Recent Submissions

  • Digital false colour infrared

    Bryson, David; Human Sciences (The Royal Photographic Society, 2019-01)
    False colour infrared images for archaeological and heritage photography can be created using a camera that has been adapted for full-spectrum photography.
  • Developing your leadership skills

    Bryson, David; Human Sciences Research Centre (Taylor and Francis, 2018-10-17)
    Leading a team with a small or large number of people can be difficult and it requires time and experience to develop and apply the necessary skills. This paper includes a number of learning activities designed to start you off on the road to becoming a leader and to hone those skills through reflection.
  • Do office workers adjust their chairs? End-user knowledge, use and barriers to chair adjustment.

    Underwood, Diana; Sims, Ruth; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2019-02-15)
    A quantitative field study measured end-user availability, knowledge and use levels of adjustable office chair functions in Korea-based office workers, together with their perceived barriers towards making adjustments. Fifty-one English-speaking workers were interviewed and surveyed in a related design. Results showed that of the number of adjustable functions available on their office chair (M = 5.39, SD = 2.3), participants knew fewer than half of them (M = 2.51, SD = 1.52) and used even less (M = 1.86, SD = 1.21). Fifty-three percent of participants knew two or less and 73% had used only two or less. Ten percent had used none. Results suggested physical needs (such as increased comfort or postural change) were a strong driver for previous chair adjustment behavior. Perceived cognitive barriers played a more significant role in limiting chair adjustment knowledge and use than physical or organizational barriers. Highly adjustable office chairs have the possibility of satisfying the adjustment needs of most end-users. However, adjustable chair functions need to be both available and known in order to be used.
  • An exploration of formal and informal mindfulness practice and associations with wellbeing.

    Birtwell, Kelly; Williams, Kate; van Marwijk, Harm; Armitage, Christopher J.; Sheffield, David; University of Derby; University of Manchester; NIHR School for Primary Care Research Manchester England; Brighton and Sussex Medical School University of Brighton; NIHR Greater Manchester Patient Safety Translational Research Centre (Springer., 2018-05-21)
    Mindfulness has transdiagnostic applicability, but little is known about how people first begin to practice mindfulness and what sustains practice in the long term. The aim of the present research was to explore the experiences of a large sample of people practicing mindfulness, including difficulties with practice and associations between formal and informal mindfulness practice and wellbeing. In this cross-sectional study, 218 participants who were practicing mindfulness or had practiced in the past completed an online survey about how they first began to practice mindfulness, difficulties and supportive factors for continuing to practice, current wellbeing, and psychological flexibility. Participants had practiced mindfulness from under a year up to 43 years. There was no significant difference in the frequency of formal mindfulness practice between those who had attended a face-to-face taught course and those who had not. Common difficulties included finding time to practice formally and falling asleep during formal practice. Content analysis revealed “practical resources,” “time/routine,” “support from others,” and “attitudes and beliefs,” which were supportive factors for maintaining mindfulness practice. Informal mindfulness practice was related to positive wellbeing and psychological flexibility. Frequency (but not duration) of formal mindfulness practice was associated with positive wellbeing; however, neither frequency nor duration of formal mindfulness practice was significantly associated with psychological flexibility. Mindfulness teachers will be able to use the present findings to further support their students by reminding them of the benefits as well as normalising some of the challenges of mindfulness practice including falling asleep.
  • The invisible child: sibling experiences of growing up with a brother with severe haemophilia - an interpretative phenomenological analysis.

    Tregidgo, Catherine; Elander, James; University of Derby (Wiley, 2018-12-18)
    Introduction: Haemophilia is an inherited chronic condition that causes bleeding in the joints and soft tissue. Healthy siblings growing up in the family of a person with haemophilia can be affected socially and psychologically. Aim: To explore qualitatively the experiences of healthy siblings who grew up with a brother with severe haemophilia. Methods: 11 healthy siblings (10 female, 1 male) who grew up with a brother with severe haemophilia A were recruited via the Haemophilia Society UK. The verbatim transcripts of individual semi-structured interviews were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). Results: Three themes were identified: lack of parental attention, negative social emotions, and carrier anxiety. Participants described having engaged in attention seeking behaviours because they felt they lacked parental attention. They also described the resentment, anger and frustration they felt about the effect their brothers’ haemophilia had on their lives. Female participants described the impact their carrier status or lack of it had on their lives. Conclusion: These findings could be translated into better advocacy and support for siblings through haemophilia centres. More research is also needed on how healthy siblings are affected by haemophilia, including studies guided by family systems theory.
  • Identification and characterisation of NANOG+/ OCT-4<sup>high</sup>/SOX2+ doxorubicin-resistant stem-like cells from transformed trophoblastic cell lines

