• Ability to receive compassion from others buffers the depressogenic effect of self-criticism: A cross-cultural multi-study analysis

      Hermanto, Nicola; Zuroff, David C.; Kopala-Sibley, Daniel C.; Kelly, Allison C.; Matos, Marcela; Gilbert, Paul; Koestner, Richard; McGill University; University of Waterloo; University of Coimbra; et al. (Elsevier, 2016-04-29)
      Self-criticism has been shown to be a vulnerability factor that can lead to and maintain depression. We examined the moderating effect of fear of receiving compassion from others on the positive association between self-criticism and depression. Self-report measures were administered to four separate samples (total N = 701) varying in age (students and community adults) and cultural context (Canada, England, and Portugal). Two different measures of self-criticism and of depression were administered to investigate the generalizability of results. Self-criticism, depression, and fear of compassion from others were positively related to one another in all samples. As predicted, fear of compassion from others exerted a moderating effect on the relationship between self-criticism and depression. Low fear of compassion from others weakened the depressogenic effect of self-criticism, while high fear of compassion from others exacerbated the effect. Thus, a self-critic's ability to be open and responsive to care and support from others protected against depression. The aggregate moderating effect across the four studies was of medium size (d + = .53) and highly significant, indicating a robust phenomenon. Implications for working with self-critical depressed patients are discussed.
    • Academic freedom and the diminished subject

      Hayes, Dennis; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2009)
    • The academics vs the bureaucracy

      Hayes, Dennis; University of Derby (spiked Ltd., 2016-09-21)
      Why the Stern Review of the Research Excellence Framework (REF) could mean the end of the university as we know it.
    • Academics’ understandings of the authorial academic writer: a qualitative analysis of authorial identity

      Cheung, Kevin Yet Fong; Elander, James; Stupple, Edward J. N.; Flay, Mike; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2016-12-22)
      Research on authorial identity has focused almost exclusively on the attitudes and beliefs of students. This paper explores how academics understand authorial identity in higher education. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 27 professional academics and analysed using thematic analysis, identifying themes at two levels. At the semantic level was a main theme called ‘the authorial writer’, with five subthemes: ‘authorial confidence’, ‘valuing writing’, ‘ownership and attachment’, ‘authorial thinking’, and ‘authorial goals’. At the latent level were two integrative themes: ‘tacit learning’ and ‘negotiating identities’. The semantic subthemes represent attributes that could be targets for pedagogic interventions. The integrative themes suggest processes in the development of authorial identity, which can inform more effective teaching. By identifying attributes and processes associated with authorial identity, these findings help towards a psychological understanding of authorial identity, informing development of more effective pedagogy to help students improve their academic writing and avoid plagiarism.
    • The acceptability of iterative reconstruction algorithms in head CT: An assessment of sinogram affirmed iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE) vs. filtered back projection (FBP) using phantoms

      Harris, Matine; Huckle, John; Anthony, Denis; Charnock, Paul; University of Leeds (Elsevier, 2017-05-31)
      Computed tomography (CT) is the primary imaging investigation for many neurologic conditions with a proportion of patients incurring cumulative doses. Iterative reconstruction (IR) allows dose optimization, but head CT presents unique image quality complexities and may lead to strong reader preferences. OBJECTIVES: This study evaluates the relationships between image quality metrics, image texture, and applied radiation dose within the context of IR head CT protocol optimization in the simulated patient setting. A secondary objective was to determine the influence of optimized protocols on diagnostic confidence using a custom phantom. METHODS AND SETTING: A three-phase phantom study was performed to characterize reconstruction methods at the local reference standard and a range of exposures. CT numbers and pixel noise were quantified supplemented by noise uniformity, noise power spectrum, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), high- and low-contrast resolution. Reviewers scored optimized protocol images based on established reporting criteria. RESULTS: Increasing strengths of IR resulted in lower pixel noise, lower noise variance, and increased CNR. At the reference standard, the image noise was reduced by 1.5 standard deviation and CNR increased by 2.0. Image quality was maintained at </=24% relative dose reduction. With the exception of image sharpness, there were no significant differences between grading for IR and filtered back projection reconstructions. CONCLUSIONS: IR has the potential to influence pixel noise, CNR, and noise variance (image texture); however, systematically optimized IR protocols can maintain the image quality of filtered back projection. This work has guided local application and acceptance of lower dose head CT protocols.
    • The accordian and the deep bowl of spaghetti: Eight researchers' experiences of using IPA as a methodology

