• HADRIAN meets AUNT-SUE

      Marshall, Russell; Porter, J. Mark; Sims, Ruth; Gyi, Diane E.; Case, Keith; Loughborough University (2005)
      HADRIAN is a computer aided design tool, developed to support designers in their efforts to ‘design for all’. Combining a database of individuals together with a task analysis tool HADRIAN provides a virtual group of 100 people, ready to perform a user trial at any point throughout a product’s design. Developed initially to predict design inclusion for localised design problems such as those experienced in a kitchen environment, HADRIAN is now being developed to include transport data as part of the AUNT-SUE project. AUNT-SUE is a transport related project that is funded as part of the EPSRC’s Sustainable Urban Environment programme. The project addresses policy making through to design and implementation in its aims to support effective socially inclusive design and operation of transport systems. Part of the AUNT-SUE project addresses exclusion faced by people whilst making a typical journey including: the inability to access adequate route-finding and timetabling information, problems accessing transport infrastructure (bus/tram stops, cycle routes, railway stations etc.), getting on and off transport, and managing interchanges between different transport types. This paper discusses the development of the relationship between HADRIAN and AUNTSUE. Initial work focuses on additional data for the database covering transport related tasks. Later work will focus on improving the task analysis capability of HADRIAN whilst integrating the transport related functionality. Ultimately the project also provides the opportunity to further develop HADRIAN towards the needs of designers developing products that maximise social inclusion.
    • HADRIAN: a human modelling CAD tool to promote "design for all"

      Porter, J. Mark; Marshall, Russell; Sims, Ruth; Gyi, Diane E.; Case, Keith; Loughborough University (2003)
      The arguments for a Design for All or Inclusive Design approach to product, environment or service design are clear and well understood. In order to address the underlying issues it is vitally important that designers are educated, informed and supported in the principles of Design for All, with appropriate and applicable data, and with the tools and techniques to employ this data in their design activity. This paper introduces our approach to supporting the designer in a Design for All philosophy. The main focus of this approach is our computer aided design and analysis tool HADRIAN. HADRIAN provides our sample database of 100 individuals across a broad spectrum of ages and abilities together with a task analysis tool. Working in combination with the existing human modelling system SAMMIE the system allows the designer to assess their designs against the population in the database to determine the percentage who are effectively ‘designed out’. The system has been developed to build empathy with the target population. In addition, the system provides a relatively simple, yet powerful, method of obtaining a form of user feedback and insight normally only attainable through expensive prototypes mock-ups and user trials. This feedback is also provided at a much earlier stage of the design process. HADRIAN is the result of a three year EPSRC funded project that was part of the EQUAL initiative. This project concluded in October 2002 but the development of HADRIAN is ongoing.
    • HADRIAN: a virtual approach to design for all.

      Marshall, Russell; Case, Keith; Porter, J. Mark; Summerskill, Steve; Gyi, Diane E.; Davis, Peter; Sims, Ruth; Loughborough University (Taylor and Francis, 2010)
      This article describes research into the area of ‘design for all’. The research addresses two common needs for designers working towards developing inclusive products and environments, namely, data on users that are accessible, valid and applicable, and a means of utilising the data to assess the accessibility of designs during the early stages of development. The approach taken is through the development of a combined database and inclusive human modelling tool called HADRIAN. Data were collected on 100 people, the majority of whom are older or have some form of impairment. These individuals provide a browsable resource spanning size, shape, capability, preferences, and experiences with a range of daily activities and transport-related tasks. This is partnered with the development of a simple, CAD-based task analysis system. Tasks are carried out by the virtual individuals in the database and accessibility issues are reported, allowing excluded people to be investigated in order to understand the problems experienced and solutions identified. HADRIAN is also being expanded to include a more accessible journey planner that provides accessibility information to both end users and transport professionals. Together, HADRIAN allows more informed choices to be made either in travelling, or in the designing of products and environments.
    • HADRIAN: “I am not a number, I am a free man!”