    Balahmar, Reham M.; Boocock, David J.; Coveney, Clare; Ray, Sankalita; Vadakekolathu, Jayakumar; Regad, Tarik; Ali, Selman; Sivasubramaniam, Shiva; Nottingham Trent University (Impact Journals, 2018-01-11)
    Treatment of gestational trophoblastic diseases (GTD) involves surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Although, these therapeutic approaches are highly successful, drug resistance and toxicity remain a concern for high risk patients. This Chemoresistance has also been observed in the presence of cancer stem cells that are thought to be responsible for cases of cancer recurrence. In this study, we report the presence of previously unknown populations of trophoblastic stem-like cells (SLCs) that are resistant to the chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin. We demonstrate that these populations express the stem cell markers NANOG and Sox2 and higher levels of OCT-4 (NANOG+/OCT-4high/SOX2+). Although chemoresistant, we show that the invasive capacity of these trophoblastic SLCs is significantly inhibited by doxorubicin treatment. To better characterise these populations, we also identified cellular pathways that are involved in SLCs-chemoresistance to doxorubicin. In summary, we provide evidence of the presence of NANOG+/OCT-4+/SOX2+ trophoblastic SLCs that are capable to contribute to the susceptibility to GTD and that may be involved in Chemoresistance associated with drug resistance and recurrence in high risk GTDs’ patients. We propose that targeting these populations could be therapeutically exploited for clinical benefit.
  • Antioxidative effects of flavonoids and their metabolites against hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced oxidative stress in a human first trimester trophoblast cell line.

    Ebegboni, Vernon J; Dickenson John M; Sivasubramaniam, Shiva; Nottingham Trent University (Elsevier, 2018-08-09)
    This study aimed to investigate the cytoprotective effects of flavonoids, their metabolites alone or in combination against hypoxia/reoxygenation induced oxidative stress in the transformed human first trimester trophoblast cell line (HTR-8/SVneo). Oxidative stress was achieved with hypoxia followed by reoxygenation and the following assays were performed: MTT, CellTox™ Green Cytotoxicity, CellTiter-Glo®, NADP/NADPH-Glo™, ROS-Glo™/H2O2, GSH/GSSG-Glo™ and Caspase-Glo® 3/7 assays. HTR-8/SVneo cells, pre-treated for 24 h with flavonoids or their metabolites were protected significantly from oxidative stress. Flavonoids were associated with ROS modulation, reducing the generation of superoxide/hydrogen peroxide. The activities of caspases 3/7 were also significantly reduced significantly in HTR-8/SVneo cells pre-treated with flavonoids. This study has shown for the first time that 24 h pre-treatment with flavonoids, their metabolites alone or in combination, protected against HR-induced oxidative stress in the trophoblast cell line. These data indicate that dietary flavonoids may be beneficial to placental health and invasion during early gestation.
  • DUSP10 negatively regulates the inflammatory response to Rhinovirus through IL-1β signalling.

    Manley, Grace C. A; Stokes, Clare A; Marsh, Elizabeth K.; Sabroe, Ian; Parker, Lisa C; University of Sheffield (American Society for Microbiology, 2018-10-17)
    Rhinoviral infection is a common trigger of the excessive inflammation observed during exacerbations of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Rhinovirus (RV) recognition by pattern recognition receptors activates the MAPK pathways, common inducers of inflammatory gene production. A family of dual-specificity phosphatases (DUSPs) can regulate MAPK function, but their roles in rhinoviral infection are not known. We hypothesised that DUSPs would negatively regulate the inflammatory response to RV infection. Our results revealed that p38 and JNK MAPKs play key roles in the inflammatory response of epithelial cells to RV infection. Three DUSPs previously shown to have roles in innate immunity, 1, 4 and 10, were expressed in primary bronchial epithelial cells, one of which, DUSP10, was down regulated by RV infection. Small interfering-RNA knock down of DUSP10 identified a role for the protein in negatively regulating inflammatory cytokine production in response to IL-1β alone and in combination with RV, without any effect on RV replication. This study identifies DUSP10 as an important regulator of airway inflammation in respiratory viral infection.Importance Rhinoviruses are one of the causes of the common cold. In patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, viral infections, including rhinovirus, are the commonest cause of exacerbations. Novel therapeutics to limit viral inflammation are clearly required. The work presented here identifies DUSP10 as an important protein involved in limiting the inflammatory response in the airway without affecting immune control of the virus.
  • Event-related potentials support a dual process account of the Embedded Chinese Character Task.

