• Academics’ understandings of the authorial academic writer: a qualitative analysis of authorial identity

      Cheung, Kevin Yet Fong; Elander, James; Stupple, Edward J. N.; Flay, Mike; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2016-12-22)
      Research on authorial identity has focused almost exclusively on the attitudes and beliefs of students. This paper explores how academics understand authorial identity in higher education. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 27 professional academics and analysed using thematic analysis, identifying themes at two levels. At the semantic level was a main theme called ‘the authorial writer’, with five subthemes: ‘authorial confidence’, ‘valuing writing’, ‘ownership and attachment’, ‘authorial thinking’, and ‘authorial goals’. At the latent level were two integrative themes: ‘tacit learning’ and ‘negotiating identities’. The semantic subthemes represent attributes that could be targets for pedagogic interventions. The integrative themes suggest processes in the development of authorial identity, which can inform more effective teaching. By identifying attributes and processes associated with authorial identity, these findings help towards a psychological understanding of authorial identity, informing development of more effective pedagogy to help students improve their academic writing and avoid plagiarism.
    • An application of judgment analysis to examination marking in psychology

      Elander, James; Hardman, David; University of Derby; London Guildhall University (Wiley, 2002)
      Statistical combinations of specific measures have been shown to be superior to expert judgement in several fields. In this study judgement analysis was applied to examination marking to investigate factors that influenced marks awarded and contributed to differences between first and second markers. Seven markers in psychology rated 551 examination answers on seven 'aspects' for which specific assessment criteria had been developed to support good practice in assessment. The aspects were addressing the question, covering the area, understanding, evaluation, development of argument, structure and organisation, and clarity. Principal components analysis indicated one major factor and no more than two minor factors underlying the seven aspects. Aspect ratings were used to predict overall marks, using multiple regression regression to ‘capture’ the marking policies of individual markers. These varied from marker to marker in terms of the numbers of aspect ratings that made independent contributions to the prediction of overall marks and the extent to which aspect ratings explained the variance in overall marks. The number of independently predictive aspect ratings, and the amount of variance in overall marks explained by aspect ratings, were consistently higher for first markers (question setters) than for second markers. Co-markers’ overall marks were then used as an external criterion to test the extent to which a simple model consisting of the sum of the aspect ratings improved on overall marks in the prediction of co-markers marks. The model significantly increased the variance in co-markers’ marks accounted for, but only for second markers, who had not taught the material and not set the question. Further research is needed to develop the criteria and especially to establish the reliability and validity of specific aspects of assessment. The present results support the view that, for second markers at least, combined measures of specific aspects of examination answers may help to improve the reliability of marking.
    • An assessment of the relative influence of pain coping, negative thoughts about pain, and pain acceptance on health-related quality of life among people with hemophilia

      Elander, James; Robinson, Georgina; Mitchell, Kathryn; Morris, John; University of Derby; University of West London; Katherine Dormandy Trust (Elsevier, 2009-09)
      Many people with hemophilia are affected by chronic arthritic joint pain as well as acute bleeding pain. In this cross-sectional study, 209 men with hemophilia A or B completed the Hemophilia Pain Coping Questionnaire (HPCQ), the Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire (CPAQ), and the RAND 36-item Health Survey (SF-36), a measure of health-related quality of life. Multiple regression was used to test the influence of active pain coping, passive adherence coping, and negative thoughts about pain (HPCQ scales), and activity engagement and pain willingness (CPAQ scales), on physical and mental components of quality of life (SF-36 PCS and MCS scales), taking account of age, hemophilia severity, use of clotting factor, and pain intensity. Pain intensity was the main influence on physical quality of life and negative thoughts was the main influence on mental quality of life. Activity engagement and pain willingness had small but significant influences on physical and mental quality of life. Pain willingness also moderated and partly mediated the influence of pain intensity on physical quality of life, and activity engagement and pain willingness mediated the influence of negative thoughts on mental quality of life. Negative thoughts moderated and partly mediated the influence of pain intensity on mental quality of life. There was no evidence that active pain coping influenced quality of life. The findings suggest that quality of life in hemophilia could potentially be improved by interventions to increase pain acceptance and reduce negative thoughts about pain, especially among those with less severe pain.
    • A brief haemophilia pain coping questionnaire

