• What works? The evidence base for teacher CPD delivered by employers.

      Dodd, Vanessa; University of Derby (The Careers & Enterprise Company, 2017-12-04)
      Teacher continuing professional development (CPD) delivered by employers can refer to a variety of professional development activities where an employer is the primary facilitator of training. But what impact do teacher placements have and what can we learn about lessons in best practice? This paper provides an overview of the evidence for teacher continuing professional development (CPD) provided by employers with the aim of clarifying possible impacts and identifying effective best practice.
    • What's it like to work in retailing?

      Foster, Carley; Whysall, P.; Harris, Lynette; Nottingham Trent University (2006)
    • When choreography marries digital projection.

      Marshall, Alice; University of Derby; University of Derby (Intellect, 2016-12-01)
      As a choreographer, I have always had a keen interest in fusing movement with other art forms and in being able to achieve this seamlessly. Each art form is as important as another; therefore making this a reality can be challenging. However, in my work I have discovered that the use of movement with digital projection is one that has a real connection. The two have a symmetry that is aesthetically pleasing, but my work to date had never had a real ‘marriage’ of the two forms. One always came before the other; never did the two coexist to arrive at the same point. During 2016, Illuminos (digital artists www.illuminos.co.uk) and I set about our biggest challenge to date: creating a full-length production that did not just fuse dance with digital, but dance with digital, music and storytelling. Our aim was to create a show based on the myth of Daedalus and Icarus. It would explore the story, highlighting the journey it takes from the ground to the sky and back again. Most importantly the piece was to demonstrate how projection can create the illusion of height and weightlessness, with imagery dictating the movement, and how the movement can dictate the imagery when the journey reverses. In simplest terms we wanted to find a cohesive process that allowed not just one aspect to dictate the other: a happy marriage between choreography and digital projection, all portrayed through our show, Icarus. This article will explore that journey.
    • When Dads Help: Male Behavioral Care During Primate Infant Development

      Huck, Maren; Fernández-Duque, Eduardo; Department of Anthropology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA; German Primate Centre , Department Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology, Göttingen, Germany; Centro de Ecología Aplicada del Litoral, Conicet, Argentina (Springer, 2012)
      In contrast to birds, male mammals rarely help to raise the offspring. Of all mammals, only among rodents, carnivores, and primates, males are sometimes intensively engaged in providing infant care (Kleiman and Malcolm 1981). Male caretaking of infants has long been recognized in nonhuman primates (Itani 1959). Given that infant care behavior can have a positive effect on the infant’s development, growth, well-being, or survival, why are male mammals not more frequently involved in “building babies”? We begin the chapter defining a few relevant terms and introducing the theory and hypotheses that have historically addressed the evolution of paternal care. We then review empirical findings on male care among primate taxa, before focusing, in the final section, on our own work on paternal care in South American owl monkeys (Aotus spp.). We conclude the chapter with some suggestions for future studies.
    • When is a face a face? Schematic faces, emotion, attention and the N170

      Maratos, Frances A.; Garner, Matthew; Karl, Anke; Hogan, Alexandra M.; University of Derby (AIMS Press, 2015-09-11)
      Emotional facial expressions provide important non-verbal cues as to the imminent behavioural intentions of a second party. Hence, within emotion science the processing of faces (emotional or otherwise) has been at the forefront of research. Notably, however, such research has led to a number of debates including the ecological validity of utilising schematic faces in emotion research, and the face-selectively of N170. In order to investigate these issues, we explored the extent to which N170 is modulated by schematic faces, emotional expression and/or selective attention. Eighteen participants completed a three-stimulus oddball paradigm with two scrambled faces as the target and standard stimuli (counter-balanced across participants), and schematic angry, happy and neutral faces as the oddball stimuli. Results revealed that the magnitude of the N170 associated with the target stimulus was: (i) significantly greater than that elicited by the standard stimulus, (ii) comparable with the N170 elicited by the neutral and happy schematic face stimuli, and (iii) significantly reduced compared to the N170 elicited by the angry schematic face stimulus. These findings extend current literature by demonstrating N170 can be modulated by events other than those associated with structural face encoding; i.e. here, the act of labelling a stimulus a ‘target’ to attend to modulated the N170 response. Additionally, the observation that schematic faces demonstrate similar N170 responses to those recorded for real faces and, akin to real faces, angry schematic faces demonstrated heightened N170 responses, suggests caution should be taken before disregarding schematic facial stimuli in emotion processing research per se.
    • When logic and belief collide: Individual differences in reasoning times support a selective processing model