      Wagstaff, Chris; Jeong, Hyeseung; Nolan, Maeve; Wilson, Tony; Tweedlie, Julie; Phillips, Elly; Senu, Halia; Holland, Fiona G.; University of Derby (2014-06-16)
      Since 1996 Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) has grown rapidly and been applied in areas outside its initial “home” of health psychology. However, explorations of its application from a researcher's perspective are scarce. This paper provides reflections on the experiences of eight individual researchers using IPA in diverse disciplinary fields and cultures. The research studies were conducted in the USA, Malaysia, Australia, New Zealand, Ireland and the UK by researchers with backgrounds in business management, consumer behaviour, mental health nursing, nurse education, applied linguistics, clinical psychology, health and education. They variously explored media awareness, employee commitment, disengagement from mental health services, in-vitro fertilisation treatment, student nurses' experience of child protection, second language acquisition in a university context, the male experience of spinal cord injury and academics experience of working in higher education and women’s experiences of body size and health practices. By bringing together intercultural, interdisciplinary experiences of using IPA, the paper discusses perceived strengths and weaknesses of IPA.
    • Accounting information and excess stock returns: the role of the cost of capital – new evidence from US firm-level data

      Apergis, Nicholas; Artikis, George; Eleftheriou, Sofia; Sorros, John; University of Piraeus; University of Piraeus; University of Piraeus; University of Piraeus (Taylor & Francis, 2011-10-20)
      The goal of this article is to investigate the impact of accounting information on the cost of capital as well as how the latter influences excess returns. The analysis has certain novelties: first, it extends prior works by investigating how certain components of accounting information affect stock returns through its direct effect on the cost of capital by incorporating influential components of accounting information; second, it makes use of a sample of 330 US manufacturing firms spanning the period 1990Q1 to 2009Q2, while it makes use, for the first time in this literature, of the methodology of panel cointegration. The empirical findings display that accounting information affects directly the firm's cost of capital. This, in turn, tends to exert a negative effect on the firm's excess stock returns, an empirical documentation not captured in case researchers attempt to directly link the cost of capital and excess stock returns.
    • Accounting standards convergence dynamics: International evidence from club convergence and clustering

      Apergis, Nicholas; Christou, Christina; Hassapis, Christis; University of Piraeus; University of Piraeus; University of Cyprus (Emerald, 2014-10-28)
      This paper aims to explore convergence of accounting standards across worldwide adopted measures to investigate whether countries that have not completely adopted International Accounting Standards across the globe have displayed a tendency to act so. The new panel convergence methodology, developed by Phillips and Sul (2007), is employed. The empirical findings suggest that countries form distinct convergent clubs, albeit on a limited prevalence, yielding support to the notion that on a global basis firms and countries have initiated processes that will eventually lead them to a uniform pattern of employing common accounting standards.
    • Achieving resilience in the supply chain by applying IoT technology

