• Fatigue interventions in long term, physical health conditions: a scoping review of systematic reviews.

      Hulme, Katrin; Safari, Reza; Thomas, Sarah; Mercer, Tom; White, Claire; Van der Linden, Marietta; Moss-Morris, Rona; University of Derby; King’s College London; Staffordshire University; et al. (PLOS, 2018-10-12)
      Fatigue is prominent across many long term physical health conditions. This scoping review aimed to map the fatigue intervention literature, to ascertain if certain interventions may be effective across conditions, and if novel interventions tested in specific long term conditions may be promising for other conditions.
    • Fears of compassion and happiness in relation to alexithymia, mindfulness, and self-criticism.

      Gilbert, Paul; McEwan, Kirsten; Gibbons, L.; Duarte, Joana; Matos, Marcela; Kingsway Hospital, Derby; University of Coimbra (British Psychological Society, 2011-11-08)
      Background. Thereisincreasingresearchtosuggestthatfearsof,andresistancesto, affiliativeandpositiveemotionsarelinkedtoself-criticismandarangeofpsychopathologies.Itisunclearhowthesefearsandresistancesarelinkedtoeachotherandhowthese inturnarelinkedtopsychologicalprocesses,suchasabilitiestobemindfulandrecognize and describe emotions. Objectives. Thisresearchexplorestherelationshipbetweenfearsofcompassionand happinessingeneral,withcapacitiesforemotionalprocessing(alexithymia),capacitiesfor mindfulness, and empathic abilities. Toadvance this research, a new scale was developed to measure general fears of positive feelings – the Fear of Happiness Scale. Results. The results showed that fears of compassion for self, from others and in particular fear of happiness, were highly linked to different aspects of alexithymia, mindfulness, empathy, self-criticism and depression, anxiety and stress. Especially noteworthy was the very high correlation between fear of happiness and depression (r =.70). Conclusion. While the development of positive emotions, especially those linked to affiliation and connectedness are increasingly seen as important therapeutic targets, little research has focused on the blocks and fears to positive emotions. This study used newly developed fears of positive affect scales (e.g., compassion and happiness) to explore these aspects and found they were significantly linked to psychopathology variables self-criticism and difficulties such as alexithymia.
    • Fears of compassion in a depressed population: Implication for psychotherapy

      Gilbert, Paul; McEwan, Kirsten; Catarino, Francisca; Baião, Rita; University of Derby (OMICS International, 2014-05-13)
      Background: While psychological therapies for depression have advanced in the last 20 years, still many people respond only partially and remain vulnerable to relapse. Insight into the limitations of our psychological therapies might be obtained from recent research that has revealed, in nonclinical populations, that some people can be fearful of positive emotions especially affiliative and compassion-focused ones. Aims: This study explores the fears of compassion in a clinical population and their associations with selfcriticism, self-compassion and depression, anxiety and stress. Method: 53 depressed patients completed a series of self-report scales. Results: Fears of compassion, particularly for oneself and from others, were strongly linked to self-criticism, depression, anxiety and stress, and negatively associated with self-compassion and self-reassurance. Conclusions: Since compassion and the affiliative emotions associated with compassion play a fundamental role in emotion regulation, individuals who are blocked or fearful of accessing these emotions are likely to be struggle with emotional regulation and the psychotherapeutic process. Research on the fears of compassion and affiliative emotions suggests these are important therapeutic targets.
    • Fears of compassion: development of three self-report measures.

      Gilbert, Paul; McEwan, Kirsten; Matos, Marcela; Rivis, Amanda; Kingsway Hospital; University of Coimbra; University of Nottingham (British Psychological Society, 2011-04-13)
      Objectives. There is increasing evidence that helping people develop compassion for themselves and others has powerful impacts on negative affect and promotes positive affect. However, clinical observations suggest that some individuals, particularly those high in self-criticism, can find self-compassion and receiving compassion difficult and can befearfulofit.Thisstudythereforedevelopedmeasuresoffearof:compassionforothers, compassion from others, and compassion for self. We also explored the relationship of these fears with established compassion for self and compassion for others measures, self-criticism, attachment styles, and depression, anxiety, and stress. Method. Students (N = 222) and therapists (N = 53) completed measures of fears of compassion, self-compassion, compassion for others, self-criticism, adult attachment, and psychopathology. Results. Fear of compassion for self was linked to fear of compassion from others, and both were associated with self-coldness, self-criticism, insecure attachment, and depression, anxiety, and stress. In a multiple regression, self-criticism was the only significant predictor of depression. Conclusion. This study suggests the importance of exploring how and why some people may actively resist engaging in compassionate experiences or behaviours and be fearful of affiliative emotions in general. This has important implications for therapeutic interventions and the therapeutic relationship because affiliative emotions are major regulators of threat-based emotions.
    • Fears of happiness and compassion in relationship with depression, alexithymia, and attachment security in a depressed sample.