    Yin, Yue; Yu, Tingting; Wang, Shu; Zhou, Shujin; Tang, Xiaochen; Stupple, Edward J. N.; Luo, Junlong; Shanghai Normal University; Shanghai Jiaotong University; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2018-10-29)
    Tests of the principles of dual process theory are typically conducted in the reasoning and judgement/decision-making literature. The present study explores dual process explanations with a new paradigm – the Embedded Chinese Character Task (ECCT). The beauty of this task is that it allows the contrast of automatic and deliberate processes without the potential for conflict. We used event-related potentials (ERPs) and behavioral measures to investigate the time course of automatic (Type 1) and deliberative (Type 2) processes on the ECCT. Thus we explored whether there were differences in processing speed in neural activation. The ECCT requires the extraction of one Chinese character from another, which requires either an automatic strategy reliant on knowledge of Chinese character formation and meaning (based on the radical), or a deliberative strategy using the shape of the components of the character (based on the stroke). Participants judged whether character elements were included or excluded in test characters. Faster response time were observed when judging 'inclusion relations' on automatic problems supporting the proposal that they required a Type 1 process. In line with the behavioral results, the hypothesized faster automatic process showed the rapid differentiation of N2 and P3b components between inclusion and exclusion responses, while no difference was shown for deliberative problems. Thus, neural differences in processing were shown between automatic and deliberate problems, and automatic processing was faster than deliberate processing.
  • Home to us all: how connecting with nature helps us care for ourselves and the Earth.

    Charles, Cheryl; Keenleyside, Karen; Chapple, Rosalie; Kilburn, Bill; Salah van der Leest, Pascale; Allen, Diana; Richardson, Miles; Giusti, Matteo; Franklin, Lawrence; Harbrow, Michael; Wilson, Ruth; Moss, Andrew; Metcalf, Louise; Camargo, Luis; University of Derby (Children & Nature Network, 2018-11-22)
  • Paradoxical invitations: challenges in soliciting more information from child witnesses

    Childs, Carrie; Walsh, Dave; University of Derby (Taylor & Francis, 2018-11-15)
    This article analyses how police officers conducting interviews with children reporting their being victim of alleged sexual offenses ask witness if they would like to add to what has been said or whether they have any questions. Interviewing guidelines recommend that this be done during interview closure. The data set comprises twenty-seven videotaped interviews. Data are in British English. Using Conversation Analysis, we show that the understanding of interview closure as an appropriate place in which to request for the initiation of a new topic is paradoxical. We also outline practices for soliciting additional information throughout the course of the interview.
  • Performance under stress: an eye-tracking investigation of the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT).

    Simonovic, Boban; Stupple, Edward J. N.; Gale, Maggie; Sheffield, David; University of Derby (Frontiers Media, 2018-09)
    Stress pervades everyday life and impedes risky decision making. The following experiment is the first to examine effects of stress on risky decision making in the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), while measuring inspection time and conscious awareness of deck contingencies. This was original as it allowed a fine grained rigorous analysis of the way that stress impedes awareness of, and attention to maladaptive financial choices. The extended Cognitive Reflection Task (CRT) further afforded examination of the impact of impaired reflective thinking on risky decision making. Stressed participants were slower to avoid the disadvantageous decks and performed worse overall. They inspected disadvantageous decks for longer than the control condition and were slower in developing awareness of their poor deck quality compared to the control condition. Conversely, in the control condition greater inspection times for advantageous decks were observed earlier in the task, and better awareness of the deck contingencies was shown as early as the second block of trials than the stress condition. Path analysis suggested that stress reduced IGT performance by impeding reflective thinking and conscious awareness. Explicit cognitive processes, moreover, were important during the preliminary phase of IGT performance—a finding that has significant implications for the use of the IGT as a clinical diagnostic tool. It was concluded that stress impedes reflective thinking, attentional disengagement from poorer decks, and the development of conscious knowledge about choice quality that interferes with performance on the IGT. These data demonstrate that stress impairs risky decision making performance, by impeding attention to, and awareness of task characteristics in risky decision making.
  • Evaluating connection to nature and the relationship with conservation behaviour in children