      Al-Talib, M., Melhem, W.Y., Anosike, A.I., Garza-Reyes, J.A., Nadeem, S.P., Kumar, A.; University of Derby (Elsevier, 2020-08-18)
      In the past few decades, competition has increased between organizations as a result of globalization and fast development in IT. Companies these days are continuously looking to expand their market geographically to attract new customers. With that in mind, the main concern of companies is to achieve their customers’ requirements, which makes the supply chain (SC) longer and more complex. This leads to increased difficulty in managing the SC along with controlling risks and disruptions in SC. Such as loss of a critical supplier, a fire accident in the production facility, or an act of terrorism. To deal with these risks, SC must be designed to provide an efficient and effective response, keep its process working and be capable of recovering to their original state after disruptive events, this is considered as the core of supply chain resilience (SCRes). Furthermore, companies that design their SC with capabilities to react quickly to any disruptions in its process have the opportunity to become more stabilized and acquire an improved position in the market. Researchers have been exploring ways to acquire supply chain resilience, such as encouraging and improving collaboration between SC partners or by increasing the organization’s visibility through monitoring SC events and patterns. Studies have shown that IT has a role in improving SCRes, such as information-sharing systems to promote collaboration and visibility tactics. However, recent research trends are exploring new and emerging technologies like the Internet of Things (IoT). Despite the growing interest in IoT, minimal research has been carried out for its application in SCRes. Research in this direction is necessary to explore opportunities provided by IoT to redesign SC which in turn reinforces flexibility of supply chains and aspects of analysis of the product quality and how it could enable companies to improve their SCRes. This study is directly focused to identify and highlight this gap.
    • Acromegaly, Mr Punch and caricature.

      Bryson, David; University of Derby (1996-09)
      The origin of Mr Punch from the Italian Pulcinella of the Commedia dell'arte is well known but his feature, large hooked nose, protruding chin, kyphosis and sternal protrusion all in an exaggerated form also suggest the caricature of an acromegalic. This paper looks at the physical characteristics of acromegaly, the origin of Mr Punch and the development of caricature linking them together in the acromegalic caricature that now has a life of its own.
    • Across the decades (60 years).

      Basi, Philip Ranjit; University Of Derby (2016-08)
      2015 was the 60th year that the Derby West Indian Community Association (DWICA) has been delivering services to the Black and Culturally Diverse Community. DWICA acknowledged that the “DIAMOND” anniversary this was a milestone that should be celebrated. Through a funding application process DWICA successfully secured project financial resources from Heritage Lottery Fund to deliver a project called “Across the Decades” which showcased the achievements made by DWICA over the past sixty (60) years. This project was the foundation for the organisation to collated and document it’s’ legacy detailing the contributions made by the pioneering African Caribbean community coming to the city Derby, in the main from the Caribbean. In addition document the following (2nd & 3rd) generation’s contribution towards community development in Derby.
    • Actantial construction of career guidance in parliament of Finland’s education policy debates 1967–2020

      Varjo, Janne; Kalalahti, Mira; Hooley, Tristram; University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Elverum, Norway; University of Derby (Informa UK Limited, 2021-09-14)
      In this paper we examine the objectives and meanings of the career guidance provided in comprehensive education as set out in discussions in the Parliament of Finland. We approach the topic through an exploration of parliamentary sessions concerning three major legislative proposals for reforming compulsory education in Finland. The premise is that the parliamentary discussions concerning guidance provided in comprehensive education reflect the rationalities that underpin guidance in different eras in Finland and elsewhere. Examining these rationalities provides a way to explore the principles which frame career guidance policy in Finland. Using the actantial model as a methodological tool, the analysis aims to discover the actantial positions in the parliamentary discussions and the interactions that emerge between these. The various actantial narratives demonstrate the way in which guidance is influenced by wider ideological trends. The actantial analysis portrays a shift from the more structural corporatist approaches of the 1960s when the object of guidance was to fulfil the needs of society, towards more third way individualism in 1990s. The current reform of 2020 to extend compulsory education and reinforce guidance may represent some return to more structural approaches.
    • Acting alone

