• Dimensionality and measurement invariance of the Other as Shamer Scale across diverse adolescent samples

      Vagos, Paula; Ribeiro da Silva, Diana; Brazão, Nélio; Rijo, Daniel; Gilbert, Paul; University of Coimbra; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2016-04-26)
      The current work investigates the psychometric properties of the complete and short versions of the Other as Shamer Scale, using three adolescent samples presenting diverse degrees of behavioral problems' severity. This instrument measures external shame, which has been proposed as an important precursor and correlate of psychosocial functioning, but has only been tested with community samples. Results show the acceptability of a three-factor solution for the complete version of the measure (i.e., inferior, emptiness, and how others react when they see me make mistakes). The short unifactorial measure was also an acceptable fit for the data. Both measurement models were partially invariant across girls and boys, who presented similar levels of shame. They were also partially invariant across boys presenting diverse degrees of behavioral problems' severity, with community participants presenting the lowest levels of shame. Evidence was gathered in favor of the internal consistency and validity in relation to other relevant variables of both versions of the instrument. This study adds to the evidence of the Other as Shamer Scale being an appropriate evaluation tool, with diverse samples of adolescents, and providing the user with diverse assessment options to be chosen in accordance with varied research or therapeutic purposes.
    • The early memories of warmth and safeness scale for adolescents: Cross-sample validation of the complete and brief versions

      Vagos, Paula; Ribeiro da Silva, Diana; Brazão, Nélio; Rijo, Daniel; Gilbert, Paul; University of Coimbra; University of Derby; Research Unit of the Cognitive-Behavioral Research and Intervention Center, Faculty of Psychology and Education Sciences; University of Coimbra; Coimbra Portugal; Research Unit of the Cognitive-Behavioral Research and Intervention Center, Faculty of Psychology and Education Sciences; University of Coimbra; Coimbra Portugal; Research Unit of the Cognitive-Behavioral Research and Intervention Center, Faculty of Psychology and Education Sciences; University of Coimbra; Coimbra Portugal; et al. (Wiley, 2016-12-06)
      This work presents psychometric analyses on the Early Memories of Warmth and Safeness Scale, which intends to evaluate the subjective perception of ones' early rearing experiences. Factor structure, measurement invariance, latent mean comparisons and validity in relation to external variables (i.e., forms of self-criticism/self-assurance, experiential avoidance and depressive, anxious and stress symptoms) were investigated. A sample of 1464 adolescents (52.3% male adolescents, mean age = 16.16, standard deviation = 1.51) was used, including 1064 participants recruited from schools, 192 participants recruited from foster care facilities and 208 boys recruited from juvenile justice facilities. A shortened version of the scale was also developed and subjected to the same psychometric analyses. A one-factor measurement model was a good fit for the data taken from both the complete and brief versions of the instrument. Such measures showed to be internally consistent with alpha values higher than 0.89. Evidence for their construct validity in relation to external variables was also found, with correlation values ranging from 0.19 to 0.45 for the complete version and from 0.18 to 0.44 for the brief version of the instrument. The brief version was the only one proving to be gender and sample invariant. Boys and girls scored similarly in their account of early memories, whereas community boys presented significantly higher scores when compared with referred and detained boys. Thus, the brief version of the instrument may be an appropriate alternative for use with diverse adolescent samples and may serve to advance knowledge on how early experiences impact on psychopathological outcomes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.