      Gilbert, Paul; McEwan, Kirsten; Catarino, Francisca; Baião, Rita; Palmeira, Lara; University of Derby; University of Coimbra; Mental Health Research Unit; Derbyshire Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust; Derby UK; Mental Health Research Unit; Derbyshire Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust; Derby UK; Mental Health Research Unit; Derbyshire Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust; Derby UK; et al. (Wiley, 2013-11-27)
      Objectives In a non-clinical population, fears of compassion and fear of happiness have both been found to be highly correlated with alexithymia and depression. This study sought to explore these processes and their links with adult attachment and social safeness and pleasure in a depressed group. Method A total of 52 participants suffering from moderate to severe depression completed measures of fears of happiness, compassion from others and for self, in addition to measures of alexithymia, attachment, social safeness, and depression, anxiety, and stress. Results Fears of compassion and happiness were highly correlated with alexithymia, adult attachment, and depression, anxiety, and stress. Fear of happiness was found to be the best predictor of depression, anxiety, and stress, whereas fear of compassion from others was the best predictor of adult attachment. A path analysis showed that fears of positive emotion fully mediate the link between alexithymia and depression. This clinical sample had higher mean scores in fears of positive emotions, alexithymia, and depression, anxiety, and stress than a previously studied student sample. Conclusions This study adds to the evidence that fears of positive emotions are important features of mental health difficulties. Unaddressed, these fears can block positive emotions and may lead to emotional avoidance of positive affect thus contributing as blocks to successful therapy. Therapies for depression may therefore profitably assess and desensitize the fear of positive emotions. Practitioner points Many therapies focus on reducing negative affect and increasing positive affect. However, clinicians should be aware that positive emotions can be feared: in this clinical sample, depression is strongly associated with fear of happiness and fears of compassion. If clients fear happiness and compassion, they may resist or have difficulties in engaging in activities which evoke positive affect. If not addressed these fears may become blocks to therapy. Fears of different types of positive affect may require different interventions.
    • Fears of negative emotions in relation to fears of happiness, compassion, alexithymia and psychopathology in a depressed population: A preliminary study

      Gilbert, Paul; McEwan, Kirsten; Catarino, Francisca; Baião, Rita; University of Derby; University of Coimbra (OMICS International, 2014-05-13)
      Abstract Objectives: While fears of negative or aversive emotions are linked to experiential avoidance and psychopathology, recent studies have also focused on the relation between psychopathology and fear of positive emotions. This study explores 1. which negative emotions of anger, anxiety and sadness on most feared and avoided and 2. the links between fears and avoidance of negative emotions, with fears of positive and affiliative emotions, alexithymia, and self-reported depression anxiety and stress. Method: A new scale was developed to measure fears of three negative emotions anxiety anger and sadness. 52 participants suffering from moderate to severe depression completed this measure, along with fear of happiness, fears of compassion, alexithymia and psychopathology. Results: Interestingly fears of negative emotions were not correlated with each other; in other words one can be frightened of one negative emotion but not another. The correlation between the fear of an emotion and the avoidance of that emotion was different for the three negative emotions, with fear of anger being the most strongly linked to its avoidance. Fear of sadness was the only feared ‘negative’ emotion associated with depression. Fear of sadness and fear of anger, but not anxiety also linked to fears of positive emotions and alexithymia. Conclusions: Fears of (so called) negative emotions vary in terms of the degree to which people are fearful of them and avoid them. Importantly it was sadness, a neglected emotion in the studies of emotion avoidance, which accounted for the higher proportion of variance for depression and alexithymia.
    • A feasibility study of a novel work-focused relational group CBT treatment programme for moderate to severe recurrent depression

