• On the causal dynamics between emissions, nuclear energy, renewable energy, and economic growth

      Apergis, Nicholas; Payne, James; Menyah, Kojo; Wolde-Rufael, Yemane; University of Piraeus; Illinois State University; London Metropolitan University; Private (Elsevier, 2010-09-15)
      This paper examines the causal relationship between CO2 emissions, nuclear energy consumption, renewable energy consumption, and economic growth for a group of 19 developed and developing countries for the period 1984–2007 using a panel error correction model. The long-run estimates indicate that there is a statistically significant negative association between nuclear energy consumption and emissions, but a statistically significant positive relationship between emissions and renewable energy consumption. The results from the panel Granger causality tests suggest that in the short-run nuclear energy consumption plays an important role in reducing CO2 emissions whereas renewable energy consumption does not contribute to reductions in emissions. This may be due to the lack of adequate storage technology to overcome intermittent supply problems as a result electricity producers have to rely on emission generating energy sources to meet peak load demand.
    • On the causal dynamics between renewable and non-renewable energy consumption and economic growth in developed and developing countries

      Apergis, Nicholas; Payne, James; University of Piraeus; University of South Florida Polytechnic (Springer, 2011-11)
      This study extends recent work on the relationship between renewable and non-renewable energy consumption and economic growth to the case of developed and developing countries over the period 1990–2007. Heterogeneous panel cointegration procedures show a long-run equilibrium relationship between real GDP, renewable energy consumption, non-renewable energy consumption, real gross fixed capital formation, and the labor force with the respective coefficient estimates positive and statistically significant for developed and developing country panels. The results from the panel error correction models reveal bidirectional causality between renewable and non-renewable energy consumption and economic growth in the short- and long-run for each country panel.
    • On the dynamics of poverty and income inequality in US states

      Apergis, Nicholas; Dincer, Oguzhan; Payne, James; University of Piraeus; Illinois State University; Illinois State University (Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2011)
      This study seeks to provide answers to the following questions: Is there a relationship between poverty and income inequality in the short run/long run? Is the relationship unidirectional from income inequality to poverty as the previous studies assume, or is it bidirectional? The paper investigates the causality between income inequality and poverty within a multivariate framework using a panel data set of 50 US states over the period 1980 to 2004. The results reveal that a bidirectional relationship exists between poverty and income inequality both in the short run and in the long run. With respect to the short‐run dynamics associated with poverty, both income inequality and the unemployment rate have a positive and statistically significant impact on poverty, a negative and statistically significant impact for real per capita personal income and level of education, while corruption is insignificant. In terms of the short‐run dynamics associated with income inequality, poverty, the unemployment rate, real per capita personal income, and the level of education have a positive and statistically significant impact, while corruption has a statistically insignificant impact on income inequality. With regard to the long‐run dynamics, the statistically significant error correction terms indicate the presence of a feedback relationship between poverty and income inequality.
    • On the importance of the microbiome and pathobiome in coral health and disease

      Sweet, Michael J.; Bulling, Mark T.; University of Derby (Frontiers, 2017-01-20)
      The term “microbiome” was first coined in 1988 and given the definition of a characteristic microbial community occupying a reasonably well defined habitat which has distinct physio-chemical properties. A more recent term has also emerged, taking this one step further and focusing on diseases in host organisms. The “pathobiome” breaks down the concept of “one pathogen = one disease” and highlights the role of the microbiome, more specifically certain members within the microbiome, in causing pathogenesis. The development of next generation sequencing has allowed large data sets to be amassed describing the microbial communities of many organisms and the field of coral biology is no exception. However, the choices made in the analytical process and the interpretation of these data can significantly affect the outcome and the overall conclusions drawn. In this review we explore the implications of these difficulties, as well as highlighting analytical tools developed in other research fields (such as network analysis) which hold substantial potential in helping to develop a deeper understanding of the role of the microbiome in disease in corals. We also make the case that standardization of methods will substantially improve the collective gain in knowledge across research groups.
    • On the perceptual advantage of stereo subwoofer systems in live sound reinforcement

