• The asymmetric relationship of oil prices and production on drilling rig trajectory

      Apergis, Nicholas; Ewing, Bradley T.; Payne, James E.; University of Derby; Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX, USA; The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX, USA (Elsevier BV, 2021-01-22)
      With active drilling rigs essential for replenishing oil resources depleted through production, this study examines the potential asymmetries between drilling rig trajectory (vertical, directional, and horizontal), oil prices and oil production in the U.S. within a nonlinear autoregressive distributed lag framework. Based on weekly data, the results reveal long-run symmetry with respect to oil prices irrespective of drilling rig trajectory. However, there is long-run asymmetry for oil production consistent with the capital-intensive nature of drilling and the fixed costs associated with new wells. The results also show short-run asymmetry with respect to both oil prices and oil production consistent with companies taking advantage of upturns quickly and refraining from costly shut-in, plug and abandon, or increased expenditures on improved oil recovery during downturns.
    • The asymmetric relationships between pollution, energy use and oil prices in Vietnam: Some behavioural implications for energy policy-making

      Apergis, Nicholas; Gangopadhyay, Partha; University of Derby; University of Western Sydney (Elsevier, 2020-04-06)
      With rapidly expanding real GDP in Vietnam, it is anticipated that the Vietnamese energy production will increase to meet its rising energy consumption. An important corollary is that pollution will also rise since the energy sector is considered a big polluter in the developing world. This paper brings two important insights to this literature: first and foremost, this paper seeks to establish if any behavioural biases of policy makers have clouded the decision to adopt suitable energy technologies and policies in Vietnam with far-reaching consequences for sustainability in the region. Secondly, in order to detect behavioural biases, it considers the asymmetric effects of increases vis-à-vis decreases in regressors by using the non-linear autoregressive distributed lags (NARDL) models, to examine how such increases or decreases really impact on pollution in Vietnam. Using annual data from 1982 to 2015, the analysis finds that the long-run relationships between pollution, energy use and oil prices have been characterised by non-linear and asymmetric interlinkages to indicate hidden cointegration. We further argue that such hidden cointegration can signal important behavioural biases in (energy) policy-making.
    • Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) co-product-derived protein hydrolysates: A source of antidiabetic peptides

      Harnedy, Pàdraigín A.; Parthsarathy, Vadivel; McLaughlin, Chris M.; O'Keeffe, Martina B.; Allsopp, Philip J.; McSorley, Emeir M.; O'Harte, Finbarr P. M.; FitzGerald, Richard J. (Elsevier, 2018-02-06)
      Large quantities of low-value protein rich co-products, such as salmon skin and trimmings, are generated annually. These co-products can be upgraded to high-value functional ingredients. The aim of this study was to assess the antidiabetic potential of salmon skin gelatin and trimmingderived protein hydrolysates in vitro. The gelatin hydrolysate generated with Alcalase 2.4L and Flavourzyme 500L exhibited significantly higher (p<0.001) insulin and GLP-1 secretory activity from pancreatic BRIN-BD11 and enteroendocrine GLUTag cells, respectively, when tested at 2.5 mg/mL compared to hydrolysates generated with Alcalase 2.4L or Promod 144MG. The gelatin hydrolysate generated with Alcalase 2.4L and Flavourzyme 500L showed significantly more potent (p<0.01) DPP-IV inhibitory activity than those generated with Alcalase 2.4L or Promod 144MG. No significant difference was observed in the insulinotropic activity mediated by any of the trimming-derived hydrolysates when tested at 2.5 mg/mL. However, the trimmings hydrolysate generated with Alcalase 2.4L and Flavourzyme 500L exhibited significantly higher DPP-IV inhibitory (p<0.05:Alcalase 2.4L and p<0.01:Promod 144MG) and GLP-1 (p<0.001, 2.5 mg/mL) secretory activity than those generated with Alcalase 2.4L or Promod 144MG. The salmon trimmings hydrolysate generated with Alcalase 2.4L and Flavourzyme 500L when subjected to simulated gastrointestinal digestion (SGID) was shown to retain its GLP-1 secretory and DPP-IV inhibitory activities, in addition to improving its insulin secretory activity. However, the gelatin hydrolysate generated with Alcalase 2.4L and Flavourzyme 500L was shown to lose GLP-1 secretory activity following SGID. A significant increase in membrane potential (p<0.001) and intracellular calcium (p<0.001) by both co-product hydrolysates generated with Alcalase 2.4L and Flavourzyme 500L suggest that both hydrolysates mediate their insulinotropic activity through the KATP channel-dependent pathway. Additionally, by stimulating a significant increase in intracellular cAMP release (p<0.05) it is likely that the trimming-derived hydrolysate may also mediate insulin secretion through the protein kinase A pathway. The results presented herein demonstrate that salmon co-product hydrolysates exhibit promising in vitro antidiabetic activity.
    • Attempts on Margarita (multiple drafts): A cognitive dramaturgy generated by voice and space

