigation of the impact of using co-design methods when generating proposals for sustainable travel solutions

      Mitchell, Val; Ross, Tracy; May, Andrew; Sims, Ruth; Parker, Christopher J.; Loughborough University (Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group, 2015-12-29)
      This paper presents an empirical comparison of idea generation within the context of reducing the number of single occupancy car journeys to and from a UK university campus. Separate co-design and consultative groups were matched with respect to 1) creativity when problem solving, 2) normal commuting mode and 3) intention to adopt sustainable behaviours. The co-design group generated a significantly greater number of innovative ideas than the consultative group (using an email based methodology); however this was due to the greater number of total ideas (rather than the higher proportion of innovative ideas) generated by this group. The co-design group was able to think more systemically about potential solutions and generate proposals that were not either linked to their own commute mode, or aligned with any one specific mode of transport. The findings suggest that co-design offers benefits as a process for idea generation within the sustainable travel context as it promotes idea generation and a more holistic perspective on the problem and potential solutions.
    • Evaluation of a multi-disciplinary back pain rehabilitation programme—individual and group perspectives

      Baird, Andrew; Worral, Lisa; Haslam, Cheryl; Haslam, Roger A.; Loughborough University (2008-02-16)
      To evaluate the impact of a multi-disciplinary back pain rehabilitation programme using a combination of individual and group change data. A total of 261 consecutive patients attending an assessment session for the back pain rehabilitation programme completed the SF-36 health survey questionnaire. The patients were requested to complete the questionnaires again at programme completion and at the 6-month follow-up. The Reliable Change Index was used to define 'clinical significance' in terms of the assessment of individual change. Half of those patients considered to be suitable for the programme subsequently completed it. In group terms, non-completers scored lower than completers on all SF-36 scales. Statistically significant improvements were evident for those completing the programme (all scales at P < 0.000), with improvement maintained at follow-up. In individual terms, 'clinical significance' was exceeded most frequently in the Physical Functioning and Role Physical scales. Whilst some participants lost previous improvements between completion and follow-up, others improved over this same time period. The majority of those completing the programme showed improvement in at least one scale. Adding assessment of individual change to traditional group change measures provides greater insight into the impact a rehabilitation programme has upon participants' quality of life. Whilst the programme is clearly effective for those who complete it, work is required to limit post-programme deterioration and improve uptake
    • From reading minds to social interaction: respecifying Theory of Mind

      Childs, Carrie; Loughborough University (2013-08)
      The aim of this paper is to show some of the limitations of the Theory of Mind approach to interaction compared to a conversation analytic alternative. In the former, mental state terms are examined as words that signify internal referents. This study examines children’s uses of ‘I want’ in situ. The data are taken from a corpus of family mealtimes. ‘I want’ constructions are shown to be interactionally occasioned. The analysis suggests that (a) a referential view of language does not adequately account for how mental state terms are used in talk, (b) the dominant methodology for examining children’s understanding of ‘desires’ is based on several problematic assumptions. It is concluded that participation in interaction is a social matter, a consideration that is obscured by Theory of Mind and its favoured methods.
    • The HADRIAN approach to accessible transport.

      Marshall, Russell; Porter, J. Mark; Sims, Ruth; Summerskill, Steve; Gyi, Diane E.; Case, Keith; Loughborough University (IOS Press, 2009)
      This paper describes research carried out at Loughborough University in the UK into the areas of 'design for all' and accessible transport. The research addresses two common needs for designers and ergonomists working towards developing more inclusive products and environments, namely data on users that is accessible, valid, and applicable and a means of utilising the data to assess the accessibility of designs during the early stages of development. HADRIAN is a computer-based inclusive design tool that has been developed to support designers in their efforts to develop products that meet the needs of a broader range of users. Currently HADRIAN is being expanded to support transport design. This includes data on an individual's ability to undertake a variety of transport-related tasks, such as vehicle ingress/egress, coping with uneven surfaces, steps, street furniture and complex pedestrian environments. The subsequent use of this data will be supported either through a task analysis system that will allow a designer to evaluate a design for a part of the transport infrastructure (ticket barrier, train carriage etc.), or alternatively allow the designer or an end user to evaluate a whole journey. The 'journey planner' feature of the HADRIAN tool will compare an individual's physical, cognitive and emotional abilities with the demands placed upon that individual by the mode(s) of transport available and the route options selected. It is envisaged that these developments will prove extremely useful to users, designers, planners and all those involved with transport use and implementation.
    • HADRIAN meets AUNT-SUE