    Hughes, Joelene; Richardson, Miles; Lumber, Ryan; University of Derby; Royal Society for the Protection of Birds; De Montfort University (Elsevier, 2018-07-25)
    ‘Connection to nature’ is a multidimensional trait thought to be important for developing positive conservation behaviours, and strengthening people’s connection to nature has become the focus for many conservation activities. A connection to nature may be developed through repeated engagement with nature, and experiences during childhood are thought to be particularly significant. However, many children today are considered to have a low connection to nature, presenting a critical challenge for the future of nature conservation. Several instruments have been developed for measuring connection to nature. These instruments are important for establishing current levels and thresholds of connection and evaluating efforts to improve connection, yet the way the instruments and the derived scores relate to the term ‘connection’ frequently used in conservation discourse has, so far, been overlooked. In this study, we interrogate Cheng et al.’s (2012) Connection to Nature Index (CNI) and develop a refined “gradient of connection” based on the instrument structure, proposing boundaries of low (below 4.06), mild (between 4.06 and 4.56) and strong (over 4.56) connection that are relevant for conservation activities. Furthermore, we show how the suggested boundaries relate to self-reported conservation behaviours with a high probability of performing behaviours (>70%) only reached at strong levels of connection. Our data show that, in agreement with current perceptions, the population of UK children surveyed have a low connection to nature and are unlikely to be performing many conservation behaviours. This demonstrates how the index can be used to measure and evaluate connection in populations in a way that will enhance future conservation efforts.
  • 30 days wild: who benefits most?

    Richardson, Miles; McEwan, Kirsten; Garip, Gulcan; University of Derby; Human Sciences Research Centre, University of Derby, Derby, UK; Human Sciences Research Centre, University of Derby, Derby, UK; Human Sciences Research Centre, University of Derby, Derby, UK (2018-08-07)
    There is a need to provide interventions to improve well-being that are accessible and cost-effective. Interventions to increase engagement with nature are coming to the fore. The Wildlife Trusts 30 Days Wild campaign shows promise as a large-scale intervention for improving public engagement with nature for well-being. The paper aims to discuss this issue. Design/methodology/approach In total, 273 people fully participated in a repeated measures evaluation comparing baseline measures of nature connection, health, happiness and conservation behaviours with measures post-30 days and 3 months. Findings There were sustained and significant increases for scores in nature connection, health, happiness and conservation behaviours. Those with lower scores at baseline in nature connection, conservation behaviours and happiness showed the most benefit. Older participants and those with higher baseline scores in conservation behaviours were the most likely to sustain their engagement with the campaign. Research limitations/implications Although the design and defined outcomes meet criteria for public health interventions, the self-reported measures, self-selecting sample and attrition are limitations. Originality/value The significant and sustained effects of the campaign on health, happiness and nature connection and conservation make this a promising intervention for improving human’s and nature’s well-being. The large community sample and naturalistic setting for the intervention make these data relevant to future interventions and policy.
  • Development of a compassion-based training for cancer (CforC) curriculum for female breast cancer patients in stages I-III and cancer survivors. Origins, rationale and initial observations.

    Wahl, Julia; Sheffield, David; Maratos, Frances A.; Archer, Stephanie; University of Derby; Imperial College London (Elsevier, 2018-07-20)
    Compassion is an intrinsic trait and is linked to psychological and physiological well-being. It can be trained and improved through a systematic contemplative training programme. The purpose of this paper is to present a new training programme for cancer patients and survivors (CforC) that was designed and tested in a pilot study. We review the potential benefits of CforC which include attention regulation, self-regulation, mental awareness, and acceptance of physical sensations (including pain experiences). We also consider limitations. Results of the pilot suggest that the current intervention is feasible and provides potential psychological benefits for female breast cancer patients/survivors. Future research may benefit from examining other potential effects of the CforC programme, including emotional and physical outcomes in cancer patients and survivors, and the application of the intervention to other populations of chronically ill patients.
  • 30 days wild and the relationships between engagement with nature’s beauty, nature connectedness and well-being.

