• Psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the perceived maternal parenting self-efficacy (PMP S-E) tool for primiparous women

      Vargas‑Porras, Carolina; Roa‑Díaz, Zayne Milena; Barnes, Christopher; Adamson-Macedo, Elvidina N.; Ferré‑Grau, Carme; De-Molina-Fernandez, Maria Inmaculada; Universidad Industrial de Santander, Bucaramanga; University of Bern, Switzerland; University of Derby; University of Wolverhampton; et al. (Springer, 2020-01-09)
      The objective of this study was to determine the validity and the reliability of the Perceived Maternal Parenting Self-Efficacy tool translated into Spanish and adapted to be used among primiparous women of term babies. Validation study. A total of 210 women participated in the survey to establish construct validity and reliability. The questionnaire has 20 items and four subscales. The higher the score, the higher the self-efficacy. A process of translation/back-translation and cultural adaptation in accordance with international standards and an expert review were conducted to test face and content validity. The Validity Content Index and an exploratory factor analysis were used to identify the structure of the questionnaire. Reliability was estimated using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. Linguistic and cultural adaptation, validation and reliability were performed. Face validity for women was as follows: high comprehension (99%); and for experts: medium comprehension (84.1%), medium clarity (83.9%) and medium precision (80%). Concerning pertinence, the content validity index was 0.93 (i.e., highly pertinent). Concerning relevance, the content validity index was 0.96 (i.e., highly relevant). Factor validation identified four factors that accounted for 91% of the variance. Overall Cronbach’s alpha value was 0.98 (IC 95 0.97–0.98). Given the robust properties of the Spanish version of the Perceived Maternal Parenting Self-efficacy, it may be used to identify women with low self-efficacy and to assess the effectiveness of health-based interventions.