      Hunt, Ava; Branson, Tilly; Scott, Ivan; University of Derby (2016)
      Acting Alone is a practice-as-research solo performance (ACE funded; Amnesty International Derbyshire commission) which toured nationally/ internationally during (2014-2016). An autobiographical provocation inspired by the Israeli/Palestinian conflict based on Hunt’s experience of witnessing Playback theatre in the West Bank. The performance presented this human rights conflict to international audiences asking - can one person make a difference? Historical characters, who acted heroically, against the unheroic acts of Hunt in Palestine where woven throughout. This immersive piece created a strong performer/audience relationship which created powerful moments, during the performance, of audience participation e.g. joining in, helping, with small tasks contributing to the storytelling, leading to the final transformative moment when the audience would be invited to complete the show by crossing the dramaturgical divide. Acting Alone performed to multi-faith communities, studio theatres, non-theatre venues, schools, and at the Just Festival Edinburgh Fringe (receiving 5 star reviews) . The artistic and creative design of Acting Alone was inspired by Boal’s Forum Theatre, where audiences, as Spect-actors, are invited to rehearse a revolutionary act challenging their oppression, however, Acting Alone explored the role of the by-stander or the tritagonist. The tritagonist position is neither protagonist nor antagonist but opens up the third role exploring the agency of the international community. Performances and papers were presented and performed at academic conferences in UK, Ireland, New Zealand, USA and Sweden where Dr Rand (Massey University New Zealand) presented a paper to the IFTR conference inspired by the production entitled: Re-Enacting Palestine and the Performance of Credibility. Detailed responses from audiences (over one thousand) demonstrated discourse, political activism as well as controversial commentary including accusations of falsification and anti-Semitism. Enquiry into the by-stander or tritagonist role through audience/performer immersion, highlighted this new area of knowledge and practice which will be developed in Hunt’s forthcoming PhD.
    • Acting alone

      Hunt, Ava; Branson, Tilly; University of Derby (2016)
      Acting Alone was written and performed by Ava Hunt with dramaturgy and direction by Tilly Branson. This creative and artistic research used autobiographical solo performance explored social/political engagement through the creation and structure of the performer/audience relationship. The piece used autobiographical, verbatim and documentary theatre approaches demonstrating the complexities of being an artist making applied theatre. The piece enquired into the risks of taking direct action or experiencing the fear and humiliation of inaction. Retelling Hunt’s experience in a refugee camp watching a piece of Playback Theatre performed by Palestinian theatre company – The Freedom Theatre, this witnessed event was returned to throughout against other intertwining narratives: presenting historical/heroic characters (Irena Sendler and Rachel Corrie) who took direct action, together with verbatim accounts of people that Hunt met in Israel and Palestine e.g. an outspoken UN Lawyer, a young Israeli soldier from Birmingham. The piece also contains four simple folk tales that are told to help to illustrate the historical and political complexities of the Israeli/Palestinian conflict in an accessible form. Primarily, the piece explores human rights issues from a by-stander/international perspective by weaving participation throughout into a performance provocation, a space in which the audience were invited to cross the dramaturgical divide and engage in the Israeli/Palestinian conflict posing the question - can one person make a difference? Originally commissioned by Amnesty International Wirksworth, this applied theatre practice: Acting Alone toured throughout the UK and internationally performing to a thousand people in different communities, countries and contexts including the Edinburgh Fringe Festival as part of the Just Festival at St Johns Church, where it received critical reviews including: Five Stars from TV Bomb 2016: “Acting Alone .. ingeniously goes against audiences’ expectations regarding both the theatre art-form itself and the handling of the overly yet ineffectively debated topic of the sufferings of Palestinians.” Audiences engaged positively in the discourse created by this artistic research although for some the Israeli/Palestinian conflict is highly controversial and accusations of the piece being unbalanced were received, and the authenticity of the material questioned. Branson and Hunt responded to audience feedback where appropriate recognising that autobiographical and verbatim theatre offers alternative narratives offering audiences insight into Palestinian people’s experiences that are not widely reported. However, when critical reviews such as British Theatre Guide 2016 - Keith Mckenna said “….a thoughtful play given an engaging performance by Ava Hunt…..Theatre can help ensure that those suffering injustice are not isolated. The solidarity of those inside Palestine and those beyond make sure that those wanting change are not acting alone.” The tour enabled valuable primary data to be collected to support the research question creating discourse for audiences to enquire into the by-stander role as part of an international community.
    • Acting Alone - Can one person make a difference?

