• Motivational and behavioural models of change: A longitudinal analysis of change among men with chronic haemophilia-related joint pain

      Elander, James; Richardson, Cassandra; Morris, John; Robinson, Georgina; Schofield, Malcolm B.; University of Derby; University of Central Lancashire; Haemophilia Society UK; London Metropolitan University; Centre for Psychological Research; University of Derby; UK; et al. (Wiley, 2017-08-10)
      Background: Motivational and behavioral models of adjustment to chronic pain make different predictions about change processes, which can be tested in longitudinal analyses. Methods: We examined changes in motivation, coping and acceptance among 78 men with chronic hemophilia-related joint pain. Using cross-lagged regression analyses of changes from baseline to 6 months as predictors of changes from 6 to 12 months, with supplementary structural equation modelling, we tested two models in which motivational changes influence behavioral changes, and one in which behavioral changes influence motivational changes. Results: Changes in motivation to self-manage pain influenced later changes in pain coping, consistent with the motivational model of pain self-management, and also influenced later changes in activity engagement, the behavioral component of pain acceptance. Changes in activity engagement influenced later changes in pain willingness, consistent with the behavioral model of pain acceptance. Conclusions: Based on the findings, a combined model of changes in pain self-management and acceptance is proposed, which could guide combined interventions based on theories of motivation, coping and acceptance in chronic pain.