      Walker, Nicola; Vernon-Smith, Madeleine; Townend, Michael; Teesside University; Leeds and York Partnership NHS Foundation Trust; University of Derby (Emerald, 2021-09-02)
      No current psychotherapeutic intervention is designed to enhance job retention in employees with moderate-severe recurrent depression. We hypothesized that interdisciplinary, work-focused psychotherapy would have the triple benefits of alleviating depression, improving interpersonal difficulties, and enhancing job retention. To test the feasibility of a new Work-focused Relational Group-CBT Treatment Programme for moderate-severe depression. The new programme was based on a theoretical integration of occupational stress, psychological, social/interpersonal, and bio-medical theories and consisted of (i) 1:1 psychotherapist sessions; (ii) a work-focused, twelve-week group CBT programme; and (iii) optional 1:1 sessions with an occupational therapist. Depression, coping/self-efficacy, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), interpersonal difficulty, and work/social functioning outcomes were assessed before and after group therapy using validated instruments. Intervention delivery, therapeutic alliance, client satisfaction, and programme cost were assessed. While there was no statistically significant change in HAM-D depression scores after therapy (n=5; p=0.313), there was a significant decrease in BDI-II depression scores after therapy (n=8; -20.0 median change, p=0.016; 6/8 responses, 7/8 minimal clinically important differences, 2 remissions). There were significant reductions in clinically relevant psychological distress, coping self-efficacy, HRQoL, and interpersonal difficulties after therapy. All clients in work at the start of therapy remained in work at the end of therapy. The intervention was safe, had 100% retention, and clients were satisfied with their treatment. The Work-focused Relational Group-CBT Treatment Programme showed promising immediate positive outcomes in terms of depressive symptoms, interpersonal difficulties, and job retention that warrant further exploration in a longer-term definitive study.
    • Feature: Angela Bartram - 366:366 (eventually; animated; finally), 2016-2020

      Bartram, Angela; University of Derby (Invert/Extant, 2020-09-15)
      For the leap year of 2016 I exhaled on an etching plate every day, at roughly 8pm. 366 breaths layered on the same surface, in the same place, and at roughly the same time. Each breath took about four seconds to lay on an A5 zinc etching plate. So, roughly 1464 seconds in total, or just over twenty-four minutes, or a third of an hour…that is a lot of breath. I had worked with the mouth as an instrument for drawing and object making in performances and other ways for years, and this work is part of that practice. The mouth, what some theorists would term a vulnerable orifice, made useful and invulnerable (perhaps) through creative process. But surely this was doomed to failure, for how could breathing produce an image in this way? Really, I didn’t care. For this was an exploration of repetition within process, the mundane within the order of making.
    • Feel it in my bones: Composing multimodal experience through tissue conduction

      Lennox, Peter; McKenzie, Ian; Brown, Michael; University of Derby (Les éditions de PRISM, 28/09/2017)
      We outline here the feasibility of coherently utilising tissue conduction for spatial audio and tactile input. Tissue conduction display-specific compositional concerns are discussed; it is hypothesised that the qualia available through this medium substantively differ from those for conventional artificial means of appealing to auditory spatial perception. The implications include that spatial music experienced in this manner constitutes a new kind of experience, and that the ground rules of composition are yet to be established. We refer to results from listening experiences with one hundred listeners in an unstructured attribute elicitation exercise, where prominent themes such as “strange”, “weird”, “positive”, “spatial” and “vibrations” emerged. We speculate on future directions aimed at taking maximal advantage of the principle of multimodal perception to broaden the informational bandwidth of the display system. Some implications for composition for hearing-impaired are elucidated.
    • Feeling safe and content: A specific affect regulation system? Relationship to depression, anxiety, stress, and self-criticism.

      Gilbert, Paul; McEwan, Kirsten; Mitra, Ranjana; Franks, Leigh; Richter, Anne; Rockliff, Helen; University of Derby; Kingsway Hospital (Taylor and Francis, 2008-06-17)
      Recent work in the neuroscience of positive affect has suggested that there may be two different types of positive affect. One is linked to a drive/seeking system (and may be dopaminergic mediated) and the other is a soothing-contentment system (and may be opiate/oxytocin mediated). This study sought to develop a self-report scale that could tap these positive affects in regard to characteristic feelings individuals may have. Results from 203 students suggested three (rather than two) underlying factors: activated positive affect, relaxed positive affect, and safe/content positive affect. It was the safe/content positive affect that had the highest negative correlations with depression, anxiety and stress, self-criticism, and insecure attachment. Hence, greater clarity on the different types and functions of positive affect may demystify the relationship between positive emotions and well-being.
    • The Feldstein-Horioka puzzle and exchange rate regimes: Evidence from cointegration tests

      Apergis, Nicholas; Alexakis, Panagiotis; Kyranis Securities; University of Aegean (Elsevier, 1994-10)
      Many economists specialized in international finance claim that international capital markets are highly integrated (at least during the flexible exchange rate era). The main consequence of the above claim is that there is no longer any close relationship between investment and savings decisions. In other words, the close link between savings and investment ceases to exist under perfect capital mobility. Therefore, we construct a general equilibrium optimization model that is capable of generating artificial (model) data for savings and investment. Then, using the methodology of cointegration testing on these artificial data, we test whether there exists or not any link between savings and investment. The test is implemented between two different exchange rate regimes, that is, that of the Bretton Woods and that of the floating or flexible exchange rate regime. The results from the empirical analysis provide support for integrated capital markets over the second exchange rate era in the case of the United States of America.
    • Female career progression in retailing