      Penna, Xristina; University of Leeds (AISB, 21/04/2015)
      In the dynamic contemporary theatre and performance landscape of ‘immersive’, hybrid and interactive production where the boundaries between public and private, performance space and audience space intertwine, alternate or even disappear, scenography is referred to as a process. The above observation poses a series of questions regarding the critical frameworks that could be used in order to analyse scenography as process and the methods that might be employed to contribute to the creation of dynamic scenographic landscapes where the audience becomes an active co-author of the work. Through my practice-led research at the University of Leeds I am suggesting a method of staging dynamic scenographic systems using current cognitive theories of consciousness (Baars, Dennett, Edelman and Tononi). These performancesystems engage with the concepts of process, integration of information and complexity inviting the participants to interact in a dynamic bottom-up way with the work. In the piece ‘Work Space I- a scenographic workshop on consciousness’ I appropriated Baars’ diagram of consciousness known as the Global Workspace [3] to create a workshopinstallation in which the participants are invited to share the experience of a performance-game and contribute to the handson creation of a multi-authorial artwork. By reflecting on the above work, which draws and explores the notion of embodiment and the ‘socially collaborative, culturally and materially grounded nature of the human mind’ I focused on the ‘dialogue through making’ that occurred during the time of the workshop. In another practice-led investigation ‘ Work Space II - Attempts on Margarita (multiple drafts)’ I am drawing from Martin Crimps' postdramatic work 'Attempts on her Life' and the cognitive theories of consciousness by Dennett, delman and Tononi in order to create a multi-layered cognitive dramaturgy in the form of an installation space. A current view on the hard problem of consciousness, largely initiated by neuroscientist/psychiatrist Giulio Tononi, is that ‘wherever there's information processing, there's consciousness’ In the piece ‘Attempts on Margarita (multiple drafts)’ aim is to generate a collective consciousness in the form of a durational, sound installation by mixing information such as pre-recorded and live - stream voices generated by three types of participants: P1: a) Friends/colleagues/acquaintances of mine and b) random passers-by in the university campus who answer the same set of questions regarding ‘Margarita’. P2: Participants-audience who attended the installation.
    • Attempts on post-representation

      Penna, Xristina; University of Leeds (01/07/2018)
      Practice-led presentation involving the participation of the delegates and a piñata in composing a collective definition of what could be a ‘post-representational’ performance.
    • Attempts on staging consciousness: Towards a cognitive scenography

      Penna, Xristina; University of Leeds (International Federation for Theatre Research, 2015)
    • Attentional bias towards threatening and neutral facial expressions in high trait anxious children.

      Kelly, Lauren; Maratos, Frances A.; Lipka, Sigrid; Croker, Steve; University of Derby (2016-07-03)
      Research suggests anxious children display increased attentional biases for threat-related stimuli. However, findings based upon spatial domain research are equivocal. Moreover, few studies allow for the independent analysis of trials containing neutral (i.e., potentially ambiguous) faces. Here, we report two temporal attentional blink experiments with high trait anxious (HTA) and low trait anxious (LTA) children. In an emotive experiment, we manipulated the valence of the second target (T2: threatening/positive/neutral). Results revealed that HTA, relative to LTA, children demonstrated better performance on neutral trials. Additionally, HTA children demonstrated a threat-superiority effect whereas LTA children demonstrated an emotion-superiority effect. In a non-emotive control, no differences between HTA and LTA children were observed. Results suggest trait anxiety is associated with an attentional bias for threat in children. Additionally, the neutral face finding suggests HTA children bias attention towards ambiguity. These findings could have important implications for current anxiety disorder research and treatments.
    • Attentional biases towards familiar and unfamiliar foods in children. The role of food neophobia