      Marshall, Russell; Porter, J. Mark; Sims, Ruth; Gyi, Diane E.; Case, Keith; Loughborough University (2005)
      HADRIAN is a computer aided design tool, developed to support designers in their efforts to ‘design for all’. Combining a database of individuals together with a task analysis tool HADRIAN provides a virtual group of 100 people, ready to perform a user trial at any point throughout a product’s design. Developed initially to predict design inclusion for localised design problems such as those experienced in a kitchen environment, HADRIAN is now being developed to include transport data as part of the AUNT-SUE project. AUNT-SUE is a transport related project that is funded as part of the EPSRC’s Sustainable Urban Environment programme. The project addresses policy making through to design and implementation in its aims to support effective socially inclusive design and operation of transport systems. Part of the AUNT-SUE project addresses exclusion faced by people whilst making a typical journey including: the inability to access adequate route-finding and timetabling information, problems accessing transport infrastructure (bus/tram stops, cycle routes, railway stations etc.), getting on and off transport, and managing interchanges between different transport types. This paper discusses the development of the relationship between HADRIAN and AUNTSUE. Initial work focuses on additional data for the database covering transport related tasks. Later work will focus on improving the task analysis capability of HADRIAN whilst integrating the transport related functionality. Ultimately the project also provides the opportunity to further develop HADRIAN towards the needs of designers developing products that maximise social inclusion.
    • HADRIAN: a human modelling CAD tool to promote "design for all"

      Porter, J. Mark; Marshall, Russell; Sims, Ruth; Gyi, Diane E.; Case, Keith; Loughborough University (2003)
      The arguments for a Design for All or Inclusive Design approach to product, environment or service design are clear and well understood. In order to address the underlying issues it is vitally important that designers are educated, informed and supported in the principles of Design for All, with appropriate and applicable data, and with the tools and techniques to employ this data in their design activity. This paper introduces our approach to supporting the designer in a Design for All philosophy. The main focus of this approach is our computer aided design and analysis tool HADRIAN. HADRIAN provides our sample database of 100 individuals across a broad spectrum of ages and abilities together with a task analysis tool. Working in combination with the existing human modelling system SAMMIE the system allows the designer to assess their designs against the population in the database to determine the percentage who are effectively ‘designed out’. The system has been developed to build empathy with the target population. In addition, the system provides a relatively simple, yet powerful, method of obtaining a form of user feedback and insight normally only attainable through expensive prototypes mock-ups and user trials. This feedback is also provided at a much earlier stage of the design process. HADRIAN is the result of a three year EPSRC funded project that was part of the EQUAL initiative. This project concluded in October 2002 but the development of HADRIAN is ongoing.
    • HADRIAN: a virtual approach to design for all.

      Marshall, Russell; Case, Keith; Porter, J. Mark; Summerskill, Steve; Gyi, Diane E.; Davis, Peter; Sims, Ruth; Loughborough University (Taylor and Francis, 2010)
      This article describes research into the area of ‘design for all’. The research addresses two common needs for designers working towards developing inclusive products and environments, namely, data on users that are accessible, valid and applicable, and a means of utilising the data to assess the accessibility of designs during the early stages of development. The approach taken is through the development of a combined database and inclusive human modelling tool called HADRIAN. Data were collected on 100 people, the majority of whom are older or have some form of impairment. These individuals provide a browsable resource spanning size, shape, capability, preferences, and experiences with a range of daily activities and transport-related tasks. This is partnered with the development of a simple, CAD-based task analysis system. Tasks are carried out by the virtual individuals in the database and accessibility issues are reported, allowing excluded people to be investigated in order to understand the problems experienced and solutions identified. HADRIAN is also being expanded to include a more accessible journey planner that provides accessibility information to both end users and transport professionals. Together, HADRIAN allows more informed choices to be made either in travelling, or in the designing of products and environments.
    • HADRIAN: “I am not a number, I am a free man!”

      Porter, J. Mark; Marshall, Russell; Sims, Ruth; Case, Keith; Gyi, Diane E.; Loughborough University (Chalmers University, 2006)
      HADRIAN was created to make a step-function change in the way that inclusive design is accepted and integrated within design practice. Tables of percentile data have now been replaced by holistic databases of individuals covering a wide range of sizes and abilities. Whilst the initial research focussed on physical and behavioural issues related to anthropometry and biomechanics, our current data collection also includes simple emotional and cognitive data within the tool. Details of HADRIAN are presented, including our ‘journey planner’ that is being developed that will compare an individual’s physical, cognitive and emotional abilities with the demands that will be placed upon that individual during the envisioned journey. If the journey is unachievable or very difficult, then that person is likely to feel socially excluded. It is intended that the planner will identify a suitable alternative route and/or choice of transport mode. Designers will also be able to use the planner to assess inclusive design issues for existing and new facilities.
    • 'I'm not X, I just want Y': formulating 'wants' in interaction

      Childs, Carrie; Loughborough University (2012-04-30)
      This article provides a conversation analytic description of a two-part structure, ‘I don’t want X, I want/just want Y’. Drawing on a corpus of recordings of family mealtimes and television documentary data, I show how speakers use the structure in two recurrent environments. First, speakers may use the structure to reject a proposal regarding their actions made by an interlocutor. Second, speakers may deliver the structure following a co-interactant’s formulation of their actions or motivations. Both uses decrease the likelihood of challenge in third-turn position. When responding to multi-unit turns speakers routinely deal with the last item first. The value of ‘I want Y’ is to formulate an alternative sense of agency which undermines the preceding turn and shifts the trajectory of the ongoing sequence. The article contributes to work in discursive psychology as I show how speakers may formulate their ‘wants’ in the service of sequentially unfolding social interaction.