      Stupple, Edward J. N.; Ball, Linden J.; Evans, Jonathan St. B. T.; Kamal-Smith, Emily; University of Derby; Lancaster University; University of Plymouth; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2011-12)
      When the validity of a deductive conclusion conflicts with its believability people often respond in a belief-biased manner. This study used response times to test the selective processing model, which views belief-bias effects as arising from the interplay between superficial heuristic processes and more rigorous analytic processes. Participants were split into three response groups according to their propensity to endorse logically normative conclusions. The low-logic, high belief-bias group demonstrated rapid responding, consistent with heuristic processing. The medium-logic, moderate belief-bias group showed slower responding, consistent with enhanced analytic processing, albeit selectively biased by conclusion believability. The high-logic, low belief-bias group's relatively unbiased responses came at the cost of increased processing times, especially with invalid-believable conclusions. These findings support selective processing claims that distinct heuristic and analytic processing systems underpin reasoning, and indicate that certain individuals differentially engage one system more than the other. A minor amendment is proposed to the current selective processing model to capture the full range of observed effects.
    • When risks need attention: adoption of green supply chain initiatives in the pharmaceutical industry

      Kumar, Anil; Zavadskasb, Edmundas Kazimieras; Mangla, Sachin Kumar; Agrawal, Varun; Sharma, Kartik; Gupta, Divyanshu; University of Derby; Vilnius Gediminas Technical University; University of Plymouth; BML Munjal University (Taylor & Francis, 2018-11-19)
      The pharmaceutical industry is very important in delivering life-saving products/services to society. There are many ways for materials/products/services concerned with pharmaceuticals to influence the environment; these include improper disposal of pills/tablets by patients, expired and unused medications, improper release of drugs by pharmacies or household sewage mixed with surplus drugs. In view of this, the present work seeks to integrate green supply chain (GSC) concepts in the pharmaceutical sector in a developing economy Indian context. In so doing, managers need to determine the potential risks in adopting GSC initiatives to achieve sustainability in operational perspectives. In this sense, this work seeks to distinguish the potential risks in adopting GSC initiatives within the pharmaceutical industry. This work uses a literature review and fuzzy Delphi approach in finalising the risks. This research also uses fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) for prioritisation of the risks under vague and unclear surroundings. According to the findings, cold chain technology and supply risks categories are highly prioritised. This work can assist practising managers and government authorities in effectively developing and managing GSC initiatives in line with sustainable development goals in the context of the pharmaceutical industry. Finally, a sensitivity test is applied to evaluate the stability of ranking of risks.
    • When The Future Comes

      Locke, Caroline; University of Derby (Nottingham Contemporary, 2018-06-30)
      An afternoon of talks, artworks and a workshop that looked to the future as the environment and climate is changing. Featuring Dr John King, Senior Scientist at the British Antarctic Survey, artists Dr Rachel Jacobs, Caroline Locke, Frank Abbot, Juliet Robson, Wallace Heim, Matt Watkins, Dominic price, Horizon Digital Economy Research (University of Nottingham) and Prof Esther Eidinow, Professor of Ancient History (University of Bristol). The activities explored how we respond to climate change through a combination of art, science, technology and in our every day lives by presenting 'Performing the Future' an artist/research project led by Dr Rachel Jacobs. Caroline presented some of her current research and artistic practice in relation to science and climate change, including her Frequency of Trees, Significant Trees, association with The Woodland Trust and Smoke in the trees experiments with Jacobs and Watkins.
    • When the image takes over the real: Holography and its potential within acts of visual documentation

      Bartram, Angela; University of Derby (MDPI Open Access Journals, 2020-02-15)
      In Camera Lucida, Roland Barthes discusses the capacity of the photographic image to represent “flat death”. Documentation of an event, happening, or time is traditionally reliant on the photographic to determine its ephemeral existence and to secure its legacy within history. However, the traditional photographic document is often unsuitable to capture the real essence and experience of the artwork in situ. The hologram, with its potential to offer a three-dimensional viewpoint, suggests a desirable solution. However, there are issues concerning how this type of photographic document successfully functions within an art context. Attitudes to methods necessary for artistic production, and holography’s place within the process, are responsible for this problem. The seductive qualities of holography may be attributable to any failure that ensues, but, if used precisely, the process can be effective to create a document for ephemeral art. The failures and successes of the hologram to be reliable as a document of experience are discussed in this article, together with a suggestion of how it might undergo a transformation and reactivation to become an artwork itself. Available in the edited book, 'Holography: a Critical Debate Within Contemporary Visual Culture' by Andrew Pepper.
    • Which behavioural and exercise interventions targeting fatigue show the most promise in multiple sclerosis? A systematic review with narrative synthesis and meta-analysis