      Hunt, Ava; Tilly Branson; Ivan Stott; University of Derby; Andy Purves (2015-11)
      Acting Alone is artistic research using solo performance, autobiographical, verbatim and documentary theatricals. Exploring the Israeli/Palestinian conflict through interwoven stories, the piece asks questions of the audience: Can one person actually make a difference? In 2014 Amnesty International (Derbyshire) commissioned Ava Hunt to create a provocation in response to the renewed confliction and humanitarian crises in Gaza. In its exploration of the complex situation faced by those living in Palestine, Acting Alone challenged the theatrical conventions most often experienced by audiences. Using immersive and participatory invitations, the piece encouraged the audience to interact and to cross the dramaturgical divide creating an ending where no-one, including the performer, knows the resolution. This artistic research builds on Hunt’s enquiry and work with artists and educators working in the West Bank, where she worked with children at the Aida Refugee Camp with Dr. Abedelfattah Absourer whose belief and commitment in the use of the arts in the community is to inspire ‘the beautiful resistance’. The performance offered a creative response to this ongoing war, oppression and abuse of human rights opening up a discourse of what is our responsibility and what action is possible from an international community perspective – a performative of hope.
    • Acting Alone: exploring by-stander engagement through performer/audience relationship

      Hunt, Ava; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2019-12-02)
      Acting Alone: a solo performance that explored how social and political engagement in the Israeli/Palestinian conflict might be created through the performer/audience relationship. Drawing on practice as research and data gathered from an extensive tour, this article examines the complexities of creating human rights theatre for a by-stander or tritagonist audience to create engagement, discourse, and agency. Acting Alone used verbatim and autobiographical material to create a theatrical immediacy through which the audience, as by-standers, were invited to cross the dramaturgical divide to engage actively in the Israeli/Palestinian conflict exploring the question – can one person make a difference?
    • An action repeated: a conference paper delivered for the Format International Photography Festival Film & Photography Conference 2015

      Shore, Tim; University of Derby (2015-04)
      An action repeated by thousands of hands, thousands of times at the pace established for each shift. (Cities & Signs:5, Invisible Cities, Italio Calvino). The presentation is about my research made in developing a commission (New Expressions, Visual Arts Network) to make an artwork in collaboration with a museum. The work will explore the meaning and experience of the working day for the mill workers of the early textile mills.
    • Activities of daily life still cause problems for many older and physically impaired people.

      Sims, Ruth; Gyi, Diane E.; Marshall, Russell; Case, Keith; Loughborough University (Design For All Institute of India, 2012)
      Activities of Daily Life (ADL) are those activities that are fundamental to maintaining independence. Without being able to do them, people can become dependent on others or simply not live their lives in the way that they would wish to. A survey of 50 older and disabled people found that surprising numbers were unable to fulfil the level of independence in ADL that they wished to. For all the advances in the recent age in technology and equipment design, these basic activities are still proving too difficult for a sizeable percentage of the older/disabled population. As the population ages, pressure will come to bear on designers to consider the needs of older/disabled people more fully, to meet the needs of the shifting market trends.
    • Acylated apelin-13 amide analogues exhibit enzyme resistance and prolonged insulin releasing, glucose lowering and anorexic properties