      Porter, J. Mark; Marshall, Russell; Sims, Ruth; Case, Keith; Gyi, Diane E.; Loughborough University (Chalmers University, 2006)
      HADRIAN was created to make a step-function change in the way that inclusive design is accepted and integrated within design practice. Tables of percentile data have now been replaced by holistic databases of individuals covering a wide range of sizes and abilities. Whilst the initial research focussed on physical and behavioural issues related to anthropometry and biomechanics, our current data collection also includes simple emotional and cognitive data within the tool. Details of HADRIAN are presented, including our ‘journey planner’ that is being developed that will compare an individual’s physical, cognitive and emotional abilities with the demands that will be placed upon that individual during the envisioned journey. If the journey is unachievable or very difficult, then that person is likely to feel socially excluded. It is intended that the planner will identify a suitable alternative route and/or choice of transport mode. Designers will also be able to use the planner to assess inclusive design issues for existing and new facilities.
    • Haemophilia

      Elander, James; University of Derby (Cambridge University Press, 2019-05)
      Haemophilia A and haemophilia B are inherited bleeding disorders caused by deficiencies in blood clotting factor proteins. This chapter gives an overview of evidence about psychological aspects of haemophilia, including inheritance, adherence to treatment, quality of life, and pain management.
    • Hand on heart

      McNaney, Nicky; University of Derby (29/09/2017)
      An Illustration created for Rankin Photography Studio, to promote British Heart Foundation, “World Heart Day” An international art project with creatives from around the world, to raise awareness of the global fight against heart disease through the use of social media.
    • Handbook of vocational education and training

      Stuart, Rebecca; McGrath, Simon; Mulder, Martin; Papier, Joy; University of the Western Cape; Wageningen University; University of Nottingham (Springer International Publishing, 2019)
      This handbook brings together and promotes research on the area of vocational education and training (VET). It analyzes current and future economic and labor market trends and relates these to likely implications for vocational education and training. It questions how VET engages with the growing power of human development approaches and with the sustainable development agenda. Equity and inclusion are discussed in a range of ways by the authors and the consideration of the construction of these terms is an important element of the handbook. It further addresses both the overall notion of system reform, at different scales, and what is known about particular technologies of systems reform across a variety of settings. Vocational learning and VET teacher/trainer education are discussed from a comparative perspective. National and comparative experiences are also shared on questions of equity and efficiency in funding in terms of those that fund and are funded, and for a range of funding methodologies. As well as reviewing existing gaps, this handbook is looking forward in identifying promising new directions in research and environment.
    • The hands of Beuys and Heidegger

      Baker, Steve; University of Derby (Whitechapel Gallery/ MIT Press, 2016)
    • Harmonious architecture and kinetic linear energy

      Tracada, Eleni; University of Derby (montpellier.archi.fr, 2013-07-05)
    • Has Ambisonics come of age?

      Wiggins, Bruce; University of Derby (Institute of Acoustics, 2008-11)
      Ambisonics was developed in the 1970’s as a flexible, psycho-acoustically aware system1. Developed at the same time as Quadraphonics2, Ambisonics is an often mis-understood system that was far ahead of it’s time. Due to the ubiquity of surround sound equipment in modern computers and interest in live surround events becoming more widespread, is the time, finally, right for Ambisonics to come into its’ own? In this paper, the definition of what makes a system Ambisonic is clarified with reference made to the traditional energy and velocity vector theory, higher order systems and use in both the live and domestic environment. More recent developments by the author are discussed with respect to irregular Ambisonic decoder design (such as for the ITU 5.1 speaker array) and analysis using Head Related Transfer Function data showing the extra insight this can give into the performance of one, seemingly similar, decoder design over another. The freely available suite of VST plug-ins (comprising of decoders, panners and an Ambisonic reverb) created using this technology are also presented, with case studies of their use in student projects at the University of Derby.
    • The Hastings sound fountain

      Locke, Caroline; University of Derby; Nottingham Trent Unviersity (FACT, Liverpool, 2015-07)
      The term ‘ Performing Data’ was first used by the artist Dr Rachel Jacobs and became the title of Caroline Locke’s research residency at Nottingham University. The Performing Data Project was developed by an interdisciplinary group of HCI (Human, Computer, Interaction) researchers, artists and creative technicians based across the Mixed Reality Lab and Horizon Digital Economy Institute. The Hastings Sound Fountain was developed as part of this project and residency. Locke makes works that ‘Perform data’, revealing data to an audience in various embodied forms - sometimes slowly, sometimes live, to elicit emotions, engage the imagination, extend understanding and to inspire an audience to reflect. Caroline makes links to our natural world and finds ways to expose the beauty in nature. She is keen to find innovative ways of communicating scientific and environmental research to a public audience. The Hastings Sound Fountain at FACT was controlled by data being sent LIVE from Hastings Pier. A sensor on the end of the pier is recording the rise and fall of the sea level and the levels trigger the rise and fall in the sound frequencies being sent to the Fountain. As the sensor tracks the rise and fall of the sea, frequencies sweep through the Sound Fountain, causing ripples and waves on the water surface. A visualisation of the live data and footage of the sea beneath the sensor is projected or viewed on a monitor close to the fountain. Locke contributed to a series of workshops, talks, and events, which were scheduled to facilitate visitor understanding at FACT in Liverpool in July 2015. The Hastings Sound Fountain was exhibited as part of these events.
    • Head space and Dark days.