      Maratos, Frances A.; Staples, Paul; University of Derby (2015-04-08)
      Familiarity of food stimuli is one factor that has been proposed to explain food preferences and food neophobia in children, with some research suggesting that food neophobia (and familiarity) is at first a predominant of the visual domain. Considering visual attentional biases are a key factor implicated in a majority of fear-related phobias/anxieties, the purpose of this research was to investigate attentional biases to familiar and unfamiliar fruit and vegetables in 8 to 11 year old children with differing levels of food neophobia. To this end, 70 primary aged children completed a visual-probe task measuring attentional biases towards familiar and unfamiliar fruit/vegetables, as well as the food neophobia, general neophobia and willingness to try self-report measures. Results revealed that as an undifferentiated population all children appeared to demonstrate an attentional bias toward the unfamiliar fruit and vegetable stimuli. However, when considering food neophobia, this bias was significantly exaggerated for children self-reporting high food neophobia and negligible for children self-reporting low food neophobia. In addition, willingness to try the food stimuli was inversely correlated with attentional bias toward the unfamiliar fruits/vegetables. Our results demonstrate that visual aspects of food stimuli (e.g. familiarity) play an important role in childhood food neophobia. This study provides the first empirical test of recent theory/models of food neophobia (e.g. Brown & Harris, 2012). Findings are discussed in light of these models and related anxiety models, along with implications concerning the treatment of childhood food neophobia.
    • Attitudes towards mental health problems scale: Confirmatory factor analysis and validation in the Portuguese population.

      Cabral Master, Joana Moura; Barreto Carvalho, Célia Maria de Oliveira; Motta, Carolina Dall’Antonia; Sousa, Marina Correia; Gilbert, Paul; University of Azores; University of Derby (Taylor and Francis, 2016-08-19)
      Several studies about stigmatization and shame toward mental health problems have contributed to minimizing the impact of these negative attitudes on people diagnosed with mental illnesses, on their families and on their communities. The Attitudes Towards Mental Health Problems Scale (ATMHP) is a self-report scale aimed at the assessment of attitudes toward mental health that involve several factors relating to attitudes and shame (internal, external, and reflected shame) when facing mental health problems. The goal of the current study was to translate, and to adapt this scale to the Portuguese population, and to study its psychometric properties in a sample of Azorean adults with and without psychiatric problems. The scale was administered to 411 participants with ages between 19 and 81 years. Confirmatory factor analysis was carried out on the initial model proposed by the authors of the ATMHP, and results showed a poor adjustment. An alternative model comprising an additional factor was tested and presented good model fit indices. Based on the alternative model, further analysis revealed that the scale has good psychometric properties.
    • Attitudes towards shoplifting: a preliminary cross-cultural study of consumers

      Abdelhadi, A.; Foster, Carley; Whysall, P.; Rawwas, M.; Nottingham Trent University (2013)
      Shoplifting has a substantial impact on retailers, consumers and wider society, yet we know very little about people‟s attitudes towards this behaviour, especially from a non-Western perspective. A better understanding of consumer misbehaviour in Arabic countries would therefore be of particular interest as such societies represent a new market for global retailers. The aim of this paper, therefore, is to explore the initial results of consumers‟ attitudes towards shoplifting from a cross-cultural perspective. Preliminary analysis of 529 questionnaire responses from UK, US and Libyan consumers finds that attitudes towards shoplifting are broadly similar despite the different cultural and retail contexts. However, on closer inspection these findings suggest interesting disparities between the countries in relation to attitudes towards the consequences of shoplifting, the impact it has on the social networks of the perpetrator and whether the demographics of the shoplifter play a role in the decision to punish the offender.
    • Attracting talent - the employer branding dimension

      Foster, Carley; Tansley, Carole; Nottingham Trent University (2008)
    • Attracting talent: the employer branding dimension

      Foster, Carley; Tansley, Carole; Nottingham Trent University (2007)
    • Attributes of effective interprofessional placement facilitation

      Nicol, Paul; Forman, Dawn; University of Derby (Canadian Institute for Studies in Publishing Press, 2014-10)
      Background: The quality of facilitation is an important influence on the efficacy of interprofessional education (IPE) delivery. The research objective was to increase understanding of the attributes of effective facilitation of students during external IPE placements in primary care situations. Methods and Findings: A thematic analysis of the experiences of academics, students, and placement-site staff at three placement sites was employed to explore participants’ perceptions of the attributes of effective IPE facilitators. These attributes included experience in an interprofessional context, together with an understanding of the specific clinical and assessment requirements of different disciplines. Facilitators also needed empathy with respect to the requirements of the external IPE placement sites and the ability to liaise between student and site needs. Conclusions: Models of IPE placement facilitation were most effective when, while following general principles, facilitators tailored them specifically for the individual situations of the placement sites and the learning requirements of particular groups of students. The most rewarding IPE learning experiences occurred when IPE facilitators provided sufficient clinical opportunities for students to work collaboratively with individual clients, provided the students perceived that their participation was relevant to their own discipline.
    • Audio-tactile multimodal perception of tissue-conducted sound fields