      Hill, Adam J.; Hawksford, Malcolm O. J.; University of Derby; University of Essex (Audio Engineering Society, 2013-10)
      Recent research into low-frequency sound-source localization confirms the lowest localizable frequency is a function of room dimensions, source/listener location and reverberant characteristics of the space. Larger spaces therefore facilitate accurate low-frequency localization and should gain benefit from broadband multichannel live-sound reproduction compared to the current trend of deriving an auxiliary mono signal for the subwoofers. This study explores whether the monophonic approach is a significant limit to perceptual quality and if stereo subwoofer systems can create a superior soundscape. The investigation combines binaural measurements and a series of listening tests to compare mono and stereo subwoofer systems when used within a typical left/right configuration.
    • One thousand good things in Nature: aspects of nearby Nature associated with improved connection to Nature

      Richardson, Miles; Hallam, Jenny; Lumber, Ryan; University of Derby (2015-10-01)
      As our interactions with nature occur increasingly within urban landscapes, there is a need to consider how ‘mundane nature’ can be valued as a route for people to connect to nature. The content of a three good things in nature intervention, written by 65 participants each day for five days is analysed. Content analysis produced themes related to sensations, temporal change, active wildlife, beauty, weather, colour, good feelings and specific aspects of nature. The themes describe the everyday good things in nature, providing direction for those seeking to frame engaging conservation messages, plan urban spaces and connect people with nearby nature.
    • OneConversation with S.H.E.D: Designing in Dialogue

      Jones, Rhiannon; Slabbert, Barend; University of Derby (2021-04-22)
      This research workshop will provide an opportunity to find out more about S.H.E.D. Together, we will discuss what a bespoke configuration would look like, where it would be placed and what you want to see happen in it, to best serve you and your community. We will do this through discussion and watch as your design comes to life on screen in 3D animation, placing co-creation at the heart of what we do, to support the shedding of preconceptions about people and place.
    • Online career information and career development

      Hooley, Tristram; University of Derby (Education Service Australia, 2020)
      A short resource providing an introduction to career information and the use of careers websites.
    • Online research in health

      Anthony, Denis; University of Derby (Sage, 2019-04-30)
      This chapter shows some of the ways to use online resources in health research. It looks not only at internet-based data sources but also more widely at some of the clinical databases to illustrate the advantages and limitations of using these for research. In general, using internet-based resources can be make health research quicker and less labour intensive with rapid access to data and references. It can also provide tools to carry out data collection and analysis. However, researchers may have to learn how to use the tools available and not all health data are available. Some clinical databases are closed systems for reasons of patient confidentiality. These systems may be web-based but are on intranets rather than on the public internet with wider access – such as those that are part of hospital information and support systems (HISS).
    • Online research methods for mental health

      Hooley, Tristram; Wellens, Jane; Madge, Clare; Goss, Stephen; University of Leicester (Charles C. Thomas Publishers, 2010)
    • Ontogeny of juvenile freshwater pearl mussels, Margaritifera margaritifera (Bivalvia: Margaritiferidae).

      Lavictoire, Louise; Ramsey, Andrew; Moorkens, Evelyn; Souch, Graham; Barnhart, M. Christopher; University of Cumbria; University of Derby; Trinity College Dublin; Missouri State University (Public Library of Science (PLOS), 2018-03-28)
      The gills of juvenile freshwater bivalves undergo a complex morphogenesis that may correlate with changes in feeding ecology, but ontogenic studies on juvenile mussels are rare. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the ultrastructure and ontogeny of 117 juvenile freshwater pearl mussels (Margaritifera margaritifera) ranging in age from 1–44 months and length from 0.49–8.90 mm. Three stages of gill development are described. In Stage 1 (5–9 inner demibranch filaments), only unreflected inner demibranch filaments were present. In Stage 2 (9–17 inner demibranch filaments), inner demibranch filaments began to reflect when shell length exceeded 1.13 mm, at 13–16 months old. Reflection began in medial filaments and then proceeded anterior and posterior. In Stage 3 (28–94 inner demibranch filaments), outer demibranch filaments began developing at shell length > 3.1 mm and about 34 months of age. The oral groove on the inner demibranch was first observed in 34 month old specimens > 2.66 mm but was never observed on the outer demibranch. Shell length (R2 = 0.99) was a better predictor of developmental stage compared to age (R2 = 0.84). The full suite of gill ciliation was present on filaments in all stages. Interfilamentary distance averaged 31.3 μm and did not change with age (4–44 months) or with size (0.75–8.9 mm). Distance between laterofrontal cirri couplets averaged 1.54 μm and did not change significantly with size or age. Labial palp primordia were present in even the youngest individuals but ciliature became more diverse in more developed individuals. Information presented here is valuable to captive rearing programmes as it provides insight in to when juveniles may be particularly vulnerable to stressors due to specific ontogenic changes. The data are compared with two other recent studies of Margaritifera development.
    • Opening doors to nature: Bringing calm and raising aspirations of vulnerable young people through nature-based intervention