      McNaney, Nicky; University of Derby (Broken Grey Wires, 26/02/2018)
      Broken Grey Wires is an ongoing investigation into art and mental health by developing a dialogue with leading contemporary artists. Two screen-printed illustrations,Head Space and Dark Days are included in an artist book Psycho published by Broken Grey Wires.
    • Health behaviour convergence: evidence from fractional (long memory) convergence and British microdata.

      Apergis, Nicholas; University of Piraeus (Wiley, 2017-03-05)
      This paper uses a fractional methodology to assess convergence in terms of differences in health quality measures, based on six primary criteria, across the English regions. Hence, it uses the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing database and the retrospective interviews from 16,894 participants, aged 50+, with data from three waves–2004/5, 2006/7 and 2008/9, to establish that health quality is characterized by divergences across six health quality criteria. When the overall sample is differentiated through income, education and employment, the evidence favors convergence, indicating that certain socioeconomic factors impose a uniform behavioral attitude of the population toward health quality criteria.
    • Health care expenditure and environmental pollution: a cross-country comparison across different income groups

      Apergis, Nicholas; Bhattacharya, Mita; Hadhri, Walid; University of Derby; Monash University; UAQUAP, Higher Institute of Management (Springer, 2020-01-03)
      This paper investigates the long-run dynamics between health care expenditure and environmental pollution across four global income groups. The analysis uses data from 178 countries, spanning the period 1995–2017. Panel estimations are employed with unobserved heterogeneity, temporal persistence, and cross-sectional dependence using a model with common correlated effects. The findings document that the health care expenditure is a necessity for all sub-groups. We established that a 1% increase in national income increased health expenditure by 7.2% in the full sample, and 9.3%, 8.6%, 6.8% and 2.9% for low, low-middle, upper-middle and high-income groups, respectively, while a 1% increase in CO2 emissions increased health expenditure by 2.5% in the full sample, and 2.9%, 1.2%, 2.3% and 2.6% across these four income groups. We recommend that coordinated approach is needed in setting policy goals both in energy and health sectors in mitigating the negative effects of pollution. Our findings indicate that low-carbon emissions and energy efficient health care services will significantly reduce future health care expenses.
    • Health expenses and economic growth: convergence dynamics across the Indian States

      Apergis, Nicholas; Padhi, Puja; University of Piraeus; IIT Bombay (Springer, 2013-11)
      In this paper we explore convergence of real per capita output and health expenses across the Indian States. The new panel convergence methodology, developed by Phillips and Sul (Econometrica 75:1771–1855, 2007), is employed. The empirical findings suggest that these States form distinct convergent clubs, exhibiting considerable heterogeneity in the underlying growth and health expenses factors. These findings should help policy makers in designing appropriate growth-oriented and/or health sector programs and setting priorities in their implementation.
    • Health, fitness, and responses to military training of officer cadets in a Gulf Cooperation Council country.

      Blacker, Sam D.; Horner, Fleur E.; Brown, Peter I.; Linnane, Denise M.; Wilkinson, David M.; Wright, Antony; Bluck, Les J.; Rayson, Mark P.; Optimal Performance Limited (2011-12)
      To quantify the health, fitness, and physiological responses to military training of Officer Cadets from a Gulf Cooperation Council country.
    • Hearing Without Ears

      McKenzie, Ian; Lennox, Peter; Wiggins, Bruce; University of Derby (Georgia Institute of Technology, 22/06/2014)
      We report on on-going work investigating the feasibility of using tissue conduction to evince auditory spatial perception. Early results indicate that it is possible to coherently control externalization, range, directionality (including elevation), movement and some sense of spaciousness without presenting acoustic signals to the outer ear. Signal control techniques so far have utilised discrete signal feeds, stereo and 1st order ambisonic hierarchies. Some deficiencies in frontal externalization have been observed. We conclude that, whilst the putative components of the head related transfer function are absent, empirical tests indicate that coherent equivalents are perceptually utilisable. Some implications for perceptual theory and technological implementations are discussed along with potential practical applications and future lines of enquiry.
    • Heart sensing sound fountain