      Elander, James; Robinson, Georgina; University of Derby (2008)
      Pain coping strategies are important influences on outcomes among people with painful chronic conditions. The pain coping strategies questionnaire (CSQ) was reviously adapted for sickle cell disease and haemophilia, but those versions have 80 items, and a briefer version with similar psychometric properties would facilitate research on pain coping. The full-length haemophilia-adapted CSQ, plus measures of pain frequency and intensity, pain acceptance, pain readiness to change, and health-related quality of life were completed by 190 men with haemophilia. Items were selected for a 27-item short form, which was completed 6 months later by 129 (68%) participants. Factor structure, reliability and concurrent validity were the same in the long and short forms. For the short form, internal reliabilities of the three composite scales were 0.86 for negative thoughts, 0.80 for active coping and 0.76 for passive adherence. Test–retest reliabilities were 0.73 for negative thoughts, 0.70 for active coping and 0.64 for passive adherence. Negative thoughts were associated with less readiness to change, less acceptance of pain and more impaired health-related quality of life, whereas active coping was associated with greater readiness to change and more acceptance of pain. The short form is a convenient brief measure of pain coping with good psychometric properties, and could be used to extend research on pain coping in haemophilia.
    • Competence-based training and assessment by portfolio: the health psychology model

      Elander, James; Fox, Pauline; Towell, Tony; University of Derby (Sage, 2007-09)
      All UK postgraduate qualifications in applied areas of psychology will soon be competence-based. This will improve the professional recognition and esteem of applied psychology, and make it easier to transfer qualifications between psychology and other disciplines and between psychology sub-disciplines. However, the changes pose considerable challenges because there is very little clear evidence about the effectiveness of competence-based training and portfolio assessment. Health psychology has led the development of competence-based training in psychology with the ‘stage two’ qualification in health psychology, and this article considers postgraduate health psychology training in the context of what is known about competence-based training and portfolio assessment in professions such as medicine, nursing and education. This raises a number of questions for professional training and qualifications in psychology.
    • Complex skills and academic writing: a review of evidence about the types of learning required to meet core assessment criteria

      Elander, James; Harrington, Katherine; Norton, Lin; Robinson, Hannah; Reddy, Peter; University of Derby (2006)
      Assessment criteria are increasingly incorporated into teaching, making it important to clarify the pedagogic status of the qualities to which they refer. We reviewed theory and evidence about the extent to which four core criteria for student writing—critical thinking, use of language, structuring, and argument—refer to the outcomes of three types of learning: generic skills learning, a deep approach to learning, and complex learning. The analysis showed that all four of the core criteria describe to some extent properties of text resulting from using skills, but none qualify fully as descriptions of the outcomes of applying generic skills. Most also describe certain aspects of the outcomes of taking a deep approach to learning. Critical thinking and argument correspond most closely to the outcomes of complex learning. At lower levels of performance, use of language and structuring describe the outcomes of applying transferable skills. At higher levels of performance, they describe the outcomes of taking a deep approach to learning. We propose that the type of learning required to meet the core criteria is most usefully and accurately conceptualized as the learning of complex skills, and that this provides a conceptual framework for maximizing the benefits of using assessment criteria as part of teaching.
    • ‘A definite feel-it moment’: Embodiment, externalization and emotion during chair-work in compassion-focused therapy

      Bell, Tobyn; Montague, Jane; Elander, James; Gilbert, Paul; University of Derby (Wiley, 2019-07-08)
      Chair-work is an experiential method used within compassion-focused therapy (CFT) to apply compassion to various aspects of the self. This is the first study of CFT chair-work and is focused on clients’ lived experiences of a chair-work intervention for self-criticism. Twelve participants with depression were interviewed following the chair-work intervention and the resulting data was examined using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). Three superordinate themes were identified: ‘embodiment and enactment’, ‘externalizing the self in physical form’ and ‘emotional intensity’. The findings suggest the importance of accessing and expressing various emotions connected with self-criticism, whilst highlighting the potential for client distress and avoidance during the intervention. The role of embodying, enacting and physically situating aspects of the self in different chairs is also suggested to be an important mechanism of change in CFT chair-work. The findings are discussed in terms of clinical implications, emphasizing how core CFT concepts and practices are facilitated by the chair-work process.
    • Development and evaluation of an intervention to improve further education students' understanding of higher education assessment criteria: three studies