      Hallam, Jenny; Richardson, Miles; Richardson, Elizabeth; Ferguson, Fiona; University of Derby (American Psychological Association, 2019-07-08)
      This qualitative study explores the experiences of YMCA residents who participated in a nature-based intervention designed to support wellbeing run by Derbyshire Wildlife Trust and YMCA Derbyshire. The intervention ran over 9 weeks and involved taking groups of residents off site for a range of outdoor activities from allotment gardening to nature conservation in various outdoor environments.  After the intervention took place semi-structured interviews, which explored the personal journeys of 8 residents who had participated in the intervention, were conducted. An IPA analysis of the interviews identified three superordinate themes: building social relationships, developing skills and developing feelings of self-worth and managing emotions through nature. It is argued that the intervention enabled the residents to feel part of a supportive community which enabled a positive shift in identity. Furthermore, the programme helped residents manage their emotions, supporting their mental health and promoting a general sense of wellbeing. This is especially important, given that members of the intervention have a history of mental health issues and often come from a background of higher socio-economic deprivation, where opportunities for social cohesion and nature connectedness are scarce. 
    • Opening up the debate: Irish radio, Facebook, and the creation of transnational cultural public spheres.

      McMahon, Daithi; University of Derby (Transcript Verlag, 02/10/2018)
      Radio has become an increasingly digitised medium in recent years with a growing online presence becoming ever more integral to the medium’s output and identity. Furthermore, it has become integral to radio stations’ audience recruitment and retention strategies. While radio has long been a platform for on-air public debate and discourse, the limitations of technology always meant that only a limited number of listeners could take part. The largest social network site, Facebook, now provides the infrastructure for public spheres to exist online which means a much wider audience can participate and contribute to discussions and debates including the extensive Irish diaspora – which has grown significantly as a cohort since 2008 due to mass emigration – making it a transnational phenomenon. Using the Irish radio industry and Radio Kerry as a case study this research found that although some instances of traditional Habermasian public spheres exist on radio station Facebook pages, such instances were very limited. Instead audiences are participating in what closely resemble cultural public spheres (McGuigan 2005) where the topics of discussion are of a cultural, social or emotional nature, eschewing debates on current affairs/public issues. This chapter looks at the use of Facebook for audience recruitment and retention from an Irish context and within that is focused on the local commercial radio station Radio Kerry. The methodology included textual analysis of Facebook page content, interviews with industry professionals, an audience survey and one in-depth interview with an audience member.
    • Operating theatre photography for orthopaedics and aesthetic surgery.

      Bryson, David; University of Derby (2011-06)
      The aim of this paper is to examine the author's personal experience and practice in operating theatre photography. The ways of working are personal to the author but hopefully will help others in undertaking this type of work.
    • Operating theatre photography for orthopaedics and aesthetic surgery.

      Bryson, David; University of Derby (2011-06)
      The aim of this paper is to examine the author's personal experience and practice in operating theatre photography. The ways of working are personal to the author but hopefully will help others in undertaking this type of work.
    • Operating theatre photography for personal injury cases.