      Moss-Moris, R; Harrison, A.M; Safari, Reza; Norton, S; van der Linden, M.L; Picariello, F; Thomas, S; White, C; Mercer, T; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2019-08-28)
      Fatigue is a common and highly debilitating symptom of multiple sclerosis (MS). This meta-analytic systematic review with detailed narrative synthesis examined randomised-controlled (RCTs) and controlled trials of behavioural and exercise interventions targeting fatigue in adults with MS to assess which treatments offer the most promise in reducing fatigue severity/impact. Medline, EMBASE and PsycInfo electronic databases, amongst others, were searched through to August 2018. Thirty-four trials (12 exercise, 16 behavioural and 6 combined; n = 2,434 participants) met inclusion criteria. Data from 31 studies (n = 1,991 participants) contributed to the meta-analysis. Risk of bias (using the Cochrane tool) and study quality (GRADE) were assessed. The pooled (SMD) end-of-treatment effects on self-reported fatigue were: exercise interventions (n = 13) -.84 (95% CI -1.20 to -.47); behavioural interventions (n = 16) -.37 (95% CI -.53 to -.22); combined interventions (n = 5) -.16 (95% CI: -.36 to .04). Heterogeneity was high overall. Study quality was very low for exercise interventions and moderate for behavioural and combined interventions. Considering health care professional time, subgroup results suggest web-based cognitive behavioural therapy for fatigue, balance and/or multicomponent exercise interventions may be the cost-efficient therapies. These need testing in large RCTs with long-term follow-up to help define an implementable fatigue management pathway in MS.
    • Which exercise and behavioural interventions show most promise for treating fatigue in multiple sclerosis? A network meta-analysis

      Harrison, Anthony M; Safari, Reza; Mercer, Tom; Picariello, Federica; van der Linden, Marietta L; White, Claire; Moss-Morris, Rona; Norton, Sam; University of Derby (SAGE Publications, 2021-04-20)
      Fatigue is a common, debilitating symptom of multiple sclerosis (MS) without a current standardised treatment. The aim of this systematic review with network meta-analyses was to estimate the relative effectiveness of both fatigue-targeted and non-targeted exercise, behavioural and combined (behavioural and exercise) interventions. Nine electronic databases up to August 2018 were searched, and 113 trials (n = 6909) were included: 34 were fatigue-targeted and 79 non-fatigue-targeted trials. Intervention characteristics were extracted using the Template for Intervention Description and Replication guidelines. Certainty of evidence was assessed using GRADE. Pairwise meta-analyses showed that exercise interventions demonstrated moderate to large effects across subtypes regardless of treatment target, with the largest effect for balance exercise (SMD = 0.84). Cognitive behavioural therapies (CBTs) showed moderate to large effects (SMD = 0.60), with fatigue-targeted treatments showing larger effects than those targeting distress. Network meta-analysis showed that balance exercise performed significantly better compared to other exercise and behavioural intervention subtypes, except CBT. CBT was estimated to be superior to energy conservation and other behavioural interventions. Combined exercise also had a moderate to large effect. Treatment recommendations for balance and combined exercise are tentative as the certainty of the evidence was moderate. The certainty of the evidence for CBT was high.
    • White Syndrome in Acropora muricata: nonspecific bacterial infection and ciliate histophagy

      Sweet, Michael J.; Bythell, John C.; University of Derby; Molecular Health and Disease Laboratory; College of Life and Natural Sciences; University of Derby; Kedleston Road Derby DE56 0TA UK; University of the South Pacific; Laucala Campus; Suva Fiji (2015-02-23)
      Selective antibiotic treatment of white syndrome (WS)-affected corals (Acropora muricata) from Fiji was used to identify 3 potential bacterial pathogens of the disease. Interestingly, the suite of bacterial associates of the disease was different to that recently identified using identical primer sets for WS on the GBR and in the Solomon Islands. In addition to the three bacterial pathogenic candidates and as previously shown for WS and more recently for white band disease (WBD) in the Caribbean, all samples of the disease were specifically associated with the histophagous ciliate Philaster lucinda. From the pattern of disease progression and histopathology in relation to the selective elimination of microbial groups, we conclude that these ‘white’ dis-eases are a result of a nonspecific bacterial infection and a ‘secondary’ infection by the P. lucinda ciliate. Although we have not observed the initiation of infection, a nonspecific, multispecies bacterial infection appears to be a corequirement for WS lesion progression and we hypothesize that the bacterial infection occurs initially, weakening the defences of the host to predation by the ciliates. Such ciliate histophagy gives rise to the characteristic white band of denuded coral skeleton that gives these diseases their names. The characteristics of the microbial communities of WBD and WS appear identical, and since the bacterial associates of WS vary geographically (and/or tempo-rally), there appears to be no logical distinction between WS in the Indo-Pacific and WBD in the Caribbean.
    • Who Are We, Where Do We Come From, Where Are We Going To? Greek Cypriot Women Artists in Contemporary Cyprus