      Jessen, Anna; Elander, James (2011-12-01)
      This paper reports three studies about preparing Further Education (FE) students for the transition to Higher Education (HE) by improving their understanding of HE assessment criteria. In study 1, students and tutors in both FE and HE were interviewed for a qualitative analysis of their understandings and expectations about assessment criteria. In study 2, students in FE and HE completed questionnaires measuring self-rated understanding and ability about assessment criteria, and beliefs about essay writing. Studies 1 and 2 both showed that FE students were more confident than HE students about their understanding and ability in relation to assessment criteria, but FE students’ understandings suggested more surface approaches to learning and more naïve epistemological beliefs. In study 3, a workshop intervention to improve FE students’ understandings of HE assessment criteria was evaluated in a comparative longitudinal trial. The intervention reduced FE students’ self-rated understanding and ability, and promoted more sophisticated beliefs about essay writing, by comparison with students who received standard tuition. We concluded that interventions to develop more realistic understandings of what is required in academic writing could be used to prepare FE students more effectively for the transition to HE.
    • Development and validation of a short-form Pain Medication Attitudes Questionnaire (PMAQ-14)

      Elander, James; Said, Omimah; Maratos, Frances A.; Dys, Ada; Collins, Hannah; Schofield, Malcolm B.; University of Derby (International Association for the Study of Pain, 2017-03-01)
      Attitudes to pain medication are important aspects of adjustment to chronic pain. They are measured by the 47-item Pain Medication Attitudes Questionnaire (PMAQ). To measure those attitudes more quickly and easily, we developed and evaluated a 14-item PMAQ using data from three separate surveys of people with pain in the general population. In survey 1, participants (n=295) completed the 47-item PMAQ and measures of pain, analgesic use, analgesic dependence and attitudes to self-medication. For each of the seven PMAQ scales, the two items that best preserved the content of the parent scales were identified using correlation and regression. The 2-item and parent scales had very similar relationships with other measures, indicating validity had been maintained. The resulting 14-item PMAQ was then completed by participants in survey 2 (n=241) and survey 3 (n=147), along with the same other measures as in survey 1. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the 14-item PMAQ retained the 7-factor structure of the 47-item version, and correlations with other measures showed it retained the validity of the 47-item version. The PMAQ scale Need was the most significant independent predictor of analgesic dependence in each of four separate multiple regression analyses. This short form of the PMAQ allows attitudes to pain medications to be measured in a valid and more efficient way.
    • Development and validation of the satisfaction with treatment for pain questionnaire (STPQ) among patients with sickle cell disease

      Bij, Deepali; Kapadi, Romaana; Schofield, Malcolm B.; Osias, Arlene; Khalid, Nosheen; Kaya, Banu; Telfer, Paul; Elander, James; University of Derby (Wiley, 2019-06-23)
      A brief measure of patient satisfaction with treatment for pain is needed to help improve the treatment of painful episodes caused by sickle cell disease (SCD), especially during and after the transition from paediatric to adult care. Focus groups of 28 adolescent and adult patients were consulted about the content, clarity and relevance of 30 potential items, resulting in an 18-item version. This was validated by analysing questionnaire responses from 120 patients aged 12-53 years. Confirmatory factor analysis and item analysis indicated five subscales with high internal reliability: ‘Communication and Involvement’ (6 items, α=0.87); ‘Respect and Dignity’ (3 items, α=0.82); ‘Pain Control’ (3 items, α=0.91); ‘Staff Attitudes and Behaviour’ (4 items, α=0.88); and ‘Overall Satisfaction’ (2 items, α=0.85); plus a Total Satisfaction score (18 items, α=0.96). High negative correlations with the Picker Patient Experience Questionnaire, a measure of problem experiences, indicated good convergent validity. Lower satisfaction scores among patients aged over 18 years, those admitted via the emergency department, those treated by non-specialist hospital staff, and those reporting more breakthrough pain indicated good concurrent validity. The questionnaire provides a convenient brief measure that can be used to inform and evaluate improvements in healthcare for adolescent and adult patients with SCD, and could potentially be adapted for other painful conditions.
    • Development and validation of the student attitudes and beliefs about authorship scale: a psychometrically robust measure of authorial identity