    Richardson, Miles; McEwan, Kirsten; University of Derby (Frontiers, 2018-09-03)
    Recent research suggests that engagement with natural beauty (EWNB) is key to the well-being benefits of nature connectedness. The Wildlife Trust’s 30 Days Wild campaign provides a large-scale intervention for improving public engagement with nature and its beauty. The effect of 30 Days Wild participation on levels of EWNB and the relationship between EWNB, nature connectedness and happiness was evaluated during the 2017 campaign. Of the 49,000 people who signed up to the campaign, 308 people fully completed measures of EWNB, nature connection, health, happiness, and conservation behaviors at baseline, post-30 days and post-2 months. There were sustained and significant increases for scores in nature connection, health, happiness, and conservation behaviors. In addition, 30 Days Wild was the first intervention found to increase EWNB. Further, the significant increase in EWNB mediated the relationship between the increases in nature connectedness and happiness. In a supplementary study to understand the well-being benefits further (n = 153), emotional regulation was found to mediate the relationship between nature connectedness and happiness, but EWNB and emotional regulation were not related. The links between nature’s beauty, nature connectedness and well-being are discussed within an account of affect-regulation.
  • What is acceptance, and how could it affect health outcomes for people receiving renal dialysis?

    Stalker, Carol; Elander, James; Mitchell, Kathryn; Taal, Maarten W.; Selby, Nicholas; Stewart, Paul; University of Derby; University of Nottingham (British Psychological Society, 2018-07-20)
    Renal dialysis is a life-saving treatment for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) but is burdensome, invasive and expensive. Patients’ experiences of dialysis and the outcomes of their treatment could potentially be improved by focusing on ‘acceptance’. However, the concept of acceptance has been used in different ways. This article examines ways that acceptance has been conceptualised in research on chronic illness generally and ESRD specifically, and makes proposals for research to understand better what acceptance means for people with ESRD. The aim is to assist the development of acceptance-related measures and interventions to support people with ESRD.
  • Evaluation of a measure of sickle cell disease patients’ satisfaction with hospital care: A student researcher’s perspective.

    Elander, James; University of Derby (British Psychological Society, 2018-07-20)
    This article provides a reflective account of our work on a project at the University of Derby and Bart’s Health NHS Trust, London, to evaluate a questionnaire measure of sickle cell disease (SCD) patients’ satisfaction with hospital care. Romaana Kapadi’s involvement was supported by a University internship and scholarship, and this article covers the skills she gained as an undergraduate student researcher, and how the opportunity helped with her plans to become a health psychologist. We hope this article will inspire other undergraduate students to grasp opportunities like this, and encourage lecturers to get students more involved with their research, as well as illustrating the role that health psychologists can play in improving healthcare for people with SCD.
  • An exploration into depression-focused and anger-focused rumination in relation to depression in a student population.

    Gilbert, Paul; Cheung, Mimi; Irons, Christopher Paul; McEwan, Kirsten; Cardiff University; Kingsway Hospital; University of Derby (British Association for Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapies, 2005-07-01)
    Research has shown an important link between depression and rumination. This study set out to explore depression-focused rumination and anger-focused rumination in relation to shame and entrapment, and depression. 166 undergraduate students completed a battery of self-report questionnaires measuring current depression, rumination on depressive symptoms, rumination on anger, and the frequency of shame-focused and entrapment-focused thoughts. Both depression-focused and anger-focused rumination were related to depression, and to the frequency of shame and entrapment thoughts. In a mediational model, the link between depression-focused rumination and depression was partially mediated by feeling trapped by, and wanting to escape from, one's thoughts and feelings. Thus the link between rumination and depression is complex. Although rumination may contribute to depression by generating a spiral of negative thinking and negative feeling, feeling trapped and unable to control one's rumination, and being flight motivated, may add a further dimension to the depressogenic qualities of rumination.
  • The relation of entrapment, shame and guilt to depression, in carers of people with dementia.

    Martin, Y.; Gilbert, Paul; McEwan, Kirsten; Irons, Christopher Paul; Kingsway Hospital; University of Derby (Routledge, 2006-01)
    There is increasing research exploring depression in carers of people with dementia. This study explored the relation of entrapment, shame and guilt to depression in a group of 70 carers of those with dementia. As in other studies the experience of entrapment in the role was highly related to depression. Moreover, experiences of shame relating to self-criticism, other people’s expectations and the fear of their criticism were significantly related to depression, entrapment and guilt. Guilt however, as focused on the fears of harming others, letting others down and sense of responsibility, was not associated with depression or entrapment. Depression in carers may relate in part to feeling trapped in a role but also being vulnerable to criticism and feelings of inadequacy in that role. In this study, degree of behavioural disturbance/dependence was not found to be significantly associated with any of the research variables.

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