      Lennox, Peter; McKenzie, Ian; University of Derby (26/05/2017)
      Approximately 5% of the World’s population, that is, 360 million people, suffer from “disabling hearing loss” and the proportion of over-65s rises to about 33%. 13.4% of geriatric patients have significant conductive components to their hearing loss. For this segment of the population, “music deprivation” may have significant long-term health and wellbeing consequences amounting to diminished quality of life (QoL). Assistive technologies implementing sensory augmentation could ameliorate the effects of lack of ready access to music, the experiential attributes of music listening can be reinstated and tangible benefits might accrue.
    • Audiovisual border fictioning (of the body & territory): the Eile project, AV body conference, Huddersfield University.

      McCloskey, Paula; Vardy, Sam; university of Derby; Sheffield Hallam University (2018-06-12)
      The presentation Audiovisual Border Fictioning (of the body & territory) film and talk about The Eile Project (an investigation of borders using art research methods) was presented AVBODY body conference in June 2018. The AVBODY symposium "brings together practitioner-researchers working with digital media, dance tech, screendance, screen studies, experimental performance, performer training, visual anthropology, and other fields to examine relations between audiovisuality and embodiment in the contemporary moment." This international conference allowed us to present The Eile Project to a wide artist, research audience. We gave a presentation and showed the Eile film Territories of Eile. The presentation and film are attached/link.
    • Auralising the sublime: An investigation into creativity and process in the pursuit of sonic perfection.

      Brown, Michael; Paterson, David M.; Wilson, Chris; University of Derby; University of the Highlands and Islands (KIE Conference Publications, 2017-10)
      This paper investigates the creative process in the production of modern musical designs, from initial concepts through to process realization and explores the notions of expression, creative-wellbeing and closure. At what point in the creative process may a work of Art be considered complete? Is a modern creative artifact, especially digital, ever truly finished? The work considers compositional design and intent and to what extent creative direction and coherence are meaningful initial considerations; should creativity be burdened with consideration of outcomes at the outset? Technology and creativity are very often bound together in the contemporary creative process; how do we manage the process to ensure that we satisfy our aesthetic compass and promote a direction of travel to a satisfying sonic destination? Prevalent theories of creativity, tools and techniques will be investigated that can be utilised to provoke often unanticipated, but nevertheless, rewarding results. The exploratory use of digital audio manipulation tools and chance operations are considered alongside more determinate predictable processes in order to elucidate the role of the unforeseen in the production of creative content. The authors will document their own collaborative work and provide perspectives on artistic case studies from the world of education, visual arts and music. The work will promote the direct integrated teaching of creativity in music production and composition classes developing applicable tools that may help to stimulate original thought and address creative blocks, evaluating whether cognition of the creative mechanism offers positive stimulation in seeking creative solutions in the musical production process.
    • Availability of breastfeeding peer-support in the UK: a cross-sectional survey.

      Grant, Aimee; McEwan, Kirsten; Tedstone, Sally; Greene, Giles; Copeland, Lauren; Hunter, Billie; Sanders, Julia; Phillips, Rhiannon; Brown, Amy; Robling, Mike; et al. (Wiley, 2017-07-07)
      Peer support is recommended by the World Health Organization for the initiation and continuation of breastfeeding, and this recommendation is included in United Kingdom (U.K.) guidance. There is a lack of information about how, when, and where breastfeeding peer support was provided in the U.K. We aimed to generate an overview of how peer support is delivered in the U.K. and to gain an understanding of challenges for implementation. We surveyed all U.K. infant feeding coordinators (n = 696) who were part of U.K.‐based National Infant Feeding Networks, covering 177 National Health Service (NHS) organisations. We received 136 responses (individual response rate 19.5%), covering 102 U.K. NHS organisations (organisational response rate 58%). We also searched NHS organisation websites to obtain data on the presence of breastfeeding peer support. Breastfeeding peer support was available in 56% of areas. However, coverage within areas was variable. The provision of training and ongoing supervision, and peer‐supporter roles, varied significantly between services. Around one third of respondents felt that breastfeeding peer‐support services were not well integrated with NHS health services. Financial issues were commonly reported to have a negative impact on service provision. One quarter of respondents stated that breastfeeding peer support was not accessed by mothers from poorer social backgrounds. Overall, there was marked variation in the provision of peer‐support services for breastfeeding in the U.K. A more robust evidence base is urgently needed to inform guidance on the structure and provision of breastfeeding peer‐support services.
    • Avian influenza infections in non-migratant land birds in Andean Peru