      Foster, Carley; Whysall, P.; Harris, Lynette; Nottingham Trent University (Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2007)
      Abstract: Purpose – The aim of this paper is to highlight the factors that limit and support female career progression in the retail industry. Design/methodology/approach – The research used a combination of quantitative and qualitative research methods. Data were collected from employees and managers working in 31 stores belonging to national stores operating in the East Midlands as well as ten SME independent retailers based in the region. Findings – The women in this study can be categorised into those women who are not interested in pursuing a career in retail, those that seek promotion but have difficulties balancing the demands of their work and domestic circumstances and those who have actively pursued a career in the industry. Despite these categorisations, the study suggests that the career progression of all female staff is helped and hindered by a number of interrelating factors, such as whether they have a role model, are loyal to the store they work in or have children. Practical implications – It is proposed that career initiatives in retailing need to be more adaptable so that they take account of the different development needs of these three types of women. Originality/value – This is a large-scale study that uses a mixed method approach and considers the opinions of store staff working in a range of roles.
    • Female entrepreneurial networking in the marketing services sector

      Foster, Carley; Brindley, Clare; University of Derby (Emerald, 2018-04-09)
      Networking is a key element of entrepreneurial and SME activity. The skills required to network share similarities to those of a marketer and can be associated with feminine traits, such as relationship building. Yet, little is known about how female SME marketers engage in networking. This study aims to address this gap by exploring how self-employed female services marketers build, use and value networks over the lifetime of their business. In-depth narrative interviews were conducted with 26 self-employed women working in the UK marketing services sector. Template analysis was used to analyse the materials. A model encapsulates the fluid nature of the networking activity throughout the lifetime of the participants’ businesses by illustrating which networks the women used and their perceived value. Networking led to multi-directional outsourcing opportunities and philanthropic marketing activity, all of which supported the success of the SME. Despite support from family, friends and the community, these were not regarded as networks by the women. At the individual level, insights are offered into which networking activity is more valuable for female entrepreneurs working in the sector. For policymakers, the study indicates that participants did not see value in the formal, government networks and the women did not engage with professional bodies. More creative solutions to supporting female marketing entrepreneurs are required. The study is original, in that it offers qualitative insights into how self-employed female marketers use and value networks throughout the lifetime of their business. It concentrates on one sector (marketing services) and so answers criticisms that studies in entrepreneurship do not consider specific sectors. In contrast to studies which focus on one stage of the business lifecycle, this research contributes to a holistic, longitudinal understanding of entrepreneurial female networking activity in marketing. More generally, it contributes to the paucity of literature which explores the reality of working in the marketing services sector
    • Feminine men and masculine women: in/exclusion in the academy

      Atkins, Liz; Vicars, Mark; Northumbria University (Emerald, 31/03/2016)
      The purpose of this paper is to draw on concepts of female masculinityto interrogate how hegemonic gendering discourses, forms and performances are inscribed in neoliberal narratives of competency in higher education in the Western Hemisphere. Drawing on individual examples, the authors consider how these narratives are omnipresent in the sector, and systematically act to exclude those who do not conform. In doing so, the authors draw extensively on bodies of literature exploring gender/identity, and neo-liberalism. In particular, the paper draws on the work of Halberstam (1998, 2011), and of Drake (2015).There are comparatively few women in senior positions in Higher Education and the authors argue that as gendering institutions they reproduce hegemonic gendering discourses. The authors find that hegemonic gendering discourses are instrumental in maintaining and privileging specific forms and perceptions of masculinity and femininity as inscribed within and reproduced by perceptions of professional competency. There are comparatively few women in senior positions in Higher Education and the authors argue that as gendering institutions they reproduce hegemonic gendering discourses. The authors find that hegemonic gendering discourses are instrumental in maintaining and privileging specific forms and perceptions of masculinity and femininity as inscribed within and reproduced by perceptions of professional competency. This paper examines neo-liberal practices from a more nuanced perspective than some traditional polarised critiques which regard gender as a binary. In doing so, it contributes to debates on masculinity, but more importantly, opens discussions about the implications of gendering discourses for the role of the few women in senior positions in higher education institutions globally.
    • FengShui – a systematic research of vernacular sustainable development In Ancient China and its lessons for future