      O'Harte, Finbarr P M; Parthsarathy, Vadivel; Hogg, Christopher; Flatt, Peter R; University of Ulster (Elsevier, 2017-10-04)
      The adipokine, apelin has many biological functions but its activity is curtailed by rapid plasma degradation. Fatty acid derived apelin analogues represent a new and exciting avenue for the treatment of obesity-diabetes. This study explores four novel fatty acid modified apelin-13 analogues, namely, Lys8GluPAL)apelin-13 amide, pGlu(Lys8GluPAL)apelin-13 amide, Lys8GluPAL(Tyr13)apelin-13 and Lys8GluPAL(Val13)apelin-13. Fatty acid modification extended the half-life of native apelin-13 to >24 h in vitro. pGlu(Lys8GluPAL)apelin-13 amide was the most potent insulinotropic analogue in BRIN-BD11 cells and isolated islets with maximal stimulatory effects of up to 2.7-fold (p < .001). (Lys8GluPAL)apelin-13 amide (1.9-fold) and Lys8GluPAL(Tyr13)apelin-13 (1.7-fold) were less effective, whereas Lys8GluPAL(Val13)apelin-13 had an inhibitory effect on insulin secretion. Similarly, pGlu(Lys8GluPAL)apelin-13 amide was most potent in increasing beta-cell intracellular Ca2+ concentrations (1.8-fold, p < .001) and increasing glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes (2.3-fold, p < .01). Persistent biological action was observed with both pGlu(Lys8GluPAL)apelin-13 amide and (Lys8GluPAL)apelin-13 amide significantly reducing blood glucose (39-43%, p < .01) and enhancing insulin secretion (43-56%, p < .001) during glucose tolerance tests in diet-induced obese mice. pGlu(Lys8GluPAL)apelin-13 amide and (Lys8GluPAL)apelin-13 amide also inhibited feeding (28-40%, p < .001), whereas Lys8GluPAL(Val13)apelin-13 increased food intake (8%, p < .05) in mice. These data indicate that novel enzymatically stable analogues of apelin-13 may be suitable for future development as therapeutic agents for obesity-diabetes.
    • Acylated apelin-13 amide analogues exhibit enzyme resistance and prolonged insulin releasing, glucose lowering and anorexic properties

      O'Harte, Finbarr P. M.; Parthsarathy, Vadivel; Hogg, Christopher; Flatt, Peter R. (Elsevier, 2017-10-04)
      The adipokine, apelin has many biological functions but its activity is curtailed by rapid plasma degradation. Fatty acid derived apelin analogues represent a new and exciting avenue for the treatment of obesity-diabetes. This study explores four novel fatty acid modified apelin-13 analogues, namely, (Lys8GluPAL)apelin-13 amide, pGlu(Lys8GluPAL)apelin-13 amide, Lys8GluPAL(Tyr13)apelin-13 and Lys8GluPAL(Val13)apelin-13. Fatty acid modification extended the half-life of native apelin-13 to >24 h in vitro. pGlu(Lys8GluPAL)apelin-13 amide was the most potent insulinotropic analogue in BRIN-BD11 cells and isolated islets with maximal stimulatory effects of up to 2.7-fold (p < .001). (Lys8GluPAL)apelin-13 amide (1.9-fold) and Lys8GluPAL(Tyr13)apelin-13 (1.7-fold) were less effective, whereas Lys8GluPAL(Val13)apelin-13 had an inhibitory effect on insulin secretion. Similarly, pGlu(Lys8GluPAL)apelin-13 amide was most potent in increasing beta-cell intracellular Ca2+ concentrations (1.8-fold, p < .001) and increasing glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes (2.3-fold, p < .01). Persistent biological action was observed with both pGlu(Lys8GluPAL)apelin-13 amide and (Lys8GluPAL)apelin-13 amide significantly reducing blood glucose (39–43%, p < .01) and enhancing insulin secretion (43–56%, p < .001) during glucose tolerance tests in diet-induced obese mice. pGlu(Lys8GluPAL)apelin-13 amide and (Lys8GluPAL)apelin-13 amide also inhibited feeding (28–40%, p < .001), whereas Lys8GluPAL(Val13)apelin-13 increased food intake (8%, p < .05) in mice. These data indicate that novel enzymatically stable analogues of apelin-13 may be suitable for future development as therapeutic agents for obesity-diabetes.