      Williams, Richard; Segovia-Hinostroza, Karen; Ghersi, Bruno M.; Gonzaga, Victor; Peterson, A. Townsend; Montgomery, Joel M.; Biodiversity Institute, 1345 Jayhawk Blvd., University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas 66045, USA; Departamento de Zoologı´a y Antropologıa Fısica, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, C/Jose Antonio Novais, 2 Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid, Spain; Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria de Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Av. Circunvalacion Cdra. 28 San Borja, Lima, Peru; United States Naval Medical Research Center Detachment, Unit 6, Av. Venezuela Cdra. 36, Callao 2, Lima, Peru (Wildlife Disease Association, 2012-06-13)
      As part of ongoing surveillance for avian influenza viruses (AIV) in Peruvian birds, in June 2008, we sampled 600 land birds of 177 species, using real-time reverse-transcription PCR. We addressed the assumption that AIV prevalence is low or nil among land birds, a hypothesis that was not supported by the results—rather, we found AIV infections at relatively high prevalences in birds of the orders Apodiformes (hummingbirds) and Passeriformes (songbirds). Surveillance programs for monitoring spread and identification of AIV should thus not focus solely on water birds.
    • Awareness of oral and genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in young adolescents prior to gender-neutral vaccination

      Knight, Gillian; Roberts, Ben; Aston University; University of Derby (BMJ, 2020-04-02)
      Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) and oropharyngeal cancer prevalence are increasing, particularly in men. Raising greater awareness of male HPV disease is perceived as an important intervention strategy. This study investigated the effectiveness of HPV education on adolescents’ perception of HPV disease and the impact of HPV vaccination on their sexual health. An HPV questionnaire was completed by 357 UK-based adolescents, aged 12–13 years. Most adolescents knew HPV causes cervical cancer and HPV vaccination prevents this. A minority acknowledged HPV causes other genital cancers, with under one-fifth knowing HPV causes genital warts. Adolescents’ awareness of HPV transmission activities were limited. There was very poor awareness of oral HPV infection or HPV-induced oropharyngeal cancer. Half of the participants stated HPV vaccination reduced their concerns about sexually transmitted infection contraction. Over half the males said they may take more sexual risks following vaccination, while a similar proportion of females did not expect their partner to take more risks. Adolescents had little awareness of male HPV infection and the role HPV vaccination can play in preventing these diseases. With variable rates of HPV vaccination uptake in males reported worldwide, this study indicates that in the UK greater emphasis on male HPV disease within educational information is required, to raise better awareness of how HPV affects both genders. As both genders preferred to receive education via healthcare professionals, educating a wider range of healthcare professionals on oral HPV could help facilitate awareness of HPV’s role in head and neck cancer.
    • Azara's owl monkeys in the Humid Chaco: Primatological long-term studies in Argentina.

      Juárez, Cecilia P.; Huck, Maren; Fernandez-Duque, Eduardo; Universidad Nacional de Formosa; Proyecto Mirikiná; University of Derby; Yale University (Sociedad Argentina para el Estudio de los Mamíferos (SAREM), 2017)
      The Owl Monkey Project started in 1996 as a multi-disciplinary program on the Azara's owl monkey of the Argentinian Chaco. The main goals of the project have been to investigate the evolution of the monogamous mating system and parental care of this species. The project has expanded and, for many years, we have also been exploring the potential relationship between demography, the spatial and temporal distribution of food resources, and the monogamous social organization of the species. Additionally, since 2007, we expanded our studies to include the examination of groups that inhabit two different natural habitat types in the humid Chaco of Formosa Province. In this chapter, we use data from 20 years of study, to elucidate factors underlying the demographic structure of different owl monkey groups inhabiting different types of habitats. The study was conducted in the Estancia Guaycolec (a private 25,000-ha cattle ranch) and in Río Pilcomayo National Park (a 52,000-ha protected area). In each study area, two sub-sets of owl monkey groups could be identified: those within the gallery forests (continuous habitat), and groups in forest patches. Our results confirm that the estimated densities for the private ranch are higher than in the National Park. In contrast, group size, birth rates and age structure were similar between sites. Group sizes, birth rates, and specific densities were larger for gallery forests than for forest patches at both study sites. Our studies contribute to the understanding of the evolution of social monogamy and male care, and also provides information on the demography and habitat use of a species that has been declared a Natural Monument in the Province of Formosa.