      Ceranic, Boris; Zhong, Z.; University of Derby (2007-09)
      Creating and keeping balance is the basic and the most important principle of Chinese traditional philosophy. It provides the fundamental philosophical basis for Chinese FengShui in pursuing coexistence between human and nature. Influenced by the traditional philosophy, Chinese FengShui displays the concept of balance, harmony and order in the design of ancient living environment and development of traditional settlement with many detailed manifestations that embody representative sustainable character. This paper discusses the principle of sustainability in FengShui practice from philosophical, environmental, ecological, socio-cultural and economic perspectives. It further intends to reveal the inherent connection between FengShui, traditional Chinese culture and the vernacular sustainable development of the agricultural society in ancient China.
    • Field geographies

      Abbott, Dina; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2012-05-29)
      Epistemological discourses such as those that have emerged from women’s studies (particularly feminism) and development studies have, however, shown geographers that there is a need to challenge the power assumptions embedded in the whole process of research, including methodological choices that can include or exclude. By tracing these discourses and using examples from these two disciplines, this article demonstrates how contemporary geography has taken on board some of the new methodological approaches that have thus transpired. In turn, this has enriched geographical enquiry, which is now, much as the subject itself, seen as a social construct requiring critical reflection and challenge.
    • Figural effects in a syllogistic evaluation paradigm

      Stupple, Edward J. N.; Ball, Linden J.; University of Derby (Hogrefe, 2007-01)
      Robust biases have been found in syllogistic reasoning that relate to the figure of premises and to the directionality of terms in given conclusions. Mental models theorists (e.g., Johnson-Laird & Byrne, 1991) have explained figural bias by assuming that reasoners can more readily form integrated models of premises when their middle terms are contiguous than when they are not. Biases associated with the direction of conclusion terms have been interpreted as reflecting a natural mode of reading off conclusions from models according to a “first-in, first-out principle.” We report an experiment investigating the impact of systematic figural and conclusion-direction manipulations on the processing effort directed at syllogistic components, as indexed through a novel inspection-time method. The study yielded reliable support for mental-models predictions concerning the nature and locus of figural and directionality effects in syllogistic reasoning. We argue that other accounts of syllogistic reasoning seem less able to accommodate the full breadth of inspection-time findings observed.
    • Financial Deepening and Economic Growth Linkages: A Panel Data Analysis

      Apergis, Nicholas; Fillipidis, Ioannis; Economidou, Claire; University of Piraeus; University of Piraeus; University of Utrecht (Springer, 2007-04)
      The paper examines whether a long-run relationship between financial development and economic growth exists employing panel integration and cointegration techniques for a dynamic heterogeneous panel of 15 OECD and 50 non-OECD countries over the period 1975–2000. Three different measures of financial deepening are used to capture the variety of different channels through which financial development can affect growth. Our findings support the existence of a single long-run equilibrium relation between financial deepening, economic growth and a set of control variables. Further, the evidence points to a bi-directional causality between financial deepening and growth.
    • Financial experts on the board: does it matter for the profitability and risk of the u.k. banking industry?

      Apergis, Nicholas; University of Derby (Wiley., 2019-01-13)
      This paper explores the relation between board-level financial expertise, the profitability and the risk profile with panel data from the UK banking industry. The empirical findings document that collectively, financial experts have a positive influence on the performance outcomes of banks, they contribute to higher risks, especially in the case of large banks, while they improve the stock performance of the associated banks. Moreover, the results highlight that board-level qualified accountants have no statistical effect on that profitability, while such a positive link is established for the case of financial and banking professors, as well as for financial experts from other industries. Such findings imply that these two groups of professional financial experts may be easier adopted at group-level profits enhancement. Robustness checks confirm the results for all types of banking institutions, except those with a strong real-estate activity portfolio. Finally, certain commercial and/or policy implications of the results are reported.
    • Financial portfolio choice: Do business cycle regimes matter? Panel evidence from international household surveys.

      Apergis, Nicholas; Curtin University (Elsevier, 2014-11-06)
      This study investigates how business cycles regimes can explain financial portfolio decisions across investors and countries, given a number of idiosyncratic characteristics. In particular, the empirical strategy studies the relationship between risky asset shares and linear and nonlinear business cycles. The empirical part employs data from household surveys in the U.K., France, Germany, Japan, the Netherlands, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Italy, Switzerland, Canada, Australia and New Zealand for the period of 1998–2012. The analysis provides evidence that while a linear framework does not provide a statistically significant association between business cycles and decisions in risky investments, a nonlinear business cycles context leads investors to decrease their risky investments stronger during recessions than they increase them during booms, lending support to the hypothesis of interaction between financial risks and other determinants. The results are expected to signal interesting flashing points not only to market participants and portfolio managers, but mainly to policy makers and the way their economic policy decisions affect the working of financial markets.