      Bryson, David; University of Derby (1999-06)
      Photography, including records taken in theatre, has an important role to play in the legal settlement of personal injury claims. Photographs taken immediately prior to an operation in the anaesthetic room or during the operation provide valuable evidence for civil litigation. The type of operations at which personal injury photographs should be taken range from emergency surgery and minor operations to exploratory or reparative surgery. The value of pre-operative photography is demonstrated in two examples of orthopaedic surgery for personal injury claims.
    • Ophyiulus in Victoria: results of millipede surveys from south-eastern Australia

      Norton, Briony, A.; Thomson, Linda, J.; Nash; Michael A.; University of Sheffield; University of Melbourne (CSIRO, 2015-08-12)
      The composition and ecology of the millipede fauna of Victoria remain poorly understood. We collected millipedes as part of a series of ecological arthropod surveys across south-eastern Australia, focusing mainly on Victoria. These samples almost exclusively contained millipedes from the introduced order Julida. We pursued species identification of the julids when it became apparent there were species other than the well-recorded Ommatoiulus moreleti (Lucas, 1860) (Portuguese millipede) in the samples. The majority of specimens were O. moreleti, but we also detected at least one species of Cylindroiulus Verhoeff, 1894, as well as an Ophyiulus Berlese, 1884, species, specimens of which have been identified as Ophyiulus cf. targionii. These are the first Ophyiulus records for Victoria to our knowledge. We present preliminary data on the abundance through the year of Ophyiulus. This is the first study to examine this species in Victoria and little is currently known about its likely impact on agriculture or on native species. Monitoring and research of the species in the future is therefore warranted.
    • Opinions of small and medium UK construction companies on environmental management systems

      Bailey, Matthew; Booth, Colin A; Horry, Rosemary; Vidalakis, Christos; Mahamadu, Abdul-Majeed; Awuah, Kwasi Gyau Baffour; University of Derby; University of the West of England; University of Salford (Thomas Telford Ltd, 2021-02-16)
      Pressure to reduce the environmental impact of construction activities has increased, such that a paradigm shift is required. This paper presents stakeholder opinions of environmental management systems as a means for the construction industry to respond to these issues. Using a previous approach, the views of small and medium construction companies were sought, using questionnaires to ask respondents to reveal their perceived benefits of and barriers to implementing the ISO 14000 suite of environmental management standards in the UK. Detailed statistical analysis showed that environmental management systems can sometimes produce quantifiable benefits to organisations in terms of cost reduction. However, from a contractor’s view, the greatest benefit was a reduction in environmental impact outweighing financial benefits. Findings also demonstrated numerous barriers to an organisation exist, both internal and external, regarding adoption and use of environmental management systems. The most critical barrier was that cost savings do not always balance with the expense of implementation. Furthermore, waste minimisation at the design stage is viewed as most important. In general, the opinions gauged in this study indicated that short-term profits are normally considered more imperative than long-term gains. Therefore, despite a need to focus on developing strategies for removing or reducing the challenges of environmental management systems, the reality is that they may not be the panacea to sustainable development, as is often touted.
    • Opportunity and aspiration, or the great deception? The case of 1419 vocational education

      Atkins, Liz; University of Nottingham (Power and Education, 01/01/2010)
      The policy discourse around those young people who are the focus of the 1419 agenda in the United Kingdom is one of negativity which frames them as low achievers with low aspirations. In tension with this deficit model, policy offers these young people opportunities' in the form of a vocational education which, according to the rhetoric, will lead to high-skill, high-paid work and a lifetime of opportunities. Drawing on original empirical research, this article contests the assumption that these young people have low aspirations, arguing that constrained by discourses of negativity and lacking the agency for change, their chances of achieving their aspirations are almost non-existent. Further, it suggests that the rhetoric of opportunityis merely smoke and mirrors, a massive deception whereby young people are channelled into the low-pay, low-skill work market in readiness to fulfil economic demands for cheap labour as and when it is needed. It concludes with proposals for change in the 1419 and post-compulsory education and training systems which could provide a more equitable and effective framework for young people to achieve their hopes and dreams.