      Photiou, Maria; Loughborough University (Taylor & Francis Publishers, 2012)
      This article is about Greek Cypriot women artists. In particular it concerns their art, their careers, and their relation to politics; the way they were influenced by politics in Cyprus and how they represented the political upheavals of the time in their own practice. Although all these artists experienced the several phases of Cypriot history in a different way, they all have something in common: the fact that these artists were women living in a colonised, patriarchal country under Greek Cypriot nationality. Their practices are the result of what they experienced and an analysis of their work will reveal the artistic strategies they applied as a response to the politics in Cypriot society.
    • Who are we, Where do we come from, Where are we going to? Writing Greek Cypriot Women's Art Histories in Contemporary Cyprus

      Photiou, Maria; University of Derby (Bloomsbury, 2021-03-25)
      This chapter engages with material so far insufficiently examined in art history: the work of Greek Cypriot women artists. The work of these women artists has received little attention and has frequently been marginalised from official art histories. This chapter develops a framework to explain some of the processes and conditions that affected Greek Cypriot women artists’ lives and careers. It is based on research I carried out for my doctoral thesis at Loughborough University entitled Rethinking the History of Cypriot Art: Greek Cypriot Women Artists in Cyprus. In this chapter I begin with reviewing perspectives on writing Greek Cypriot women artists’ histories. I will address the socio-political conditions from which Greek Cypriot artists emerged and their problematic position, which has been associated with patriarchy and nationalism. This matter is explored by a number of contemporary Greek Cypriot feminists: patriarchal society and national politics left no space for women in Cyprus to struggle for women’s rights, to contest patriarchy or to gain public visibility.2Significant to my discussion is how the socio-political conditions affected Greek Cypriot women artists’ lives and careers. Within this context I will use interview material to refine our understanding of how women artists responded to these socio-political conditions. The works of Loukia Nicolaidou At the Fields (c.1933) and Rhea Bailey Memories of the Yard (1979) will be analysed – their work underlines discourses related to gender relations and socio-political conditions in contemporary Cyprus.
    • The Who of the I: Exhibition, Public Art Work

      Clark, Robert Casselton (2013-04-30)
    • Who thrives under pressure? predicting the performance of elite academy cricketers using the cardiovascular indicators of challenge and threat states

      Turner, Martin J.; Jones, Marc V.; Sheffield, David; Slater, Matthew J.; Barker, Jamie B.; Bell, James J.; Staffordshire University, Centre for Sport, Health and Exercise Research; University of Derby, Centre for Psychological Research (2013-08)
      This study assessed whether cardiovascular (CV) reactivity patterns indexing challenge and threat states predicted batting performance in elite male county (N = 12) and national (N = 30) academy cricketers. Participants completed a batting test under pressure, before which CV reactivity was recorded in response to ego-threatening audio instructions. Self-reported self-efficacy, control, achievement goals, and emotions were also assessed. Challenge CV reactivity predicted superior performance in the Batting Test, compared with threat CV reactivity. The relationships between self-report measures and CV reactivity, and self-report measures and performance were inconsistent. A small subsample of participants who exhibited threat CV reactivity, but performed well, reported greater self-efficacy than participants who exhibited threat CV reactivity, but performed poorly. Also a small subsample of participants who exhibited challenge reactivity, but performed poorly, had higher avoidance goals than participants with challenge reactivity who performed well. The mechanisms for the observed relationship between CV reactivity and performance are discussed alongside implications for future research and applied practice.
    • Why do student nurses want to be nurses?

      Holt, Paula; Perkinton, Louise; Davies, Fiona; University of Derby (EMAP, 2014-01-01)
      Nursing became an all graduate entry profession in September 2013; this move and the publication of the Francis report have brought the debate around nurse education and nurses' capacity to care into sharper focus. There is much debate over what makes a good nurse and whether graduate nurses lack care and compassion.
    • Why higher apprenticeships are critical to business

      Hooley, Tristram; Institute of Student Employers; University of Derby (Open Access Government, 2019-09-06)
    • Why important education research often gets ignored

      Hayes, Dennis; University of Derby (The Conversation Trust (UK), 2014-10-16)
    • Why we need to share our ideas about connecting career development to social justice

      Hooley, Tristram; University of Derby (CERIC, 2021-01)
      An article introducing key ideas of social justice in career guidance.