      Cheung, Kevin Yet Fong; Stupple, Edward J. N.; Elander, James; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2015-04-22)
      One approach to plagiarism prevention focuses on improving students’ authorial identity, but work in this area depends on robust measures. This paper presents the development of a psychometrically robust measure of authorial identity - the Student Attitudes and Beliefs about Authorship Scale. In the item generation phase, a pool of items was developed and assessed for content validity by subject matter experts. In the exploratory phase, data from 439 higher education students were used to identify a latent variable model with three factors: ‘authorial confidence’, ‘valuing writing’ and ‘identification with author’. In the confirmatory phase, data from 306 higher education students were used to test the three-factor model's reliability and validity. The three-factor structure was confirmed, and the results showed the SABAS has a stronger psychometric basis than previously available measures. This measure of authorial identity can be used with confidence in research and pedagogy to help students improve their authorial identity.
    • Development of the critical thinking toolkit (CriTT): A measure of student attitudes and beliefs about critical thinking

      Stupple, Edward J. N.; Maratos, Frances A.; Elander, James; Hunt, Thomas E.; Cheung, Kevin Yet Fong; Aubeeluck, Aimee; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2016-11-24)
      Critical thinking is an important focus in higher education and is essential for good academic achievement. We report the development of a tool to measure critical thinking for three purposes: (i) to evaluate student perceptions and attitudes about critical thinking, (ii) to identify students in need of support to develop their critical thinking, and (iii) to predict academic performance. Seventy-seven items were generated from focus groups, interviews and the critical thinking literature. Data were collected from 133 psychology students. Factor Analysis revealed three latent factors based on a reduced set of 27 items. These factors were characterised as: Confidence in Critical Thinking; Valuing Critical Thinking; and Misconceptions. Reliability analysis demonstrated that the sub-scales were reliable. Convergent validity with measures of grade point average and argumentation skill was shown, with significant correlations between subscales and validation measures. Most notably, in multiple regression analysis, the three sub-scales from the new questionnaire substantially increased the variance in grade point average accounted for by measures of reflective thinking and argumentation. To sum, the resultant scale offers a measure that is simple to administer, can be used as a diagnostic tool to identify students who need support in developing their critical thinking skills, and can also predict academic performance.
    • Dyslexia, authorial identity, and approaches to learning and writing: a mixed methods study

      Kinder, Julianne; Elander, James; University of Derby (2011-12-01)
      Background. Dyslexia may lead to difficulties with academic writing as well as reading. The authorial identity approach aims to help students improve their academic writing and avoid unintentional plagiarism, and could help to understand dyslexic students’ approaches to writing. Aims. (1) To compare dyslexic and non-dyslexic students’ authorial identity and approaches to learning and writing; (2) to compare correlations between approaches to writing and approaches to learning among dyslexic and non-dyslexic students; (3) to explore dyslexic students’ understandings of authorship and beliefs about dyslexia, writing and plagiarism. Sample. Dyslexic (n = 31) and non-dyslexic (n = 31) university students. Method. Questionnaire measures of self-rated confidence in writing, understanding of authorship, knowledge to avoid plagiarism, and top-down, bottom-up and pragmatic approaches to writing (Student Authorship Questionnaire; SAQ), and deep, surface and strategic approaches to learning (Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students; ASSIST), plus qualitative interviews with dyslexic students with high and low SAQscores. Results. Dyslexic students scored lower for confidence in writing, understanding authorship, and strategic approaches to learning, and higher for surface approaches to learning. Correlations among SAQ and ASSIST scores were larger and more frequently significant among non-dyslexic students. Self-rated knowledge to avoid plagiarism was associated with a top-down approach to writing among dyslexic students and with a bottom-up approach to writing among non-dyslexic students. All the dyslexic students interviewed described how dyslexia made writing more difficult and reduced their confidence in academic writing, but they had varying views about whether dyslexia increased the risk of plagiarism. Conclusions. Dyslexic students have less strong authorial identities, and less congruent approaches to learning and writing. Knowledge to avoid plagiarism may be more salient for dyslexic students, who may benefit from specific interventions to increase confidence in writing and understanding of authorship. Further research could investigate how dyslexic students develop approaches to academic writing, and how that could be affected by perceived knowledge to avoid plagiarism.
    • Effects of a pain self-management intervention combining written and video elements on health-related quality of life among people with different levels of education