      Locke, Caroline; The University of Derby; Nottingham Trent University (FACT, Liverpool, 2015-07)
      The term ‘ Performing Data’ was first used by the artist Dr Rachel Jacobs and became the title of Caroline Locke’s research residency at Nottingham University. The Performing Data Project was developed by an interdisciplinary group of HCI (Human, Computer, Interaction) researchers, artists and creative technicians based across the Mixed Reality Lab and Horizon Digital Economy Institute. The Heart Sensing Sound Fountain was developed as part of this project and residency. The previous work Sound Fountains, where sound is visualized through water has been developed so that audiences can engage in their own unique and sometimes very personal experience with the Sound Fountain, using their body data to make changes within an installation environment. The audience (or 2 participants) are asked to place their fingertip on top of the heart shaped sensor, to hold in place for as long as they like to see what happens to the Sound Fountains. The sensor locates the participant’s heart rate and their pulse triggers tones, which are sent to the Sound Fountains. They watch as the waves synchronize with their own beating heart. The sculpture involves live performance on many levels. An element of performance is at the end of the data flow in the water but also between the two individuals facing each other and the dialogue that occurs between them. The surrounding audience watch as the two participants become performers. Perhaps there is a feedback loop as participants attempt to slow down their heart rate or it speeds up with levels of engagement/excitement. The activity is part of a long period of original and significant research and development. Locke’s research, in its wider sense, reflects on the relationship between the spectator and the performer and the opportunities to blur their respective roles within Contemporary Art Practice. It investigates ways in which a spectator can engage more in the work through direct interaction. For example, spectators became performers and integral to the work by triggering sensors within the exhibition space, allowing their presence to orchestrate changes within the installation.
    • Heat waves are a major threat to turbid coral reefs in Brazil

      Duarte, Gustavo A. S.; Villela, Helena D. M.; Deocleciano, Matheus; Silva, Denise; Barno, Adam; Cardoso, Pedro M.; Vilela, Caren L. S.; Rosado, Phillipe; Messias, Camila S. M. A.; Chacon, Maria Alejandra; et al. (Frontiers Media SA, 2020-03-30)
      Coral reefs are threatened by climate change on a global scale with thermal stress events and mass coral bleaching being widely reported. The reefs off the east coast of Brazil (and other turbid areas) have, however, historically escaped such thermal stress events, with relatively low levels of background coral mortality (5–10%). This has recently changed. Here we show that, in 2019, degree heating weeks (DHW) of 19.65 coincided with catastrophic declines in coral cover, especially in the major reef building hydrocoral Millepora alcicornis. The decline was due to bleaching associated with exposure to high temperature stress culminating in DHW values exceeding 15 for a period of 50 days. At two independent sites, surveys showed upwards of 83.5 ± 9.0 and 89.1 ± 3.9% mortality, and a third site showed relatively lower (albeit still high) mortality rates of 43.3 ± 12.0%. The mass die-off in 2019 is unprecedented in the South Atlantic reefs and coincides with increased heating events.
    • Herbicides increase the vulnerability of corals to rising sea surface temperature

      Negri, Andrew P.; Flores, Florita; Röthig, Till; Uthicke, Sven; Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville, Queensland, Australia (Wiley, 2011-02-03)
      In order to examine the potential interactive pressures of local pollution and global climate change, we exposed corals and crustose coralline algae (CCA) to three agricultural photosystem II (PSII) herbicides at four temperatures (26–32°C). The coral Acropora millepora was 3‐ to 10‐fold more sensitive to the three herbicides than the CCA Neogoniolithon fosliei. While the photosynthesis of CCA was not affected by the herbicide concentrations used (< 1 μg L−1), temperatures of 31°C and 32°C alone significantly inhibited photosynthetic efficiency (ΔF:F′m) and caused chronic photoinhibition (reduced Fv:Fm) and substantial bleaching. Environmentally relevant concentrations of each herbicide increased the negative effects of thermal stress on coral at 31°C and 32°C. Mixed model analyses of variance showed that the effects of elevated sea surface temperatures (SST) and herbicide on photosynthetic efficiency of coral symbionts were additive. Furthermore, the effect of either diuron or atrazine in combination with higher SST (31°C and 32°C) on chronic photoinhibition was distinctly greater than additive (synergistic). Reducing the herbicide concentration by 1 μg L−1 diuron above 30°C would protect photosynthetic efficiency by the equivalent of 1.8°C and reduce chronic photoinhibition by the equivalent of a 1°C reduction. Reduced water quality increases the vulnerability of corals to elevated SSTs, and effective management of local water quality can reduce negative effects of global stressors such as elevated SST.