      Elander, James; Stalker, Carol; University of Derby (Dove Press, 2015-08-20)
      Combining written and video material could increase the impact of health education for people with less education, but more evidence is needed about the impact of combined materials in different formats, especially in the context of chronic pain self-management. This study tested the impact of combining written information about self-managing chronic joint pain, which used language at a high reading level, with a DVD containing narrative video material presented directly by patients, using language at a lower reading level. Physical and mental health-related quality of life (36-item Short Form Health Survey) was measured among 107 men with hemophilia before and six months after being randomly assigned to receive an information booklet alone or the booklet plus the DVD. Analysis of covariance was used to compare health outcomes between randomized groups at follow-up, using the baseline measures as covariates, with stratified analyses for groups with different level of education. The DVD significantly improved mental health-related quality of life among those with only high school education. Video material could therefore supplement written information to increase its impact on groups with less education, and combined interventions of this type could help to achieve health benefits for disadvantaged groups who are most in need of intervention.
    • Effects of area and family deprivation on risk factors for teenage pregnancy among 13 – 15-year-old girls

      Smith, Debbie M.; Elander, James; University of Derby; London Metropolitan University (2006-11-01)
      Information is needed about how the effects of socio-economic deprivation on teenage pregnancy are mediated by proximal risk factors, in order to target area-wide and family interventions more effectively. Using a 262 factorial design, we tested the separate and interacting effects of area deprivation and family deprivation on six specific proximal risk factors for teenage pregnancy: early sexual activity, life expectations, knowledge and beliefs about contraceptives, attitude to abortion, beliefs about love, and use of local sexual health services. Data were collected from 201 13 – 15- year-old girls in deprived and non-deprived families living in deprived and more affluent areas of the United Kingdom. Area deprivation significantly increased early sexual activity, and both area and family deprivation significantly reduced life expectations. Significant interactions between area and family deprivation showed that the impact of living in a deprived area depends to some extent on family circumstances, with implications for targeting different types of intervention. Living in a deprived area increased early sexual activity much more markedly among girls in deprived families, so interventions to reduce early sexual activity could target individually deprived girls living in deprived areas. Living in a more affluent area increased life expectations, but only among girls in non-deprived families, so both area-wide and individually targeted interventions would be needed to raise life expectations among girls most at risk of teenage pregnancy.
    • Evaluation of a measure of sickle cell disease patients’ satisfaction with hospital care: A student researcher’s perspective.

      Elander, James; University of Derby (British Psychological Society, 2018-07-20)
      This article provides a reflective account of our work on a project at the University of Derby and Bart’s Health NHS Trust, London, to evaluate a questionnaire measure of sickle cell disease (SCD) patients’ satisfaction with hospital care. Romaana Kapadi’s involvement was supported by a University internship and scholarship, and this article covers the skills she gained as an undergraduate student researcher, and how the opportunity helped with her plans to become a health psychologist. We hope this article will inspire other undergraduate students to grasp opportunities like this, and encourage lecturers to get students more involved with their research, as well as illustrating the role that health psychologists can play in improving healthcare for people with SCD.
    • Evaluation of a web-based self-compassion intervention to reduce student assessment anxiety.

      McEwan, Kirsten; Elander, James; Gilbert, Paul; University of Derby (Rivera Open, 2018-05-04)
      Assessment anxiety is associated with excessive worry and cognitive disruption which can contribute to academic failure. Compassion-focused interventions have previously been effective in reducing anxiety, stress and depression among the general population. Aims: This study extended this approach to students whose academic achievement is potentially compromised by assessment anxiety, by evaluating a web-based compassionate imagery intervention. Students (n=48) who self-identified as assessment anxious were randomised to practice either compassionate imagery exercises or to a control condition of practicing relaxation exercises. Students completed measures of test anxiety, mastery and performance learning goals, self-compassion, self-criticism/self-reassurance, depression, anxiety and stress, before and after the two-week intervention. The compassionate imagery exercises improved self-compassion more than the control condition of relaxation exercises did. Both tasks improved students’ wellbeing, and reduced assessment anxiety among those with higher baseline assessment anxiety. Web-based compassionate imagery and relaxation may offer cost-effective interventions for reducing assessment anxiety. More research is needed on the influence of self-compassion on learning processes and academic performance and achievement.
    • Evaluation of an intervention to help students avoid unintentional plagiarism by improving their authorial identity

      Elander, James; Pittam, Gail; Lusher, Joanne; Fox, Pauline; Payne, Nicola; University of Derby (2010)
      Students with poorly developed authorial identity may be at risk of unintentional plagiarism. An instructional intervention designed specifically to improve authorial identity was delivered to 364 psychology students at three post-1992 universities in London, UK, and evaluated with before-and-after measures of beliefs and attitudes about academic authorship, using the Student Authorship Questionnaire. Changes in questionnaire scores showed that the intervention led to significantly increased confidence in writing, understanding of authorship, knowledge to avoid plagiarism, and top-down approaches to writing, and significantly decreased bottom-up and pragmatic approaches to writing. For understanding of authorship, knowledge to avoid plagiarism and pragmatic approaches to writing, significant intervention by year of study interaction effects showed that the greatest improvements were among year one undergraduates. Direct evaluative feedback showed that 86% of students believed the intervention helped them avoid plagiarism and 66% believed it helped them write better assignments. Post-intervention focus groups revealed changed student understandings about authorial identity and academic writing. The results show that interventions can help students avoid unintentional plagiarism by adopting more authorial roles in their academic writing. Further research could explore other influences on authorial identity, and examine the impact of authorial identity interventions on other outcome indicators.
    • Factors affecting hospital staff judgments about sickle cell disease pain

      Elander, James; Marczewska, Malgorzata; Amos, Roger; Thomas, Aldine; Tangayi, Sekayi; University of Derby (2006)
      Judgments about people with pain are influenced by contextual factors that can lead to stigmatization of patients who present in certain ways. Misplaced staff perceptions of addiction may contribute to this, because certain pain behaviors superficially resemble symptoms of analgesic addiction. We used a vignette study to examine hospital staff judgments about patients with genuine symptoms of analgesic addiction and those with pain behaviors that merely resemble those symptoms. Nurses and doctors at hospitals in London, UK, judged the level of pain, the likelihood of addiction, and the analgesic needs of fictitious sickle cell disease patients. The patient descriptions included systematic variations to test the effects of genuine addiction, pain behaviors resembling addiction, and disputes with staff, which all significantly increased estimates of addiction likelihood and significantly decreased estimates of analgesic needs. Participants differentiated genuine addiction from pain behaviors resembling addiction when making judgments about addiction likelihood but not when making judgments about analgesic needs. The treatment by staff of certain pain behaviors as symptoms of analgesic addiction is therefore a likely contributory cause of inadequate or problematic hospital pain management. The findings also show what a complex task it is for hospital staff to make sensitive judgments that incorporate multiple aspects of patients and their pain. There are implications for staff training, patient education, and further research.
    • Haemophilia

      Elander, James; University of Derby (Cambridge University Press, 2019-05)
      Haemophilia A and haemophilia B are inherited bleeding disorders caused by deficiencies in blood clotting factor proteins. This chapter gives an overview of evidence about psychological aspects of haemophilia, including inheritance, adherence to treatment, quality of life, and pain management.